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MK»OCOfY RtSOLUTION TiST CHABT 

r*NSl and fSO TEST CHART No Ii 



I 1.0 liriS Ki 

m m m 



A 



/APPLIED IN/MQE I™ 



BKiriSH BATTI.KS ON LAND AND 



SEA 



FlEl 



BRITISH BATTLES 
ON LAND AND SEA 



fii^rri-D R\ 



F'i^lu-Marshal S,k EVELYN WOOD, v.c.cv, 



<; (-.B.. G.C.M.G.. D.I 



C.L. 



With a History o, the Figh,i„. Servi 



S services and Notes 
hy the liditor 



«'.K 24 COLOUK Pr.ATKS AND „x„:K 
500 OllIEU ILLIjSTaATIO.Ns 



\ou tl 



^- M." lOKK. TO.ONTO anu MH,.«„i. „^.,, 

11),; ^".-I. 



1915 



CONl'KNT.l 



^-»-n ,. Modern Batties 



:-"— ....V ,...,. ..„„^,,^^; • • ■ 

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WKERMAX, .VO\T.,IB,,-R „ '■•••. 

'"' K 5TH, iSj^ 

SEVASroi-OI., CX.-T(>m-D ' ' • • ■ 

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THE SIEGE A.VJ, cu-rr-pr ''■•••. 

THE .EO.o,,,;""'^"'^^" ■—«-,.«,. 3, 

'---o„, ;u.E-xovE.r.ER, „,, . ' 



PACK 

4I.I 
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4lS 



• 4-'S 

• 4411 
■ 4,iS 

o-'J 
• S'4 

■ .14') 

■ SSb 

■ 560 
577 

box 
642 

C6j 



CONTENTS 



Tin: ASII.WTI I'Xri'lilTI' i\, IS;; i S;4 
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I. Tin: Im>asii;k < h- 1>\m>!ii.aw.\a .... 

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=,. Tin: IlAiii.i, or K.\:MniT.A, Makcii Juni, iS;., 

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J, Tin; (Jkkat Makcii 

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ii.\TTi.i;s (II' Tin; i-'ik.st hokk \v.\k. ix-so .si 

I. .\MlirsH .AMI I)l.-i.\STKk AT HKnNKIIORST Sl'l. . IT, 1 iKCKMIiKR 20TII. iHHl} 

2 Till! Kki'it.si! I*' Tin; likirisii Tkiiiiis ,\t I..\nc,'.-. Nick, Jani-aky jSiit, 18K1 

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Cul.Li;v, I'i;nKrAKV 27TI1, iN.Si ....... 

KASSASSIX AXIl TKI.-MI.-KKlllR, l.s!-j 

AUU i;i.KA AM) AlIU KUl , 1^5 

OMDURMAN, Si;rTi;Mlii;i.! _'x», i.SijS 

MODDER ri\i;r. mivi;.\h!i;r jsth, isi)t, , , . , . . 

MAGi;RSi''o.\'n;i\, iii;c ..mhi;r hth, iSc^c) 

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CONTENTS 



Section II. Early BattI 

'<'"-X„UAV,„nvv SHPTKMIIFK^,,, ,„,, 

Mcu-nri<v, si;rn.A,:,i;K .,„,,, ,;.,; 

MAKSTciN- MuiiR, Jl[,v jm, • 
XASJiiiY, jrxic ^,„ ,„^. 
'■l<i;ST..X, AU.;fST ,;,,, „,^s 

1HXHAK, si;i-n;.\im.;K ..,«„ ,o,v, 

TilK SACK OK ,„X„KK, SK,.THMH,;u ,s.. ,„„ 
WOUCKSTKR, SKI'TICMIiKK ,k„. ,„„ 
I'-IKST m-TCII H-Ak. i03.^,„^^ 
.''KnOEM<X)K, jri.V (,„,, „„S3 

Kn.ui;cRAXKiic, jn.v ,;,„ „„„ 
TH.AssAr,.r „.„,,,,,„, ,,^,.^,,,\_^;_^^^; 

THE IWVXK, JtXV ,s,.. ,„„„ . 
ArCIlRIM. jti.v ,,,„ ^,„^, 

CAi'i; nARn.,;rK AX„ ,.a „,„;,■,;. MAY „!,„ 
BI.EXHEI.M, ArOrST :,,„, ,„,_, 
KAMII.UES, MAY ..,(„„, ,-„„ 
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iULPLAoUHT. Si:pT,.:.mh,.;k ,,ih. ,-,„ 



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■ 47^ 

5.'' I 
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7J3 
/J9 



CONTENTS 



DIvTTIXCEX, jrXE 27™, 1745 
FONTEX(.)y, MAY ilTu, 1745 . 

cn,i,oi)i:x. ArRii, ioth. 17411 

n.A.SSKY. JUXi; 2:kd. 1737 . 
MIXDUX, Ar(U;ST 1ST, lyvi ■ 
QUEBEC, SEPTEMBER ijtii. 1731) . 
"THE GLORIOUS EIRST Ol' JUXlv." 17.14 
LIST OE Al'TIIOKITILvS .... 

OEXIJRAL IXIIEX 

IXlJi;x T(l HUITISII RI'C.IMI'.VTS .Mi;XTluXICl) IX THE TEXT 



774 
77« 
7S(, 
822 

s.a 

8.5<1 
8,,, 

0.1; 
,,4.s 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



Colour Plates 



VWCK ■' 






"■'■'■MM OcmiiEK ;;T1I, 



T.;i:'r:';'«,;:r;,:';v;:-::-"--« 



riri! 

KH«MAX, X„v,.:„„„„ ;j|,; "' 
W,,KN liMKE S„R,.r mK SK,, ' I „>„ ^ ='" 



Tim: Sik.;k .,i; Hkijii ,5;- """■ 

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-4 AUKR Cl I.I.rimi.s- ; Hynyj Htvtiv.- 

"i? "": "'■■•>■" " »"«A.vi, Jllv ,;Tk' 

Tin;: CIUBC.E OFI)»,Rv.,.„;,.„., ;■„.„„,. 

kASSASSIX, AlT.I-ST .Jtii, , ,v^ . ""' 
1 I. llIAHGie OK TIIK 31ST T.^voks .V , 



AT 



Black-and-White Illustranons 



I niii 



SKi;roii ^^AI- of tiik r„,yii, ,v 

1-«"Mii.:r in- ,xr; 
■■"""">■■'•-" !•" Watekloo : ■ I.Ftvivr n.,-, 

I'll! I>l kE (II. Hei.I.I.VCTO.V 
-Nai^H,EoV I 

■'■'y;:N^;c",jr/™''""™'"''-v 
,"SA?ij's»;ri;^E':^.^"';,;'!"-'= -' 

"SS'^eI -—"■'»--- Ai 

QLAlm: Bras , ' ' ■ ■ 

■■.-«_^tu^™e ,-.„„: «•„„„,,,„, -J,,,; 
■"'"r «'S,™' "'" """"""■:" B»1"a„e 

I.AM ,jE TIIK Battle of Water! on' 
lire OAPTTOE OF A FKEXCII rS „V T,„', 
nil. Defemce of Itoir.oi-MoxT 

,,, T1.H ,...„ re.-.i„i^.t"tw'vt ;";■"■ '" 

I III: .ITTACK m- THE Wai l at ll',,,- 
JlXK IHTII, iXiq , MAThRlnn, 

>.v OF TIN! Battle OF Watf«'i,«. ' 

.TERLIK.: TlIEdLI, lllAR,; 



4"! 
4"4 
4"5 

4"7 

408 

414 
4' 5 
-t"7 



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Safetv . J KANTIL Leaf fur 

Sm Charles X.\ptER ' ■ 

.Sir Charu:s x,p,er i.:mkr,v,: livi,,,;,,,,, ' 

SEITEMIIER .-JTII i.sj. IIM'IKAII n,, 

Tl.E^B.,TTLE OF Jtoi ',:„„«;.,.,.■, .^„; 

riAN OF THE IlATTLEOF Meivi'f ' 

HE QTH BEXOAL Cavairv AT \lr.v,',- 

lira Battle of Dihra \tARn, '\th ', , ' 
I'lAi, OF THE Battle of to , a"""' "*' 

eURLESl. KXCIXDEI, FROM mi 

".1°' I™« """■■= "" "■■'''■""'"'■'■ ' '"■ 'IIII. 

JZni^ii" ,^'-^''^"'"'''-' " i:ii..i!iiii I ■ 

M.\o ,s MA.VIlARIl AT I.'i,,.FlMii 

TiiEnEAnioFI.oRnFviK'f.v ,,v. ■ 

„ -iErTEMnER ,,°TH f,"',"'"" '" •^«"1" " 
ILAN OF THE B,TTLE OF XfWRI Rv 

"","",!;;"'■"" " •■""1^"" ," .r' j ,., , ' 

PRINCE Rn.ERr',,r.M'ARstox J,;,,.,, • ' 

Battle OF Marsto-j Moor ' ^ 

OLIVER CROMWELL AT ^tAR,To^• 'm„or ^ 

PLAX of the BaTTIF of Marstov il ' 

The Retreat at Naserv. I, xf ijt'ii ,, - * 

1 LAN or Tnji Uatiii- Ml vi; 
"'4! . . , ■ ■ 

Ski'iki; of Cihhi.|,s l 
Tin: HATiM.;ur It 



'AI.IST !■-■!.■-.-,- 



■AT iroiMin iin 
'■L^T i-ni. 



>4.S 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



TKiiSTox, Att.ist irTH, !'■.(.■<: "AT Pr^ii 
*»K I'lKE TIIKV WERE liKATliX FKOM Tilh 
liKIIK-.K" 

Plan or Tiiic Battlk hf 1'hrstux, Avc.ist 
i;tii, tG4« . , . ... 

TiiH CirAKCK OK Tin: Kim; s ciwx I.ii-.nr 
Dkat-oons \t Mn.Ki .... 

I'l.AV OH Tin; ItATTLh or Ai.iUAr.. Jani-ak\' 

jSTII. 1^4'! ...... 

Ciiak<;k 111- Till- I'.Tir I.anchks at the Batti,i-: 

i>i; Al.nVM.. jANTAkY jXTIf, l«.i(j . 
LlFITEXANT- C.EXKRAL VlSt-HXT f'.OI C.lf, 

CC.B 

SonRAo.v : Sm JosKi'ir TiiACKWEi.r, Leaiuxi; 

THE IRn r.ic.iiT DRAr.OOXS 
SoBRVox : The I'lcirr nx Tin-: Kridgr over 

THE SfTI.EJ ...... 

Pl.AX <>E THE HaTTT.E OF SoiIRAOX, FEIIKCARV 
IiiTII. IK4" 

TiiK Sturmim; oi- JI(Jor.T\x, Jaxiarv ;jxi), 
i.'<4'> 

C:III.IAXWAI.A, JANI-AHV 1,1 Til, I «4Q : Hnn- 

BV's IiRi';\hK Makixc, a (Iai-Last Stand 

Clin.lANWAl.A, jAXrARV I tTll. I «4Q : TilE 
ilimv OF PKXXYCnCK l>[ AR1)K1> BV KIM 
Sox 

Pl.AX oi- TiiE Datti.i-: of <:iIlI.IAXWAr.A, 
JaXTARY I ?TH, |S4(j .... 

Pl.AX OF TIIK Battle (.f r,,ir>jERAT, Teb- 

RCARY JIST. [.-4(( ..... 

British Cavai.ky at the P.atti.e of C.nn- 

jerat, I'ebri.^kv 2isr, i>;4<) . 
The iist Regimext Charcixc, tiiic Sikhs . 

The MnlNi) FKOM WHlfit CR').MWEt.I. RECdX- 
XnlTHICD Till. HXESIY'S PuSITHlN AT DlX- 
IIAR ....... 

CRiiMWEM. at DlXHAR. SlilTE.MHKH 1HI», I'Km 

The Cavalry Cnxn.icT at Dixbah, Seitem- 

BKR IHI). K'Hn ..... 

Pl.AX OF THE BaTTMC OF JJLXBAK, Stl'TEM- 

HER IRH, iri:;M ..... 

The Sack of Dt-xuee, SEi-TEMitKR ist, 
16^1: Kxcr.TSir Seamex Attacking the 
\VEI.I,r.ATE PdMT ..... 

Plan of the Batti.k of Worcester, Sep- 
TEMnER IRt), r(i;i , . . . . 

The Battle of Worcester, Seitember !rd, 
i'';i ....... 

Thi-: Battle of the .\r.MA. September jmtii, 
r.S;,t : TiIE AUVAXCE of the 9iKD High 
I yXOERR ...... 

The AitvAxcE of the I.iiim liivisiox at 
THE .-Vl.MA, SIU-TEMIU:« ;'>TII, lM?4 

Pl.AX OF THE Battle of the Alma, Sei-tem- 

UKR 2<-TU, I,'<;4 . 

The Charc.e of the Heavy Bhkiade at 

ItAI.ACI.AVA, OCTOBER J5TII, rH54 . 

Battle of Balaclava, iictobeh inir, 18^4 : 
■All that was left of them— I,eft of 

6IX." 

CiiABCE oi' TIIE Heavy BbicaiU': at H\la- 

Cl.AVA, OCTOKEH J;T1I, rS;4 . 
Balaclava, (K-tobeu :::Tn, r.*^; 1 : The 
L"iiAHc,E OF THE [.n;irT Bricaiif: 

Pl.AX riF THE flUHOI' op THE I.IUHT BRICADE 

AT Balaci.a\a, oi tciier j;th, r.H;4 
!xki;rmax ; Tin; ;;th (.•vd BmruerI Keci- 

MliNT CHAkr.lN.; Till.; K. SSIAXS 

Secomi Chaki;!-: <>]■ the Gcarus, when thev 
Retook the THn-ctx Battery a' thj-: 
Battle of Ivki:k,m\n . . , . 

Plan of thi: Bati'li; <h- Inki:hmax, 'X'ivem 
BEH 5111, i.-';4 



Sl;\ASTMroL FKOM THE BaTTEHY OX THE IC.X- 
TREME RlC.HT OF pREXCH ATTACK . 

The [.OSS OF " The 1'iuvce" in the Black 
Se\ 

SeNTIXKL of the ZOIAVES BEFORE SeVAS- 
TOI'KL ....... 

The AsSAlI.T of SevaSToI'uL. i.S;; . 

The Pali, of SEVASTf)poL and the Retreat 
or THE RrssiAxs. September mtii, i«;; . 

I.uku Kac,lax's Head-Oiartehs at Khitor- 

K VUAIiATClI ...... 

SEVA-,rois)L : The Retreat ovek the 
Bru'C.e ok Boats ..... 

Sevastoiml : A Hot Hay ix the Bat- 
teries 

Skvaskii'di, : The .Vssai'lt ox the Rkpax . 

The Takixg ok the .Malakoff by the 
French 

Plax of thic Siece of Sevastoiml . 

The Coi-xTRv R"ixn Ballakat, i,'<;4 

The Attack on the IUheka Stockaoi:, 

ItECEMBKR IRf), I,1;4 .... 

The i;uREk.\ Stockahe : The Ihooern' 

Sr.i-vn ACAIXST THE MlLITAHV 
ADMni.\L BtAKE 

George MoxK, Di-ke of .\lbemarli:, ious- 
1670 

Blake's Three Days' Battle with \'ax 
Tromp, ir>:; 

The Death uf Van Tromf, Jii.y ^ist, kj;) 

The Battle off Uami'EKuown, Jily .'qth 

UST, 10^,; 

The Dcke of Moxmouth, 1 640- 1 r.,s ; . 

How THE DIKE f.F IIONMOLTIIS SlBII iRTERs 
PoL-CHT EORHISCaISE WITH SCVTHES ASM 

Pitchforks, Ji:ly oth, ros; . 
Plax of the Battle of Se:i)gkmook, July 

OTII, lOS; 

After Seugemoor, Jilv oth. }''-^^ 
The Dike of Moxmoith Bi;(,<;ing i-ur his 
Life to his I'xcle, James 11 , July ioth, 

THF: I.OWLANIIIUS AT THE BATTLE OF KlI.l.lE- 
CRAXKIE. Jri.Y I;TH, r'),-*,) 

The Hb;iilani)ERs at the Battle of Kii.lie- 

CHAXKIE, JCl.Y I7TII, JliHi) 

I'LAX OF THE Battle of Kilt.iecrankie, 

Jt-lv i;th. ios., 

The AssAiLT of Dixkelh. Arci st .mst, 

\6!iq 

Delhi: The Besiegers were Coxstaxtln 

Attacreh by Rebels, Jcly, iS;; . 
The Flight from l>ELitl, May, iN:;; . 

Tdi: '/Tll l,ANCi:B>i AT DlvI.HI. f^:;" , 

.Major Tombs Ri:scrixiL I.iicctenant Hills 

AT 1,1 CKX.iW 

NulInLSnN's DEFEAT OF THE RKIHCLS AT 

.\\J\M-,\RH, .Vfi'.FST J4TII, |S?7 
]>r:r.Hi : The DiFi-icrLTiES ov Setting I'v 

BATri:kii:s (htsihe the City 
I'LAX OF THE Siege of Delhi . 
Delhi : Likitexaxt Salki;i.i», Bengal l.s- 

GiXEEKs, Blowing it the Kashmir r,\Ti:, 

SlCFTE.M BKR 1 4TH, I S 5 7 . 
Mi'iTExwT Ilojisnx Axn tiif: Mctinmicrs 

wiui Barkeu his Way to thi; Kim. of 

Delhi 

Tin: Assailt of Di:liii, Seftembek, 18:7 . 
Sir Hiuii Rose . . " , 

IM'IAN .^rT-TINY : How TIIi:V FoTCIlT To 
!'i T Dowx THE Revolt i>f Hixotstax 

\-.irT\-Tr|-M Cavm.KV '.iLTsiME L'-'Jh.s-.-w. 
J cm: .1. .th, iS;? 



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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



I'l.AV <->!' Tin; nATii.i: «i- ruAsstiv, Jrxi; 

J1RI1. 17;,- ...... .-i.'j 

Bhiv.-.ini; Ur Till-: r.ixs, I,ANt;'s Xkk. 

jAvr-AHV jSTii. rssi . . .-^u 

I'l.AV OF TinC .\t.TMN AT l.\St.> Sl.K, JaM 

AHV j«Tlf, iMSi , , . .s ;; 

I.AMis Nhk, Jam AHV jSrir, [.Sf!r . , !^yi 

I'l.KS or TIIIC MAKtU To 5IAJIBA Hll.L, Fl£l!- 

Kr\KV J6T1I, ].-iSl ..... Krj 

TlIK HaTTLIC ok MaJT BA, Fi:nHlARV J/TH, 

I.SSi . . . . . . . .^4 ' 

.MAJIHA Hir.t,, rKDHIARV J,"TK, ])m\ S jj 

I'l.AN' in- TiiK Ratti.k of Majiiu II11.1., ri:ii- 

RTAVV -VTII. I."i8l ..... S44 

Titi; Uritisii I'mikt BxMnARDR THK Forts at 

.\|.I-;XAX1H*IA, JiT.V riTir, [.^S.- . . Sy. 

TirE Hatti-e (IK Ti-:l-i-:i.-Ki;iiir . . S4., 

.\KTKH Till! BaTTI-K of TeI.EL-KERIR . 1S51 

I'l.AX OK TIIK Battles of Tei,-el-Kebir axd 

Kassassin' . . . . S;j 

Tm; Kattle of .Misken-, ArciST isT, i;:y s;(> 

I'l.Av mf the Battle of JIixukx , s;,s 

(iKNKRAI. WOI.FE. 1727-59 .... aiy 

Battije of yrEBKc : Cexehal Fkaseh 
CALI.IVG I'POX HIS Hlliin.A.MiEUS to 

CnAKCK sr," 

Tiii: De.^tii of (Venkha:. \\"oi.[.k Xf-i 

I'LA.v OK the Siece ok Qcebkc . . «'i; 

Statl-e of Oeserai, Wolfe . . . 8O6 
SKETcit Map of the Scoi'E ok Operations 

IN THE Sl"DAN' . . . , . ?<'t,S 

Abl'-Klea, J.^nuary 17T1I, i83^ . . S;i 

The Battle of ABf-KRi', J.\nuarv lyrn, 

msi ,v7i 

In- the Sql'are at .Viu-Klea . . s-4 
I'l.AXnFTHE BATTr.r I'K Ahi-Ki.ea, Jaxl-ak\ 

i;TH, i.-f-i; f;; 



I'r.Ax iiK THE Battle ' 

H.TH, 



Aih-Kkt . Jaxi AKV 
■;TII, iSH-y 



TiiKSyiAkK AT Aitr Kri", J a 
Stati"e ok Cexkhal (".ordun 

J.ORt) KlTfHENKR ..... 

Ox THE Way rp the Nif.k : I'irivc at tiii: 

i>krv1siies ...... 

The I.ixes of Commuxicatiox at i imdirmax 
iimiicrman: The Dervish attaik ox JtAi- 

LMJXALD's Brigade .... 

The (iXRtsii of the Dervishes 
Omuirman : The Last Bearer • -v the Bi.a. k 

FL-ic. September 2X1), i,si*>* 
Plax of the Muvemexts of Inkan'thv at 

Omdirmax ...... 

"The (JuiKiors First of Jim:," 17^*4 
Karl Howe, 1726-1749 .... 

I.ORK Mkthlex .... 

The Dash ok the 9TH Bkicahe Amnss iin: 

MoLHiER River ..... 
Plan of the Battle of .mouder river . 
Mai^erskoxteix : The .Vttack bv the IIh.ii- 

LAXi)EBs ox the Boek Trexches . 
Flax of the Battle of Macerskoxtein, 

December iitii, I'fw .... 
Sir Rehvers Blxler .... 

I.iEriEXAXT Roberts Trying to Save tuic 

OrXB AT COLEXSO ..... 

I'l.Ax OF THE Battle ok Coi.enso, DEf.:M- 
BER iiTH, I?<y9 ..... 

The Battle of Wacox Hii.i., Jamary 'iTii, 
1900 

Pl.AX ClF THE ASSAILT OX [.AUYSMITII 

The Devoxs at W.^c.dx Hii.i, 

Ov THE Way i-p Si'iox Koi- 

Sketch of the (iRorxo xear Sriox Knp 

Sketch ok the Simmit ur Spmx Kop . 




WATERLOO. JUNE IBih. 18^. 



■THE WHOLE LINE WILL ADVANCE" 

m hv B G.-.u>vrll,. B.iLer 



SECTION 



THE WATERLOO CAMPAIGN 



/-\ b> the iTccl, an„i« in ,814 ,l„. 

reused .0 Elba, the sn.all i.,a„„ „,,i,„l^ 
V eton„,,s e„e„„es had given hi,,, to govern • 
vhite the House of Bourhon, reprt™,"^' 

by Lou.., xvm., „„. aged brother of ,e 
hapless „,„„a.ch who had ,*rished at , e 

ThTon': of'r '*""'""°"' "'' '"-«' <™ • 
inrone oi i-rauct'. 

Ostensibly, ,Kace prevailed throughout tlK- 
Continent of Kuroix-. Prussia was pe " r tag 

.°irTu"".™'- ''" i" K„g.a„r;^ 

ticiaiis, fuUtnvine ' .,,, ,..,..,. ^, . * 

fo. a reduction 5 naval ™;;;-i^;^Z^f 
fetmg the end long and sanguinary wars. 



I.VTROnuCTrO.N 



iK ore ,„ter becan.e the arguu.ents ; and 

K- ea 1, part c,f IB:., ,, ,,,,„„, i„„..,^ 

'"• ' "^' '-"I'gress of \-ie„„a would break u„ 

""'I th.it the Alhes, no longer united by a 

c,,,„n.„,f,arofXapoK.on.J;,u,d,;^f.eL^ 

,1 I '" '"''' '""" '""■>" allies 

to si; r 'r'" ''"''''""■■'' '' '^ "'■IX'^^iWe 
silenced those vo,ces of disruption. 



Congress of Vienna, 1814 

Still ,„uch re,„ai„ed to be aceon,plished 
n the resettlement of the Continent. 
In Se.pten.lKr, 1814, delegates of the AUied 
1-owers assen.bled at \-ie„„a. e„,powered ,0 
^-arrange the „,ap „, Europe, with which 
Narrfeo,, had ruthlessly played havoc. Bu 

reahscd, the days of cns« had not vet passed. 

.,f Furor r- u"' '" "-"""«^' '>" '-P 
of Europe, for the ,,eopIes of ,he various 

countnes concerned held very different uews 

as to how that rearranging should Ik. done. 
Russ,a. for exan.ple, clain,ed the whole of 
I-nland : Prussia insisted on l,.i„g given 
Saxony; Austria wanted I.on.hardv 
M.lan, and proceeded to show quite clearlv 
that, unless her wishes were c,;;,eeded she 
was prepared to enforce then, at the ,«int of 
the sword; wh.lst Britain, in support of ,,er 
contentton that Belgiu,,, a„,l Ilollan,! should 
bcMncorporatcd as an inde,K.ndenl Kingdom, 
sent troops to the former country. 
The longer these .natters were discussed 

2 F 



Napoleons Escape from Elba 

Napoleon escaped from Elba. On March 
IS. he landed with 800 ...en in .hV^h 
of France. Before the end of the momh 

hav.„gwo„over,he.Wy,ohissrhe 
ad re-establ.shed hin.self as controUe „ 
Ins eom.trys destinies ; and Louis XVIII 
was co.npelled to quit France and on« 
n.ore resu,n_ his travels 

The delegates of the Allied Powers 
asse,.,bled at Vienna, greeted the news t' 
Xapc,leon^s return w.th, it is said, an out- 

e" a"' 'i"'""^?"»"8""- As=oon, how- 
^er as they real.sed the full s ,if,cance of 

Mere «.f ■ .r ""■"'■'""''•'>• "«"' "■- 
o.nirences. rhe conm.on cne..,y had re- 

ap,.are< Europe once „,ore wa^menac:^ 
b. Napoleo., ; and this fact eo.npletelv over- 
!.hadowed all ,„i„or points of dispute ' 

Forthwith. Aastria, Britain, Portugal 

ITuss,.a Russia, Spa.n, and Sweden unS 

.... .„..,« s.ven determtned to overthrow the man whon,' 

mutually promised assistance to one another 
the AUted leaders returned to their respective 
countnes to ...ake preparations for the con.h.g 
struggle : and the Waterloo Ca„,p,ugn began 



40. 



From Russia .Vapoleon knew that he need 
fear noth.ng for several months. Austria 

I 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



too, though geographicilly much naarer. was 
Ui.preparcd to take the field. Britain and 
Prussia alone, from their proximity, were 
iiniiiediately dangerous. XaiK)leon decided, 
therefore, to assume the offensive without 
delay, and, by crushing his enemies one by 
one. to frustrate their general plan, which 




SKKTCH MAP OF THE FRENCH AND BELGIAN FRONTIER IN 1815 
From 'Cavalry in the Waterloo Campaign" ISampion Low. Maraton fc Co.i 



to advance iu concert 



was, as he divined, 
upon Paris. 

With this objec*: in view the Emperor, 
having dispatched troops to guard his other 
frontiers and to deal with Royalist risings in 
various parts of France, assembled an army 
on his north-eastern frontier, which was al- 
reatly threatened by British and Prussian 
troops. 

The posiiit»n towards the end of Ma\- was 



as follows : A Prussian army, numbering 
li:;,ooo infantry, with i2,oon cavalry and 
312 gun^, under the command of Marshal 
IJliicher, was cantoned near to the Franco- 
Belgian frontier in the neighbourhood o' 
Charleroi, Namur, and Liege ; wliilst an 
Anglo-Belgian army of 200 guns and 106,000 
men (of which 27,000 in- 
fantry, 8,000 cavalry, and 
.^..ioo gunners manning 
121) guns, were British or 
(lernian Legion), under 
the Duke of Wellington, 
whom the AHies had 
elected Commander-in- 
Chief of all their armies, 
was —to s i m p 1 i f y the 
question of suppUes — 
spread out ovei a large 
area in the vicinity of 
Brussels. 

To oppose these forces 
Na]x)leon had 124.000 
men and 350 guns in 
cantonments covering a 
front of nearly 250 niikr 
along the Belgian f rontie. , 
from Lille to Metz. 

Collectively, the forces 
of Wellington and Mar- 
shal Bliicher hoi lessly 
outnuml>ered the army of 
Napoleon, but tho Em- 
peror, numerically, was 
stronger individually than 
either of his two enemies. 
He decided, therefore, 
that it was his wisest 
policy to strike immedi- 
ately at the centre of 
their position, wedge him- 
self in between the two 
them back along their le- 



aritu^tSS^ 



armies, drive ^.. 

spective lines of comnumication — Wellington 
in the direction of Antwerp or Ostend ; 
Blucher towards Cologne— md so, by crush- 
ing each in detail, render it impossible for 
them to effect a junction. 

Accordingly, he gave 1 rders for his army 
to concentrate immediately along the hue 
Maubeuge - Beaumont - Philippeville, which 
was within twenty miles of Charleroi, wher^ 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



Iliv .jo.(jih) null Ml Bliicht-r's army under tin.- 
coiniiiiind of ZiftiKii. 

Hy June i4tli tlii- omantnitifHi had Ikiii 
ttkdfd ; but >o quickly had it Urn (hmv. 



Rivt-r Sandirt' in tlirti.' columns, at L'hiirKroi, 
Marchii niKs. and ChaUK-t. General Ziitlun, 
tniabk I offer L-ffectiw resistance, was forced 
hack, hut in gfjod order. u])on Fleurus. 



Sectio 

Bliich' 
ward i 
still Ik 
as to 




THE DUKE OF WELLINGTON 
portrait by Sir Thomat Lawrence, P,R.A. 



and such was the secrecy olrecrved through- 
out the inovcinent. that the AlUes still lay 
motionless in their cantonments, without a 
suspicion of the Empe-ror's inte'-.iions. 

Early on the morning of the 15th the 
French army began its advance, cro.-:sing the 



Wellington and Uliicher had arranged, ii 
the event of their -entre being attacked, ti 
unite their forces on the road leading frm; 
Xivelles. to Xamur, somewhere betwen 
Quatre Bras and Sombreffe. Immediatelv 
therefore, on receiung the news from Zietheii 



Brussels h( 
ive. but, a 
there were 
French fro 
Napoleon 1 
It sceme< 
Charleroi n 



WATERLOO CAMPAIGN-JUXE. 1815 



Section I 

Bluclier Ik«,„ to ,„ov. his ,vl,„i,. „,,„. . 
war, ,„ this dTccti,,,,, «VI,i„„„„. ,„ X' ! ' 

as to the nature of .Va,.Aon's intcn i"^s 



M.i.lcrn 

Rjnur.l m.i>vtn.-nt on Hruss,N ,,l,.„„ ,i„. 
■■«..i,s r„a,l. .v„„. ;,„ ,,„.„.t („„„ ,1^.^ 
..m «„uM l,av. lv>.„ .. s„i„„s ,„,„,„, ,■;, 
«,UlTvt„„s ri^ht r!.,„k, .,11,1 l,,r.. l,o o,„l,l 




NAPOLEO^f I. 
portrait bi- Horace Vernet 



Brussels he knew lo l,e tl,e EuiiK-ror's ol.jeet- 
■ve. but, as a glanee at the „,ap will show 

Frcneh Iron .e, ,o that city, anv of which 
Napoleon might take. 

It seemed then, that the advance through 
jCharlero, might merely be a femt to ma.k a 



not a lord to allow hhnself to be driven back 
for, should this hapiK-n, he would be pushed 
°;' „ , "■■ "^ '^"■"■""nicati.ms, which ran 
parall..! not at right angles, to his front. 

, e. iK'fore making any definite 
< ■- decided to wait until .Vapoleon's 

r'' .aJ develoiej. " If all is as General 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



Ziethen suijixbl-s." he told Baron Muffling, 
the l'rus>i;m Gvntral, who was attached ta 
liis Staff during the campaign, " I will con- 
centrate (in my left wing, and so be in readi- 
ness to tinht in conjunction with the Prussian 
army Sliould. however, a iiortion of tlie 
enemy's force come by Mons, I must con- 
centrate more towards my centre. This is 
tlie reason why I must wait for positive 
news from Mons before I fix the rendez- 
vous," 

About midnight this information arrived ; 
there were no French trooj« advancing froai 



the (Urection of Mons. Accordingly, Welling- 
ton gave orders for liis arm>' to move 
forward uptm ^hiatre Bnis. Tlieii. in order 
to avoid creating ulurni in Brussels. Ik and 
many of his officers attend. <! the famous 
ball given that niglit b;. the Duchess of 
Richmond. 

At 3 A.M. WeUington left the l)all-room. 
At 5 A.M. he mounted his charg-.-r, and in the 
grey dawn of early morning set out to join 
bis army, and. for the first and only time 
in his career, to measure himself against 
Kapoleou. 



THE BATTLrs OF LIGNY AND QUATRE BRAS 



On the morning of the i6th Ziethen, with 
30,000 men, was established at Ugny. Here, 
before eight o'clock, he was joined by two 
more corps of the Prussian army, under the 
command of Blticher himself, whose 4th Corps, 
Billow's, was hastening by forced marches in 
the same direction. 

The Anglo-Belgian army, meanwhile, was 
concentrating on Quatre Bras ; but as many 
of the troops had twenty and some thirty miles 
to cover, this concentration could not be 
effected quickly. In consequence, during the 
morning, there were not more than 10,000 
men there — Dutch- Belgians under Perpon- 
cher — to oppose any advance the French 
: iRht make. 

N'apoleou intended that, as early as pos- 
sil le on the i6th. Marshal Key should move 
oti Quatre Bras, sei;,e this strategic position, 
Uave part of his force there to hold it, 
and then attack the right flank 01 .he 
Prussians. 

-Simultaneously with this latter movement, 
N ipoleon himself undertook to assault the 
l:assian front; proposing la. er. with Ney's 
assistance, to drive Bliicher back along Iiis 
Une of communications, and so to cut him 
off entirely from Wellington. 

Various delays wrecked this plan. Had Ney 
attacked Quatre Bras early in the morning 
he would, as Napoleon had foreseen, have 
met with ver>' little opposition. But it 
was two o'clock in the afternoon when 
Ney began his attack, and by that time 



Wellington had a.ssenibled an army not 
only strong enough to offer serious re- 
sistance. It to make it impossible for the 
French General to send troops against the 
Prussian right. 

Ney has been much criticised for liis slow- 
ness on this occasion ; but, as Sir Edward 
Creasy lias written, "censors should remember 
that soldiers are but men ; and tb-' *here 
must necessarily be some interval of time be- 
fore troops that have been worn and weakened 
by twenty hours of ince? ^ fatigue and 
strife can be fed, resteu ganised, and 

brought again into actiou j any hope of 
success." 

It must also be --membere. that Ney was 
summoned by Napoleon at the tieventh hour, 
and arrived from Paris only in time to take 
over the command of the left wing of the 
French army late in the afternoon of the 15th, 
■u ■ 1 that the Chief of Napoleon's Staff, Mar- 
sh. ' Soult. unaccustomed to the work, gave 
Ney but little of tiie necessary information 
about his command. 

Marshal Ney was one of the many of 
Napoleon's officers who, after the Emperor's 
abdication, had transferred their allegiance 
to Louis XVIII. Moreover, when he heard of 
Napoleon's landing in the south of France, 
he madi a foolish boast to the Legitimist 
Government that " he would bring Bonaparte 
b.ick in an iron cage to Paris." 

The Emperor, after his return to power, 
was magnanimous enough to disregard this 



WATERLOO CAMPAIGN-JUNE, 1815 Modern 







THE ADVANCE OF THE FRENCH AT LIGNY. JUNE 16th. IBIS 
From a picture by W. B. Wollen. R.I. 

bombastic obsen-ation, and sent his former on the fortresses, but in reality to furnish 
nght-hand fighting man into the departments details as to the opinions and intentions of all 
of the north of France, ostensibly to report functionaries, m.llitary and civil. 

40- 




" QUATRE BRAS, JUNE 16th, 1815 

ol Me^iri. B. Brooka &. Sons, Newman Streel. W. 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



Xey carried out these instructions to the 
best of his abihty, but his humble origin and 
want of breeding militated greatly agiiinst 
success. He disj^usted tihke Royalists and 
ImperiaUsts by the coarse, vulgar expressi(»ns 
he used in liis conversation regarding' the 
Government he had rea-ntly ser\-ed, sjjeak- 
ing habitually of the Bourbons as " a rotten 
lot." This conduct did not help to re- 
establish Xey in the confidence (tf tlie 
Bonapartists, some of whom wrote anony- 
mously advising the Emperor not to 
em])loy him. 

When the Marshal returned to Paris, in the 
middle of April, from his tour in the northern 
departments he tried to excuse to Napoleon 
the silly boast which lie had made to 
the King, alleging that lie had already de- 
termined to go over to liis former Chief, and 
that the boast was a mere blind. 

Napoleon received this incredible -jcr- 
tion in silence, and Ney retired to liis country 
seat. Wlien he next saw the Emperor, at 
the " Champ de Mai " parade. Napoleon said, 
" \Vliat, you here ! I thought you had emi- 
grated." Ney answered bitterly, " I ouglit 
to have done so sooner." 

Napoleon Sends for Ney 

It is supposed that the Emperor felt some 
personal regret that he should now he at vari- 
ance with one who in the past had served him 
well, and also reahsed that a great battle in 
which Ney took no part would be shorn of its 
chief fighting factor ; and tiiat these were 
the reasons which prompted him to send for 
the Marshal (m June nth. 

• « « * 

On receiving Napoleon's summons, Ney 
hastily borrowed "^onie money from friends, 
and posted to tne front, dining with the 
Emperor at Avesnes. On tiie i jth lie was 
fortmiate in finding horses, wliieh he jnir- 
chased from a brother Marsh;d (Mortier) who 
had been taken ill on the frontier, and on the 
i.5lh, as has been shown already, he assumed 
connnand of the left wing of Napoleon's army. 
Tliis was composed of the 1st Army Corps 
{D'Erlon), and— with the exception of 
Girard's divisiun— tlie 2nd Army Corps 
(Reille). The Emperor also placed at Ney's 
disposal Kill.'nnann's cavalry, and i!ic I.ii-ht 



cavalry of the Imperial Guard, but gave 
instructions that the latter were not be to 
used unless it became absolutely necessary. 
Wlien Ney took command of this force on 
the 15th he had no Staff, and he did not 
even know the names of the General Othcers 
eonnnanding divisions. He cannot, therefore, 
justly be accused of dilatoriness in that he 
ditl not engage the enemy early on the follow- 
ing morning, esi>ecially seeing that he had 
Uj rehable information as to tl'>r strength of 
Wellington's army or the disposition of the 
Allied forces. Moreover, it was 11 a.m. 
before he received from Napoleon definite 
orders to advance. 

Ufcny, June 16th, 1815 

Najxtleon, at half-past three, finding that 
Key was now more strongly opposed than 
had been anticipated, and tnat some time, 
at any rate, must elapse before the attack 
on Blucher's right could Ik: delivered, gave 
the signal to his army to assault the Prussian 
position at Ligny. 

A desperate battle ensued, and for the ne 
five and a half hours was contested stub- 
bornly ; but, finally, as darkness fell, the 
Prussians slowly and reluctantly fell back 
from their position. 

So fierce was the fighting that, soon after 
the battle began, the Emperor sent in haste 
orders to Ney to dispatch to his assistance 
innnethately D'Erlon's corps, 20,000 strong, 
which Ney had been holding in reserve. By 
some curious mischance this message was 
not delivered to Ney, but to D'Erlon himself, 
and he, thinking that Ney was aware of 
the connnand, set out in the direction of 
Bry. But Ney knew nothing of Napoleim's 
orders. When, therefore, he learned that 
D'Edon's corps was on the move, he 
forthwith commanded it to return, for at 
this time he himself stood greatly in need of 
assistance. 

Thus it came about that D'Erlon, with 
20,000 men , spent the whole afternoon march- 
ing to and fro between the two armies, and 
never g<.t into action at all— an unfortunate 
blunder, seeuig that those 20,000 men would 
have been sufficient to enable Ney to defeat 
Wellmgttm at Quatre Bras, or would have 
'.•n:il>led N;;;.-nlv!.jn to crush thi.- i'russiuus at 



Section I 



WATERLOO CAMPAIGN-JUNE. 1815 



whilst tl,c Prussians w«?. ', , '^'''"''^' 
dav with™"" ^^'^ ^"'' ™ "^^ foUowiiig 

-«rrzsf ^-."i 

r,„ , ™ ""-' supreme struL-cIv cam- 

Grouchy, mstead of beinj ih\,. , ' 

main ur.uy " ""-"" '™"' -"Napoleon's 



Modern 

.i-t:;r';rr.;'i ■■":-"-> - 

tilt-' rciiinants nf tlw. ^ . troops 

«-..anaTh::',:!;:.::s""^"'^-'-. 



Escape of Bliicher 

Blucher personally escaped front the battle- 

S'^ct;^ tl^' "'^ ''"-™ °f -^s 
torallvhis i , "■ '"^ endeavouring 

falter inllt^idf' "•"-"■"■ -""egan to 
•^n shot, to an officer of his Stan^„d1 

=.^::s'^----;«5 

haif-s,4;;d'%hisrc" •■"''''■'''' '^'>- 

'-r Dragoon^ X^--^j;je aid of 

or..:^e;r:-ti::t?37 

--..edhin, away front ^rfi:;[,':;j 

ti«..y,an.oun;dS'i;^oo';;,^^i;-;-^ 

""■'**'"""■■""" "'™. enlisted front wta 



Ouatre Bras, June ,6th, ,8,j 

During the battle at I,i.,„v «- ir , . 

annytvas being hotlveXd": Ma' °h? 
-^ey at guatre Bras *" ' •^'■"'''"' 

-^ts;rs;™"?''>-"'^""'«'»"-s 

>-r*\vS-,^^'ti'"i^;;::;-f 

wncentrate their armies ^"^ '° 

-S'w!::ry"7''''" '^"-'"-■Brussels 

H..re r s'.s a t aU ' t """' """' ™' "-"■ 
^-^attdformsa^udhra l^:X 

|^f^.^atir;,:r;!-r5 
r™.r..;St:^?;"^''-^--"-t\^ 

pa-able for ,„ou„ted .too , „ d .f '"]' 

^;;ci. infantry cou.,.,no,n:K-rii^;:t 
- e ground r.ses sharply, the.ice nndul ,^ 

^; ™:5^p tirSn!— ^= 

»Pace,'and n L'Ulld'o?'^""'"^'""" 
eW d SttJ^- 'S't~ - 

«---:7e;::t-- r;3 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



grass in the iu-ij;lil>ourint; fields providwl 
surticiLiit cover h> conceal the movements 
even of mounted troops, 

Wellington at Quatre Bras 

General de Perixmcher, \vh'» commanded 
the 2nd I)utch-Belj;ian Division, arrived at 
Quatre Bras at j a.m. nn Juhl' ihth, and 
by () A.M. had occiijiied the soiithern en<l of 
the IJossu \v(K)d and tlic farm of Pierrei)ont. 
The Prince of OranKf. who was in command 
of the 1st Corps of UVllington's army, arrived 
between () and 7 a.m.. and. having end')rsed 
Perjioncher's asgressive attitiule, .sent for- 
ward two batteries of artillery up to tlie 
ri<lji;e south of the Cemioncourt stream. 

At 10 A.M. the Duke of Wellinv.ton arri\ed 
at Quatre Rras ; hut, seeing no sij;ii of nio\e- 
ineiit by the enemy, rode over to the Prussian 
position, some se\en miles distant. Near 
Bry he met Bliicl-er, who stronjjly urged tlie 
Duke to move, >o sikiu as he had concen- 
trated liis forces, and support the right rear 
of the Prussian army. Wellington did not, 
however, approve tliis plan, because such a 
tnovenieut would leaw open the Cliark-roi- 
Brussels road. Finally, howewr, the DuVe 
reluctantly yielded to iiis colleague's im- 
portunity, remarking, as he rode away. " at 
any rate. I will come if 1 am not attacked 
myself." 

But he was attacked- Indeed, the attack 
began before WVlhngton got back to Quatre 
Bras, and at z..jo p.m.. wh-n he arrived 
there, he found tiiat Perponcher's advanced 
troops were falling back before the Frencli. 
and that the artillery haa already retired 
with the loss of two guns. 

Before three o'clock, Ney had gained pos- 
session of the soutll edge of the Bois de 
Bossu. Piermont, and all the ground up to 
Gemioncourt. Tlie situation of the .Vllieil 
army, therefore, at Quatre Bras was for a 
short time critical. But reinforcements were 
hastening to the battle-tield from the direc- 
tion of Brussels, and by j, ;o p.m. Picton's 
division had arrived, and had taken up .1 
jjositioi. on tlie Ni\elles-Xainur road in time 
to clieck further French advances. 

Wellington had now iS.uoo infantry and 
2,000 Continental cavalr>' in hand. The jmsi- 
tious taken up by his troops were as follows : 

41^ 



Pcrponcher's men hel<l the Bossu wood to 
within loo yards of the stream ; tlie Duke 
of Brunswick, who had arrived, with ."i.ooo 
infantry and l.ooo horse, stxin after Picton, 
was in the oj)en on the west of the road atniut 
600 yards south of Quatre Br.-is. where stood 
the (>2nd (Jnd (Jordon Highlanders) Regi- 
ment (of Pack's brigade). Between the Xaniur 
Road and the Charleroi-Brussels road was 
Picton's di\ision — brigades of Pack and 
Kempt, the former Ix-ing on the right, the 
latter on the left ; and in supjjort stotul 
Best's Hano\eriaii Militia Briga<ie, The wood 
lying between Quatre Bras and Sart a 
Avdines was held by the 95th Regiment 
(Rifle Brigade) of Kempt's brigade. 

Xey's extreme left (I'oy's division) held 
the Bossu wood u]» to the stream, his centre 
(Bachelu's divisii>n) was lirnily established at 
Oemioncourt, and his riidit (Prince Jerome's 
division) at Piermont. Tlie French guns were 
massed on the ridge to the South of Ceiiiii"!- 
court, whence tlie\- were able to play w..,. 
great effect on the .Vllied artillery, and with 
still more deatlly effect on the infantry as it 
came into position, the Duke of Brunswick's 
men being within 700 yards' and Picton's 
troops within 1.200 yards' range. 

The L'runs wickers* Severe Trial 

The Brunswickers were severely tried by 
the casialties which they suffered in quick 
successio.i. Init they were steady, being ex- 
tremely well commanded by the Duke, who 
fiiinself ilisplayed exemplary courage. 

Xey presently sent forward two heavy 
columns, under Bachelu, into the valley east 
of (rt-mioncourt. Whereupon Wellington. 
fearing for • 1 e -afety of the Brunswick troops, 
ordered Pietou. at 4 p.m.. to leave the q2nd 
at Quatre Bras, and to advance again, t the 
ene.ny. This counter-stroke proved brilliantly 
succe' ful. the French columns, surprised 
by Kempt's brigade, which moved through 
high crops, I*eing routed Iiy a bayonet 
ch.irge, and dri\en through the hedgerows 
into tiie vallev. 

Just after the British troois had resumed 
their position, and were t)eginning to re-form. 
Foy's division, supported by Pire's cavalry 
(Hu'.vrt'^ Brigade of C!ias>;,uri andWathier's 
Biigade of I.ancers), advanced from the 




THE ....„ OP .„, ,,,, ,, 3^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^ 



Section I 



WATERLOO CAMPAIGN-JUNE, 1815 



stream, one column on tlie Biuisels mail, 
the other between it and the Bossu wood. 

Death of the Duke o* Brunswick 

The Duke of Brunswick, finding that he 
had not room for two cavalry regiments 
between the liigh road and the wood, sent 
the Hussars back to Quatre Bras, while he 
himself at the head of tlie Lancers charRed 
the enemy's advancing infantry. The 
French troops, rapidly forming fr.nn 
line into square, easily repulsed tlie 
Lancers, who galloped back to Qu.itre 
Bras. The leading French squadrons 
followed boldly, and the Brunswick 
infantry then broke and lied. The 
Duke bravely but vainly strove to 
rally them, he himself being mortally 
wounded in his endeavours. 

Meanwhile, the Brunswick Lancers, 
pursued by the Chasseurs, galloped in 
a crowd on to the 92nd. then lining 
the ditch of the Karaur road close to 
Quatre Bras. The .Highlanders wheeled 
back one company, let the Lancers 
through, and then fired with great 
effect into the French horsemen, forcing 
them to retire. 

The Brunswick Hussar Regiment was 
now ordered fo^^vard from Quatre Bras 
to attack the Chasseurs ; but, unable 
to face the fire of the French Infantry 
w-hich had advanced on the eastern 
skirts of the wood, the Hussars hesi- 
tated, then turned— so closely pursued 
by the Chasseurs that the two bodies 
of horsemen were mistaken bv our in- 
fantry for .Allied cavalry retiring. The 
Chasseurs following the Hussars got through 
the t)2nd men. behind whom Wellington had 
taken refuge. The Duke escajxd only by 
jumping the fence of a garden which was 
hned by a company of the battalion. 

The Chasseurs advanced up to Quatre Bras ; 
then, seeing that they were isolated, they 
tried to retire by breaking through the q2nd 
from the rear. Few of these brave Frenchmen 
eventually escaped. An officer, coming from 
the rear, personally attacked the Duke of 
VV'elhngton. but he was shot through both 
legs by some soldiers who faced about, his 
horse falling just as he reached the Duke. 



iMoiicrn 

Wathier's Lancer Brigade did not follow 
up the Chasseurs, hut, wheehng round, 
attacked in the rear the two foremost regi- 
ments rf Pack's brigade, tlie 42nd (2nd 
Black Watch) and the 44th (1st Essex) 
Regiment. 

The 42nd was in the act of forming square 
at the time of the charge, and succeeded with 
comparative ease in repulsing the Freneli- 




4"5 



PLAN OF THE BATTLE OK QUATRK BRAS, 
JUNE 16th, ISIS 

men. But the 44111, taken by surprise, had 
no time to alter its formation, the thud of 
galloping horses' hoofs iK-iiig the first indica- 
tion it received of the coming storm. 

Colonel Hamcrton quickly faced both ranks 
about, reserving his fire until the Lancers had' 
approached to within short range, when a 
murderous volley destroj-ed many of tli.- 
foremost horsemen. With undaunted cour- 
age, however, individual men pressed on. and 
one grey-haired old Lancer, riding straight 
at the colour party, severely wounded Ensign 
Christie, who carried one of the colours, 
driving the lance through his left eye to the 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



lower jaw. The LaiicxT then fndeavuurt-d tn 
seize the colour, hut Christie, with marvcllfms 
L'n(hiranct' and ckttnniimtion. dashed the lla^ 
to the ground, and threw Jiiniself ujM.n it. 
The Frenchman succeeded in tearing off a 
portion with Viis lance, but a inoment later 
he was bayoneted, and the colour was saved. 
Presently the Lancers were forced to retire, 
and, withdrawing under a heavy lir^ from 
the 44th. re-formed, with the rest of Pire's 
shattered cavalry division, on the south side 
of the Gemioncnurt stream. 

The Arrival of the Guards 

Thus, shortly before 5 p.m.. ended the first 
main attack on the Allied y)Osition. Ney had 
driven the Dutch-Belgians and the Bruns- 
wick troops to the north of Quatre Bras. His 
artillery bad severely punished Picton's di\-i- 
sion, Pack's brigade having suffered so 
heavily that the 42nd and 44th Regiments 
were now re-formed in one square. Towards 
the conclusion of the struggle, moreover. 
Ney's infantry had got possession of the 
Bossu wood almost -ip to it? northern end. 



cavalry, supported I)y the renmants of Tires 
div sinn and Foy's infantry, against the 
.Ulied battalions, who now were without 
cavalry to assist them, for the demorahsed 
Brunswick horsemen had retreated, anri no 
Uritish-mounted troops arrivirl at Uuatre 
Bras till eight o'clock in the evening. 

" My dear (k-neral." said Xey to Keller- 
mann, repeating, perhaps unconsciously, tlie 
text of a letter whicll he had just received 
from NajHileon, " a great effort is necessary ; 
on you perhajw depends the fate of France ; 
you must charge, and break through the 
infantP.- in our fnmt. Athance, and I will 
have you supjMtrted by all Pire's cavalry." 
Kellermann, the finest cavalry leader in 
Xajwdeon's army, then advanced, himself 
riding with Brigadier-General Ouiton at tlie 
liead of the Sth Cuirassiers. 

♦ * * ♦ 

As tk-neral Halkett. of ,Uten's division, 
took up a position, with the four battalions 
composing his brigade, he received a pressing 
demand for support from Pack, whose men 
had run short of annnunition. Accordingly, 



and he had adva- J two batteries inside he sent the 69th (2nd Welsh) Regiment 



the wood, close to its eastern boundar 
• * « ♦ " 

Soon after 5 p.m. the 3rd Di\-ision of Wel- 
lington's army (Alten's) arrived at Quatre 
Bras, the men having maiched 22 miles 
under a hot sun. and without any dinner. 
These troops were immediately called into 
action. Kielmansegge's brigade nioWng down 
the Xamur road to reinforce Wellington's 
left ; whilst Halkctt's brigade took up its 
position at the north-eastern edge of the 
Bossu wood, on the ground from which the 
Brunswick troops had been driven back. 

Half an hour later the ist Di\-ision (Cooke's) 
consisting of Maitland's and Byng's Brigades 
of Guards, arrived at Quatre Bras, and began, 
with a determination which nothing could 
resist, to gain ground in the northern end 
of the wood. This was the turning-point of 
the battle. Wellington's forces now out- 
numbered those of Ney, who at this time was 
vainly endeavouring to brin^ back D'Erion's 
corjK to his assistance, and tl French troops 
were being slowly but surely driven back. 

Marshal Ney, however, declining to ;id- 
mit defeat, decided to launch Kellermann's 



the east side of the road, and formed up the 
three remaining battaUons between the road 
and the Bossu wood. 

Halkett himself then rode forward to the 
Geniioncourt stn am to (tl)serve the French 
dispositions. From here he saw Kellennann 
preparing to advance. So he sent his aide-de- 
camp forthwith to the 6(jth, and ordered it 
to form square since a cavalry attack might 
be exi)ected ; nhilst he himself galloped back 
to the remainder of his brigade and gave 
similar orders. 

Kellermann's Advance 

A few minutes later the Prince of Orange, 
who commanded the ist Army Corps, rode 
0- to the 6r,t! and asked what the battahon 
was doing. The Commrnding-Officer ex- 
plained that he had been ordered to for:n 
square. The Prince ordered him to get into 
line again, saying that he did not beheve 
an attack to be imminent. 

Yet 800 sabres had already crossed the 
stream, and Kellermann's Cuirassiers, hidden 
among the lall-^l;iIlding crops, were within 
400 yards nf the battalion. 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



III ii moment, the horsemen were upon the 
defenceless intantry ; and in less than two 
minutes 150 of the 580 men of the 69th were 
lying on the ground, dead or dying. Mr. Clark, 
a volunteer in the battalion, fought magni- 
ficently, and, although wounded in twcnty- 
•"wo places by sabre cuts, preserved the colour 
he was carrying. The other colour was taken, 
and sent back to be paraded before Fuy's 
infantry, then preparing to advance. 

Flight of the French 

Kellormann next charged Halkett's right 
battalion and drove it into the wood. Up 
to this moment his attacks had achieved 
considerable success. He had ridden over two 
battalions, and his regiments had kept the 
remainder of the British infantry in squares 
— a formation which offered an easy target 
for the French artillery. 

But nyw the Cuirassiers suffered severely. 
not only from the fire of the battalior.s which 
Stood grouped around them but also imv.i 
the British artillery ; whilit V ,e's cavalry, 
despite all efforts, could do nothing to shake 
the British infantry standing to the east of 



the road. The fur>- of the French attack, 
therefore, temporarily abated ; and at this 
critical moment it so happened that Keller- 
mann's horse was shot, falling dead upon its 
rider. 

KeUermann was not seriously hurt, but, for 
some inexplicable reason, the sight of their 
leader lying on the ground completely de- 
moralised the Cuirassiers, and, deaf to the 
commands and entreaties of their officers, 
they turned and fled in confusion, galloping 
over everything in their path, and carr>-ing 
Pire's division away with them in a tumult- 
uous mob. Foy's infantr>- columns, which 
had moved forward in support, were only 
prevented by the personal exertions of 
Ney himself from following the retreating 
cavalry. 

The victory was now won. Wellingttm's 
army advanced along its whole line ; and by 
nightfall the French were driven back to the 
position they had held in the mo- .ing. 

The Battle of Quatre Bras cost the Allied 
army some 3,300 trooj«. excluding Dutch- 
Belgians, whosL- losses are unknown ; the 
French lost about 5,000 men. 



THE EVE OF WATERLOO 



Sv^A was the moral effect produced by the 
charges of the French cavalry at Quatre Bras 
that many of the British battalions slept in 
square during the night, being apprehensive 
of a renewed advance by the dreaded horse- 
men ; whilst the rain which fell during the 
night added greatly to the sufferings of the 
numberless wounded men lying scattered 
over the ground between the Gemioncourt 
stream and Quatre Bras. 

After the battle Wellington himself rode 
to Genappe, and there took up quarters 
for the night, still ignorant of the result 
of the fighting which had taken place at 
Ligny. Eariy next morning, however, he 
heard of the disaster that had befallen 
Bliichcr; also the better news that the 
Prussians were retiring 'i]>on Wavre. 

The defeat of the Prussians had altered 
materially the p(Miitinn of the Anglo-Belgian 
army, whose left Hank was now unguarded, 



41S 



Wellington saw, therefore, that he, too. must 
rerire, and forthwith issued orders for the 
troops to fall back. He intimated his in- 
tention to Blucher. saying thr.t if he could 
rely on assistance from two di\-isinns of the 
Prussian army he would halt at Waterioo, 
and there gi\-e battle to Xapoleon, 

Wellington's Retreat from Quatre Bras 

Bliichtr' reply was characteristic. Not 
only would . . come with two divisions, said 
the fiery old Marshal, undaunted by the 
reverse which his army had suffered on the 
preWous day, regardless of the wounds which 
he himself had received ; he would come with 
his whole army— but with this pro\'iso : " If 
Xapoleon did not attack the Allied Army on 
the i8th, the Allied Army would attack 
Napoleon on the 19th." 

Wollington's retreat from Quatre Bras wn-: 
well carried out. After all the ba^age and 



Sccion r WATERLOO CAMPAIGN-JUNE. 1815 



trains had moved to the rear, the main body 
of the army moved off betwien lo and iV 
o'clock on the 17th. followed between I and 
2 r.M. by the cavalr\-, who meanwhile had 
taken over the outposts from the infantry. 

The French army halted during the morn- 
mg of the l;th. Napoleon had intonded to 
march and follow up Wellington e:irlv in the 
day, but he was dissuaded from doui;- so by 
his generals, who urged that the Hritish 
troops were fresh, and their men tired. On 
the other hand, the French soldiers grumbled 
at being kept inactive. 

In prewous campaigns the Emperor had 
not asked opinions of his generals. It may 
be, therefore, that there was some truth in 
the remark of the blunt Vandamme : "Ah 
this is not the Napoleon of former da\-s I " 
But it must be borne in mind that from 
3-30 A.M. on June 12th. when he left 
Paris for the frontier, until 11 p..v. on the 
l6th, when he rode from the battle-field of 
Ligny, the Emperor had been constantly 
travelling or fighting ; and for tnree montlis 
pnor to this not only had he been working 
fifteen hours daily in reorganising the de- 
fences of his country, but, in addition, had 
been obliged to discuss many weighty poli- 
tical questions with constitution -makers. 

A task such as confronted the Emperor 
on his return from tiba would have over- 
whelmed any smaUer man : and even on 
Napoleon it told its inevitable tale, the 
mental strain proved more than the body 
could endure, and this alone may account 
for his apathy on the morning of June 17th. 
-^t midday, however, hearing that Wel- 
Ungton was still at Quatre Bras, the 
Emperor sent orders to Ney to occupy that 
position, adding that he himself would sup- 
port him from Marbais. 

Skirmish at Qcnappe 

Before the French reached the cross-roads 
WeUingtoi^ had already fallen back. The 
British cavalry, however, were followed up 
closely, and a skirmish occurred at Genapiie 
in which the Life Guards distinguished them- 
selves, r hing, with heavy loss, Kre's 
pursuing I. ..iceis. The morning had been 
oppressively hot, without a breath of air, 
the sky being covered by dense, low-h-ing 



MinJern 

clouds, and later in the day a terrific thunder- 
storm, accompanied by rain of tropical 
violence, burst over the British armvs line 
of march. In a few minutc-s all movement 
faster tlian a walk became impossible, eitcept 
on the road, lor the horses sank knee-deep 
m the soft fields on the high ground up lo 
their knees, and on the lower slopes up to 
the girths. This, of course, while interfering 
seriously with the movements of Wellington's 
men. made vigorous pursuit on the part of the 
enemy a very difficult undertaking. 

WellinEton Take* Up Position 

Towards nightfall WeUington's arm> ook 
up the position south of Waterloo' upm 
which the British General had previously 
decided : and Napoleon's army bivouacked 
dirc-ctly opposite to it, less than a mile 
separating the two armies.* 

Keinccn 6 and 7 p.m. Napoleon deployed 
a division of Heavy cavalry near the inn 
" La Belle Alliance," and opened fire from 
four batteries. The Allies replied with 60 
cannon, and the French moved back to their 
bivouacs 

When the opposing Unes of outposts had 
got into position, the artillery (ra both 
sides ceased fire, and another thunderstorm 
broke over the battle-field, the rain falhng in 
torrents, greatly to the discomfort of both 
armies. The French suffered more than did 
the Allies, for the latter had the advantage 
of having got into position in time to col- 
lect fuel, and large fires were soon blazing 
all along their fines. For the French, on 
the other hand, very little, if any, fuel was 
available, and moreover, for some unknon-n 
reason, orders had Ix'cn issued that no fires 
were to be liglited. 

The French troops were greatly in need 
of food; whilst the Alhes, although their 
horses lacked fodder, were adequately ra- 
tioned. The French provision wagons were 

* While pa-ising tliruagli Ik-Igium in the summer 
of 1814 WeUington had noticed tlie strength of the 
position at Waterloo, and had remarked at tile time 
to those wlio were accompanying him that should 
the day ever come when he would ha^x to fight a 
batUe for the protection of Brussels, he would, if it 
were possible for him to do so, fight it in that 
position. 



r^'l 



R"! 



m 



WATERLOO CAMPAIGN-JUiNE, 1815 



Section I 



far bc-luntl, md even when they arrived at 
8 A.M. next ilav. were fouml to cnntaiu 
nothiiin hut spirit rations, which were issued, 
without sohd food, to troojis v, hi had l)een 
forceil to bivouac in fields of standing corn, 
soaked by the rain. 

Donzelofs inlantr>- chd not pass through 
Cenapiie until II p.si , and then tliev f.iund 
the road so choked by artiUerv and bagga •.■ 
wagons that tliey were obliged to proe, 1 
across standing crops of wheat and hemp 



Modern 

which wette<l their clothes up to the waist. 
The ninlit, moreover, was so dark tli.it the 
men had to moiT on connecting files of 
cavalry placed 200 yards apart, and who 
kept on shouting : " This way, this way ! " 
Erckmann-Chatrian describe vividly how, 
long past midnight, companies of exliausted 
and ravenous soldiers, to satisfy the cravings 
of hunger, ■• broke their ranks " in order to 
dig up ra.lishes and other vegetables in the 
gardens of the farms they passed. 



THE BATTLEFIELD OF WATERLOO 



A TR.iVELl.ER from fknapi>e to Brussels 
arriving at the height on which stands " La 
Be-Ue Alliance " inn, sees the ground falhng 
away in front of him ; whilst about 2,000 
yards to the north is a ridge, somewhat less 
than two miles long, and di\-ided int.- two 
almost equal parts by the Oenapix.-Brussels 
high road. The crest of this ridge extends on 
tlie west of tile road to a point some 300 yarils 
north of Hougoumont : and on the east to 
within 500 yards of the north of I'aiK-Iotte, 
where it merges into the plain. 

It was on a narrow plateau along this ridge 
that Wellington took up his (josifion, his main 
I me of resistance being the hollow road wliicli 
leads from Braine I'AUeud, by Ohain, to 
Wavre, This road cuts the «enappc-Brus.sels 
road at right angles just north of La Have 
Sainte ; and then, a quarter of a mile or so 
farther to the east, trends northwards 500 
yards north of I>a])elotte. Thus, to one stalid- 
ing near "La Belle Alliance," Wellingtons 
position would have appeared straight in its 
centre portion, with the left Hank somewhat 
drawn back, and the right flank advanced. 

A hollow road, which runs generallv east 
and west, follows the crest, which niarked 
the main line of resistance. 

It was bordered on either side bv lied,ges 
of box an.l be-eeh ; these formed the onlv 
fences on the battle-field, and gave the name 
to the adjoining fann. La Ilaye Sainle, In 
1815 * the roadway ran, in some places, 

* Since then it l.oa been altered in appearance by 
the removal of earth to form the mound on which 
now stands the Belgic Lion, 



S feet or 10 feet Ixdow the surface, as was 
the case immediately to the north of La Haye 
Sainte, where it constitute<l a formidable 
obstacle. On the west of the Oenappe- 
Brussels road the average depth of this 
crossway was feet. 

To the east of the Cenappe-Brussels road 
the southern slope of the ridge was sufhciently 
steep to check the French cavalry when 
charging ; whilst, on the day of the battle 
the sodden condition of the ground rendered 
movements ,iver it extremely dilhcult. More- 
civer, on the west side of tiie high road the 
i-c; 1 t to the crest of the hill was very steep, 
except just midway between La Haye Sainte 
and Hougoumcmt, Elsewhere the ground rises 
so sharply that during the battle the helmets 
of French horsemen, halted 150 yards to the 
south of the crestdine. were only just visible 
to our infantry standing on it ; and our guns, 
when a httle drawn back, were unable to 
lay on troops who were attacking the farm 
buildings of La Haye Sainte. These stand 
in a hollow on the west side of the road. 
230 yards in front of the main pi>sition. 

On the right of the Allied line was Hou,jou. 
mont. an old manor lunise. surrounded by 
orchards and high walls which afforded great 
f.iedities for defence, the more so on account 
of the wood which extends - |uarter of a 
mile to the south of the bui :: ■„ and which 
sheltered the walls intni artillery hre. 

From the crest of the British position every 
movement made by the French could be 
clearly foreseen, since their army was ranged 
on a hill, with higher ground farther to the 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



southward. lU-iice it was iiiipossibk- for 
Xaixjleon to conceal his troops when moving 
to make eitlier a Hank or front attack; and 
to add to his ditHcuUies, the Iieavy rain of 
the Jiast twenty hours had rendered the 
ground so soft tliat guns, when moved off 
tile ridi;e, sank up to the axles. 

Napoleon, on tlie i8th, siK'Ut from li .a.m. 
till 3 ivjp. on the so-called " Heights of Ros- 
somme," an undulating plateau over which 



passes tile Cenappe-Hrussels road. Here, on 
a hillock just to the west of the road, sat the 
Kmperor at a tahle, witli a map spread out 
before him. To tlie northward, below his 
position, the ground falls rapidly away ; but 
to the east of tlie road the sloiies are less 
steep. The front French line was ranged 
along the descending slope, opposite and 
nearly parallel to tlic jUlied army, which wa- 
sonie 1,500 yards away. 



THR OPPOSING ARMIES 



Wellington's forces, prior to the arrival 
of the Prussians in the evening, consisted 
in all of by.tioo men (of whom 7.000 were 
British ca\-alry) and 15b guns.* 

Napoleon's army, excluding the corps of 
C.roudiy (.i.j.ooo strong), wliich had been 
detached from Ligny to follow llie Prussians 
after tlieir ileleat. iinmbered bo.ouo men. 
w ith 242 guns ; « Inlst the EmiKror had 
about 11.1,10 caialrv actuallv on the battle- 
field. 

Wellington drew up his army in two lines 
— the first consisting of infantr>-. with 
cavalry on its Hanks ; the second almost 
entirely of cavalrv. 

Tile 1st lli\is!on (Major-Ceneral Cooke), 
cunsi^ting of the brigades of Hyng and Mait- 
lanri took up its position on Welhngtoil's riglit 
flank. To the right rear and right front of 
Cooke w as Mitclu-ll's brigade, and a squadron 
of the 15th IUi>sars was poslid to watch 
the ground Ix'tween Braine I'.Alleud and 
Hougoumont; the 2nd llivision (l.ieutenaiit- 
General Sir II. Clinton)— coiisistuig of the 
brigades of Hugh Halkett. Adam, and Du 
Plat— was posted beliinil this line, on a ri<lge 
between Merbe Br.iiue and tlie lleiiappe- 
Brussels road. 

To the left of the 1st I )i\ ision Were tlie 
brigades of Sir Colin Halkett. Kiehiiaiisegge. 
and Ompteda, wliicll, together witli Kruse's 
Nassau contingent, stati<]iied to the rear of 

^ * These fi^iiris <iu not ineluile the foree at Prime 
Freileriek of ( IranKe (i ?,. «)o atr.iUK), wliicli WcUinti- 
t„~, still f^maf M, alt.nk on las rlKla lla„k Iia,? 
•eat aft™ the llattlc „t Qualre lira. 1„ IIul, a„J 
whidi took no part ia the battle en the iSth. 



Kielmansegge, formed the 3rd Division 
(l.ieutenant-General Count -Alten). 

.\iljoining .\lten, on the east side of the 
t".enai)pe-BrusseIs road, sti od the 5tli Divi- 
sion (l.ieutcnant-Ck^neral Sir T. Picton). This 
consisted of the brigades commanded by 
Sir James Kempt and Sir Denis Pack. One 
battalion of the former's brigade, the 95th 
Kitles. occupied some broken ground and a 
sand-pit near La Haye Sainte. On the sliipe 
of the hill in front of Picton, Wellington 
posted B.vlandt's Dutch-Belgian brigade. 

To the left of Picton was a Hanoverian 
brigade of the litli lliiision (l.ieuteiiant- 
Oencral .Sir I,owry Cole) under the command 
of Colonel Best ; also another Hanoverian 
brigade, belonging to Picton 's division, under 
tlie command of Colonel von \incke. 

Tlien, on tlic extreme left of WeUington's 
liosition, came the 4th Cavalry BrigadL — 
iltli, I2tli. and lOth Light Dragoons— under 
Major-tkneral Sir I. Vandelcur ; and tlie 6th 
Ca\ airy Brigade— 1st King's Cerman Legion, 
rotli and l8tli Hussars— under .Sir Hiissey 
\'i\ian. 

To the right, luliind the main position, 
the ird Dutch-Belgian Division (Lieutenaiit- 
Cenetal Baron Chasse) occupied Braine 
r.Vllend, tliiis keeping up communications 
with Prince I'rederick's force at Hal {^<y 
note at the foot of the left hand eohiiini) 

Wellington's second line, as has been said 
already, consisted almost entirely ui cavalry. 
To the east of the GenapiK-Brnssels road 
stood Ponsouby's " I.'mnn ' Brigadef- Eoyal 

t So called because it wa;. eoiaposcd of English, 
Scottish, and Irisu re(;imunts. 



Section I WATERLOO CAMPAIGN-JUNE, 1815 



Dragoons (three squadrons) ; Scots Greys 
(three squadrons), and InniskilHng Dragoons 
(three squadrons) ; whilst to the west of this 
road stood Lord Somerset's Heavy Brigade 
—1st Life Guards (two squadronsji 2nd Life 
Guards (two squadrons), Royal Horse Guards 
(three squadron-* ._•■,,;•.- Dragoon Guards 
(three squadre 

WelUngton . stri^.uted hi.! a-, iierv along 
the main ridg. i,i his position -26 guns to 
the east of th ■ ■'. :, n;i)..Hruf,,els road. 30 
guns to the wcsl. The renu.nder he held 
in reserve, but most of the guns came into 
action during the course of the battle. 

Wellingrton's FiKhtin; Material 

The reserves were posted thus : Lambert's 
infantry brigade and Collaert's Dutch-Bel- 
gian cavalry near the farm of Mont St. Jean ; 
and the Brunswick corps, cavalry and in- 
fantry, near Merbe Braine. 

Despite the mixture of nationalities which 
it contained, in Wellington's army there 
was some good fighting material. In the 
Nassauers, the Dutch, and the Belgians, the 
Duke could place but little rehance, for their 
attachment to the Alhed cause was more than 
doubtful. Tlie King's German Ugionaries. 
however, were good soldiers ; so. too, were 
the Hanoverians and the Brunswickers, 
altliough many of them were very young 
men. 

Wellington was dissatisfied with his Head- 
quarter Staff. Its members, he said, 
were untrained and inefficient ; and he 
resented strongly the way in which, when 
the appointments liad been made, the claims 
of his own nominees had been ignored. 
Still, his army on tlie whole was well 
othccred, most of the higher commands hav- 
ing biTn given to men wlio had confidence 
in their Chief, and who understood his 
methods. Notable among these officers were 
Lord Uxbridge— who, as Lord I'aget, had 
fought with nmch distinction at Corunna— 
Lord Hill, Sir T. I'icton, Count Alien. Sir 
James Kempt, and Sir Denis Pack, all of 
whom except Uxbridge had served under 
Wellington in the Peninsular campaigns. 

The French army included a larger 
number of veteran soldiers than did that 
of the Allies ; and these were men who sliU 



Modern 

retained a supreme faith in what they be- 
lieved to be the all-conquering genius of 
Napoleon ; men eager to avenge the dis- 
asters of 1814. and animated by the spirit of 
the stirring " Order of the Hay " which the 
Enqieror issued to his trooijs on June 14th. 

" To conquer or die in the attempt " was 
tlieir determination, as was also that of the 
junior oiScers ; but it cannot be said that 
the same feeling was shared by the generals. 
The Bourbon restoration, in fact, despite its 
short duration, had materially altered their 
position ; and now not only were they sus- 
picious of one another, but were by no means 
loyal to their Chief. 

Several of them, moreover, though young 
in \ears. were prematurely aged, and had 
lost that determined audacity whicli had 
gained many battles both for the Republic 
and the Empire. Xey. Lobau. and some 
others were loyal mainly of necessitv ; for 
they believed that tlieir safety dejiended 
on their abihty to keep Napoleon on his 
Tlirone. Kxelmans and Vandamme. however, 
were full of zeal and confidence, but they 
unfortunately were not on speaking terms 
with Soult, whom Napoleon had chosen as 
Chief <]f the Staff. 

Soult— Chief of the Staff 

The appointment of Marshal Soult to ael 
as Chief of tlie Staff has often been criticised 
as an unfortunate selection, but Najxileon 
had but very little choice. He greatly missed 
Berthier, who. for nineteen years, had served 
him faithfully in this capacity. Berthier. 
though neither a great general nor a great 
organiser, was an admirable Staff officer- 
indefatigable, diligent, quick to decipher the 
EmiKTor's illegible writing and comprehend 
his most complicated orders, and very clever 
at elaborating them with the necessary 
precision and exactitude. 

When Napoleon returned from Elba 
Berthier was at Bamberg, and immediately 
attem|ited to recross the frontier ; but it 
would seem, at the last minute, his nerve 
forsook him. At any rate, he turned back, 
and. on June loth, as a regiment of Russian 
Dragoons passed his house on its way to 
France, he ran upstairs to a room on the 
third floor occupied by his children, threw 
4iJ 



:^mm 'i&^i^-- 



THE CHARGE OF THE HOUSEHOLlH BRIGADE A 
From a pkiine >' I B. GtanviUs 




BRIGADE AT WATtKLOO. JUNE 18lh. 1815 
'^ GtanviUe Baker 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



himself from the window, and was picked 
up dead. 

In selecting a successor to Berthier, Xapo- 
k'on felt, no doubt, that the experti'iicc of 
\Vellinji;.on's methods which Soult had ac- 
quired in the Peninsula would prove valuabk-. 
Still, from many points of view, the choice 
was unsound. In the fiist place, a general 
who has served for several years as the 
Head of a force, as had Soult, cannot 
readily "jend his mind to work out in detail 
the conceptions of another Cliief. In the 
second place, Soult was an object of sus- 
picion to all sections of the army — the 
generals had no confidence in him ; the 
soldiers mistrusted him. 

During the battle of the i6th an old cor- 
poral of the Guard went up to the Emperor 
and solemnly warned Irim against his Chief 
of the Staff. " Your Majesty," he said, 
" don't you trust Marshal Soult, it is quite 
rertain he will betray us." And this sus- 
picion was shared by almost the entire army. 

In some French narratives of the battle 
the delay in sending out orders is attributed 
to Soult's incapacity. He was a competent 
general but not a good Staff otficer, and the 
mere fact that he was unpopular with the 
oiHccis would naturally render the trans- 
mission of orders, never an easy task, more 
difficult. " If the General may be regarded 
as representing the head ol' a human body," 
writes von Hardegg, " the Staff may be 
justly compared to the nerves which convey 
the volition from the head to the different 
members." 

During the Waterloo Campaign the French 
army did not work in unison with the Staff, 
and this is a factor which cannot be ignorL*d 
when considering these operations. On June 
i8th personal animosities were forgotten 
so far as was humanly possible. Both llie 
French generals and their troops foui;ht 
with splendid valour and determination. 
None the less, the fact rem.uiis — Nai«>leun's 
army was not what it had been ; it was no 
longer a great lighting unit bomid by devoted 
loyalty to its Chief. 

Disposition of Napoleon's Army 

The Enijx'ror disposed his troops for the 
battle in two lines. The centre and right, 



or east of his position — i.e. the ridge which 
extends from " La Belle Alliance " inn to- 
\v.irds Papelotte — was held by ])'F,rlon's 
corps, which included the divisions of Allix, 
Donzelot, Marcognet. and Durette, Jaquinot's 
cavalry, and six batteries. 

To the west of the Genappc-Brussels road 
was Reille's corps, which included the di\'i- 
sions of Prince Jeroire and of Generals 
Bachelu and Foy, in addition to Fire's 
cavalry and six batteries. 

Lobau's corps, with the ca\alr>' of Do- 
mont and Suber\-ie, was placed in second 
hni.-, just south of " La Belle AlUance " ; 
Milhaud's cavalry were in rear of AUix's 
di\'i>ion, and Kellermann's cavalry in rear 
of Foy's di\'i&ion. 

Napoleon stood with the Imperial Guard 
near Rossomme on either side of the 
Genappe- Brussels Road, vnth Guyot's 
cavalry in advance to tlie wst, and the 
Light cavalry (Lefeb\Te-Desnouttes) sHglitly 
more in advance to the east of the road. 

Orouchy's Movements 

On the morning of the i8th L iicher's main 
army was in the \-icinity of Wavre. preparing 
advance, via St. Lambert, on Waterloo ; 
■■' ■ ,it Grouchy, who was at Geiiil)l<)ux, set 
out between 6 and 7 A.M. towards the place 
from which Bliicher was departitig. 

For this action Grouchy has been severely 
critici-^ed. How could he, it is often asked, 
by following a road along which B'iicher had 
a start equivalent to twelve hours in time, 
hope to have cut the Prussians off from 
Wellington ? 

Still, this is what Grouchy did liopc to 
accr"r.;;llsli. The fact is, he had no idea that 
tb>- Allies would fight at Waterloo ; he 
thought they would retire to somewhere 
north of Brussels, and that Bliicher would 
try to join them th^r-. marching via Lnuvain 
so as to secure the main road of communi- 
cation between Brusst-ls and Liege. This 
being so. Grouchy hoped that if he hastened 
to Wavre and moved thence in a westerly 
direction, it might still be possible for liini 
to wedge his troops in betweer \W'Iiington 
and the Prussians. 

A general of greater resource and more 
initiative might possibly have a:ted dif- 



s^ion , WATERLOO CAMPAIGN-JUNE. 



1815 



.MuJerr 














THE ATT/CK ON 
hiom a picture by 

fcr^tly, but Groud,y. ,t ,.,ust W re,n«u- 
lxa.d conducted his „,ovements in "ret 
accordance with Napoleon's orders. T ' 
hmrn-ror's Staff, in fact, was „,„re ,o ,,la . 
for lus fadure than was Groucln 

waf'.lt't''''"'' °' '-*■>• "° '"■""' "">" 
was made to ascertain the Prussian hne 

^^r™', ^' ''■'>"--k ™ "- .7.1., it i! 
true, I.,,ol reconr ..red towards Kanmr, but 



LA HAVE SAINTE 
W. B, Wollen. R.i. 

"" ""^"''y P"^''^-<1 northwards to se-e if by 
any chance the Prussians had retired in that 

; 'T,","."; """■■'■ "'"■■" " '■^■i'"" '"•" i" ''»'" 

1 ajol that 20,000 Prussians liad l.K.en seen n* 
l-endJoux. .Naiwleon regarde.l this as son- 
nrnnng h.s own surmise tliat BlUcher was 
lallmg back towards his base 

AecorJngly, he decided ' to dispatch 
Grouchy with 33.000 n,en to follow up the 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



Prussians in this ilirection, aiul cninpK'te 
their defeat. But at l j o'clnck, wlien (irouchy 
received this onl.T, l.is soldiers, wlio had 
breakfasted at daybreak, and had been 
"standing to arms" since early inoniinK, 
were cleaning tlieir muskets. \viiil<t a ]>art 
of the cavalry had '■ ntY saddleil " to ease 
their horses. Thus more valuable lime was 
wasted before finally the Army Corps went 
forward. And tlien the march was so 
seriously delayed by the hea\'y rain, whicii 
fell from 2 o'clock, tliat the head of 
Grouchy 's columns did not arrive at Gem- 



bloux till 4 o'clock in tlie afternoon, and it 
was dark before the last detachments 
reached that village. So Grouchy halted 
there, liaving covered only six miles. 

Some authors a-^sert that Grouchy, when 
on the iStli lie heard the firing at \Vaterl*K), 
should have ceased his pursuit of the Prus- 
sians, and moved in a westerly direction 
via Mousty, so as to reunite his forces 
with the main French army; but. as a 
matter of fact, Grouchy's opportunity had 
passed long before he heard the sound of 
guns at Waterloo. 



THE BATTLE OF WATERLOO 



Both the French and Allied soldiers had 
uncomfortable bi\-on:ic-; during the night 
(lyth-lSth). for rain fell coiuinuously, some- 
times in torrents, aiif] the ground on which 
the men slept, or tried to skx-p, had been 
churned up into thick mud by the columns 
of troops which had passed over it during 
the evening. Water stood deep in every 
hollow i)Iace. 

When day liroke on th-j iStli there was 
no sign of life in tlie Allied position except 
in the outposts; but lK.>hind the centre of 
the French position ReJlle's cori)s was on 
the move, coming uji from tienappe, beyond 
which place it liad !)i.-en unable to advance 
overnight. 

Soon after o o'clock the wr.ither Ijegan 
to clear, and at 11,50, according \<i Lord Hill, 
who timed with his stnp-watch the first shot 
fired, the Battle of Waterloo began, (>V.- 
Plan, p. 4.'o.) 

In it there were six i)Iiases, which may bo 
better understood if dealt with separately. 
These ])hases may be summarised as follows : 

1. The assault ujjon H,)ugoumont. 

2. The attack by iJ'Erlun's corps upon the 
AUied left and Centre. This began at about 
2 o'clock, and continued for rather more than 
an hour, when the French were driven back 
to their original positions. {Sir Plan, p 420 \ 

3. The attacks of the French cavalry upon 
the right centre i>f Wellington's position. 
These .vere made at intervals between 4 
and 6 p,m., but were repulsed by the Allies. 

4-2 



4. Ney's attack ui)on the Allied centre, 
which began about 6 o'clock and lasted until 
nearly 7. jo. 

.=i. The advance of the Imperial Gu.-irds. 
Tliey, too, failed to penetrate Wellington's 
position ; and their failure was followed by — 

6. A general advani^e of the Allied army 
ami the total rout oE the French, who were 
pursued relentlessly by the Prussians, whose 
ailvance-guard of eavalry joined the British 
left s,,on after ,s,jo i\m, {S.-t Plan, p. 443.) 

The First Phase 

The chief object of the onslaught on 
Hougfiumoiit was to distract Wellington's 
attention from his centre and left, against 
which Xai>oleon was preparing to direct his 
main attack, his intention being to capture 
La Have Sainte. press forward, seize Mont 
St, Jean, and so cut U'elHngton off from liis 
hue of retreat on Brussels, and Bliicher. 

Under cover of a heavy cannonade. Prince 
Jeron:o's division of Reille's corps, sup- 
ported by Foy and Bachelu. descended from 
the West side of Xajioleon's position and 
assailed Hougouni'.nt vigorously, soon gain- 
ing possession of the wood and advancing to 
the walls around the house. But, although 
the enemy more than once set fire to the 
nut build i 11 cs. Hougoumont remained in the 
hands of the Allies, who held it all day 
despite the hardihood of tlie French attacks, 

B>-ng's Brigaile of Guards, which Welling- 
ton sent to assist the defenders, fought with 



rwrisTw-^i -i^Mi./ «f#^- 



Mom St.Jean \ 




v-^--^'~ 






** c:: 



Bnine L'Alleud 



H.,.. >V 







:^r:^ 








BATTLE OF WATERLOO 

gg|n» , ' ^ - ^ June i8th, 1815, 

11 is-"*""Pl»nch«noit P'»"»n. •! ...so ».m. 



1/ 



Mont St.Jean \ 






I'VBrameLAlkud j^ '-T . -"..C.miu. p™. .* 1 



/ 




BATTLE OF WATERLOO 
June I8th. 1815. 

Positions at j p.in. 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



a courage and grim determination worthy 
even of the Guards. The nuinljer of casualties 
alone shows how desperate was the nature of 
the struE;gle. DurinR the first hour of the 
attack a thousand men fell at Hougouniont, 
and many thousands later in the battle. 

The Second Phase 

During the fighting at Hougoumont. the 
cannonade Iwcame general along Iioth lines ; 
then D'F.rlon, in accordance with his in- 
structions. ha\-ing brought 74 guns into 
action on a ridge in front of the Frencli 
posititm, drew uj) his corps and waited for 
the signal to Ik- given for him to attack. 

This sign.1l was delaj-ed, for at one o'clock 
the Emperor noticed troops mo\ing in the 
far distance, in the direction of St. I,amt>ert. 
At first, he hoped they might be Grouchv's 
corps, but he soon learned that they were 
Bliicher's. WTiereupon he dispatched the 
cavalry of Subervie and Domont (and later 
I/)bau's di\-ision) to contain them. 

Then the Empenjr gave the signal for 
D'Erlnn's attack to begin, and at 1.30 the 
corps, which was divided into four di\isions, 
numbering in all rb.ooo men. moved forward 
in direct echelon fnmi the left, uniler cover 
of the guns wliich already had been advanced 
to within 60a yards from the crest of the 
Allied position. 

D'Erlon's front extended from Papelotte 
on the cast to I,a Hayo Sainte on the west, 
and was supported by Bachelu's dinsion 
of Reille's corps and a cavalry division of 
Kellermann's command. The flank brigades 
were tlie first to come into coUision with the 
.\llies, who had outposts stationed both at 
Papelotte and in front of the farm of La 
Have Sainte. 

The farm-house of Papelotte, held by a 
single company, was captured immediately, 
but was soon retaken, and thenceforth re- 
mained in the possession of the Allies. 

The fighting at La Haye Sainte was heavy, 
and continued for some time. This farm, and 
the orchanl to tlie southward of the buildings, 
was held by Baring's battalion of the German 
Legion, whilst on the open ground to the 
west of the farm's enclosures some companies 
of the same battaUon were extended. 

As these latter were driven back by the 



French skirmishers who were leading the 
left echelon of D'Erlon's attack, the Duke 
of Wellingtim, who was on the crest imme- 
diately above the threatened point, sent down 
the Liineburg battalion from tlielmansegge's 
brigade. Baring, seeing the reinforcement-^ 
coming down, went fonvard to recover the 
orchard which tlie French had seized, pad 
ivas already driving back the enemy, when 
he saw a Cuirassier regiment approaching. 

As it advanced the German Lej,-nn 
skirmishers retired, ran towards the orchard. 
and coUided with the Liineburg battalion, 
which they threw into dif^order. The Cuiras- 
siers, coming boldly on. rode down and sabred 
the infantry outside the enclosures ; then re- 
formed under the crest of the British position, 
immediately below where Kielmanscgge's and 
Ompteda's brigades stood in square. 

Meanwliile, to east and west of La Haye 
Sainte, D'Erhm's four columns had moved 
through the great battery which hail covered 
their advance, and the French guns again 
had opened fire — with good effect on Picton's 
dinsion, and with still more effect on By 
landt's Dutch-Belgian brigade, which stood 
on the southern slojx: of the ridge. The 
tall standing crops in the valley and the 
saturated condition of the soil rendered it 
difficult for the closely packed columns of 
Frenchmen to maintain regular formation 
as they advanced. 

Attack on La Haye Sainte 

The rear brigade of the left division (AlHx's, 
temporarily commanded by Quiot, Alhx being 
absent on special duty) attacked La Haye 
Sainte, but the leading brigade (Bourgeois's) 
inclined away from the farm, and so came 
up with Donzelot's division to the right front 
of Kempt's brigade, as yet unseen, but from 
the fire of whicli brigade both divisions now- 
suffered severely. 

Nevertheless, the columns still moved for- 
ward — the drums beating, the troops shout- 
ing" Vive I'Empereur ! " — and got close to the 
road running across the British front from 
east to west. Here Bourgeois attempted to 
deploy close to Picton's division, Kempt and 
Pack having prev-inusly moved fonvard. 

Picton, however, had only the remnants of 
two brigades under his command, 3,000 men 



Section I WATERLOO CAMPAIGN JUNE, 



1815 



MoiIlti 



in all. for he had borne the ucii^lit of the 
French attacks at Ouatre Bras ; and iirm- 
some lo.oon of the enemy were niarchiun 
towards a K:ip in his position, made by the 
retreat of liylan.it "s brigade, wliich had 
retired in 
confusion 
before the 
advancing 
French, 
and cnnld 
not be- ral- 
lied till 
its bat- 
talions 
had reach- 
ed the ex- 
treme rear 
of Wel- 
lincinn's 
position. 
Still, as 
tiieFreneh 
ascendeil 
the hill 
a n d a p- 
I)r()ached 
tile hedge 
whichbor- 
dered tlie 
load, they 
suffered 
hea\-ily, 
for imme- 
diately lo 
the north 
Wire Brit- 
ish batter- 
ies uhicli 
continued 
to fire case 
up to the 
very mo- 
ment of 
the enemy 



wanl to meet the enmiy, their leader himst-lf 
King among tlie first to fall— shot tlir(nii:h 
the head. For a moment, it seemed that the 
thin r.d nriti.-h Une, disordered h\ p.is>ing 
Ihrougli the sunken road, would 'l)e owr- 




THE CAPTURE Oh A KRLNCH EAGLK «Y THK ROYAL DRACiOONS AT 
From a pfclure by B. Grunville Baker 



^ . arrival at tlie batteri.-s. 

Thf I'reiich guns had now ceased to lire, 

and there were renewed shoirts of " Vive 

I'Empcrcur!" as the troops nerved them- 

ft-dves for a great effort to carry the British 

pOSilioU. 

Then Picton ordered the charge to be 
sounded. Immediately his men moved for- 



whelmed, not by the column in its front 
but by the massed battalions then surging 
up the ridge farther to the eastward. 

And ovenvhelmed it nmst have iKcn had 
not I.or<l fxhridge at this critical iiionient 
ordered She cavalry to charge. In a few 
minutes I'onsonby's Union Brigade passed 
through the British infantry, and swept down 



Sectioti I 



WATERLOO CAMPAIGN-JUNE. 1815 



ui».n tl,c I.-rccl, i„ „„. „, „„. „„„, ,„^. ^_ 

llK- R„y;,l I,r;,Ko„„s struck with tlHir 
cu.ta- squaJrun the Va.IinR cjurn,, „f 1,„„. 
Kl.,t s d.ns,„„ Khicl,, dtl,„u«l, u„,l,r fir.. 
:'"" ""'■ "' °f K.,n,,fs bri,,,d., had n^ 

«. h Mk,u,s „f ,rm„,i,l, „cr,«5 iIk- ridge- 

UTien tUf colmui, caught sight „f the 
Brmsh cavalry fe front rank u.^-ncd .ire 
and s,„„c tuxn.y Dragoons .Iroppe-d front' 
thetr sadcllcs. I,ut, wthout drawing rein, the 
Ro.^ls pressed on, charging i„,o the 
French infantry, sabring all within reach 
and rolled the leading column back uiM.n the 

r,M ;f ,"T' ."■''''^'' "■"'' '^"" ••"Ivancing, 
until the whole became so crowded together 
as to be helpless. ^ 

The " Koyab " having cut down many 
men demoralised more, and taken an 
iaglc, dashed on to the supmrting 
coumns; and pr.3ea.ly, when the Innis' 
kiUing Dragoons had broken through Don- 
zelot s rear denii-brigades. the entire French 
division turned, and ran Ufore the pursuing 
cavalry, leaving some 3,000 men to be taken 

aLS'^:;.!;; '"'""' '''™' "■''"-'■'-'■ 



Mode; 



;r^a, es, carried away ,,y exciteme.lt g!: 

tuat they sullereil heavilv at tile 1, ,n,1< , I 

Milhaud's Cuirassiers nn.'l I ' 

^uo.issiers and Jaquinot's Lan- 
cers, wdio came up m time to save DErWs 
corps from over,vIielniing disaster. 



The Henry Cavalry Brigade 

.Meanwhile, to the >vest of the Genappc- 

Brussels road. Alten's division had kU 

resisting valiantly the onslaughts of Keller- 

n s Cuirassiers. Against these, almost 

'"".aneouii with the movement of Pon- 

s™.l^-s brigade. Lord Somerset launched 
his Heavy Cavalry Brigade. 

The British troopers and the Frencli Cuir- 
assiers coUided, said an eyewitness, "hke 
two ,valls." But the residt was never for a 
moment doubtful. Our men were better 
gained than the Frenchmen ; thev were also 
better mounted on bigger horsJs, and in 
addition, had all the advantage of the de- 
scending slofx.. The Cuirassiers, therefore 
unable to resist them, turned, foUowed 
closely by the Heavy ca,alry, who soon 
became mingled with the Union Brigade 

The two brigades, gaUoping for,vard, then 
dashed at the batteries ,vith wliich D'Erion 
Had ajvcrod the advance oi his infantry and 
not only kiUed gunners and horses, but Spiked 



Chivalry on the Battle. FieU 

Lord Uxhridge had intended that \-a,„le- 
I.r. s cavalry sliould move in supi«rt of the 
l.no„ Bngade, but. owing ,0 a misurder' 
tamhng of orders. X'andeleur a<lva„ce,l liis 

which were inflicted on I'onsonbvs and 
annerset s disorganised squadrons ' 

.Sir WiUiam Fonsonby himself was among 
the slain. After he had crossed the valley 
tlle hack he was riding became exhausted 
and could move no faster than at a walk. 
jH^eing, thercore, a squadron of Jaqumofs 
I.ancers approaching. I'onsonbv tirak a locket 
Ifoni his necK and gave it to his aide-de- 
camp, ivlio was better mounted, begging him 
.. see that it should U- faithfuUy delivered 
to I-auy I'onsonby. This mission the aide- 
de-camp never fulfilled, for he. too. was 
Speared. 

„{,""'7°''' .■"™ 8"^-= quitter to no one. 
Mdhauds Ourassiers. on the '-er hand, 
acted differently. One of them dloped at 
a trumpeter with the intention of rmming 
I'm. through ; but. .seein ; how young tile bov 
"as. ho dr.ipped tlie ixjiiit of his sword and 
passed on. Unfortunately, he was killed 
a moment later by a (2nd) Life Guardsman 
who failer. to notice that he had spared the 

It is pleasant to record another case of 
generous con.luct. which, happily, met with 
a reward Major I'oten. of the King's German 
URion. having lost an arm h, he Peninsula 
was u.sually accompanied at Wall 'oo bv two 
"on-coiiinii',io„ed officers, deputea to" ride 
one on either side of him. During tie con- 
lusion of a charge tlie Major became -,epa- 
rated from his escort, and presently fo md 
larase conf.onted by, and at the mercy 
ot. a Cuirassier. 

-Urcady the man had r.-uscd hi, sword and 
was about to strike when he hap,«ned to 
notice that the Major had no right arm. 



BRITISH BATTLES 0> LAND AND SEA 



IniiiK-diiittly In-- iMWcrtd the i«>iiit uf liis 



Lanihirt to f.ill iipnii N;ii)()L'( 



right 



rd 1 



the 



lilute 



1(1 



away, 

AftiTthc Allifd ariiiks had occupit-d I'aris 
Major I'oton iiu-t in astrett, and rvcnj;iiist'd, 
tho assailant who liad >i)ari.-d him. He 
inquired about the man, and rejMtrted his 
generous action to the colonel of his repment. 
That Cuirassier received tiie Cro-^s of the 

LeKi'>i> of Honour. 

• « * « 

Thi' return of the British cavalry to the 
main position ended the second ]ihase of tlie 
battle. Ka]K>leon's great elTort to penetrate 
Wellington's left centre had failed com- 
pletely, and, thanks mainly to the headlong 
charge of the British cavalry, U'Krton's 
corps had been routed. 

The determined resistance offered against 
his attacks by the British infantrj- had come 
as a surprise to Xapoleon. Hitherto, in his 
self-confident mind, he had regarded the 
reputation which our infantry had won 
merely as exaggerated uonsense ; and he had 
laughed at Marshal Soult when the latter, 
from the memory of his own experience in 
the I'enmsular Campaign, ventured to give 
warning and advice. " Y(ni were tieaten by 
Wellington." sneered the EmiKTor, "and so 
you think he is a great (leneral ; but I tell 
you Wellington is a bad General, ami the 
Enghsh arc bad trooiis, they will be merely 
a breakfast for us." " I earnestly huiK.- 
so," was Soult 's reply. So far, events had 
justified the Marshal's fears, for Xapoleon's 
attack on the Allied jxjsition had left the 
British troops unshaken, and now the Prus- 
sians were already menacing the French 
right flank. 

For once in his life the Emi>eror found 
himself irresolute, unal>le to decide in liis 
mind what was the best course of action now 
to be pursued. And. while Xai>oleon hesi- 
tated, the Prussians drew nearer. 

Bliicher's Movements 



Hank. 

When making these arrangements Bliieher 
fully exiK'cted that he would arrive on the 
field of Waterloo by iiiK)n, But in this he was 
disap]>ointed In the first place, the exhaus- 
tion of his trt>oiw and the rain which had 
fallen during the night made it inijxjssilile 
for the march to l»egin till seven o'clock ; 
and th<' state of the roads was such as to 
allow only the slowest progress, 

Bliicher's Determination 

Indeed, no army, save one thirsting for 
vengeance on the enemy as was the Prussian, 
could liave moved along such roads at all. 
And once even Bliicher's men denmrred. 
The guns had sunk axle-de'ep in the mire, 
and it was more than men and horses to- 
gether could do to pull them out. 

" We cannot go on," exclaimed the weary 
tr(K)[>s. " We cannot go ()n ! " 

" But you must go on." said tlie indomit- 
alfle Bliich'.T. " I have ])ledged my word to 
Welliiigton ; you will not let mo break it." 

And on the army went — slowly, but on ; 
Ziethen towards Ohain ; the 4th Corjis 
(Billow) and tl'e 2nd Cori)s (Pirch) in the 
direction of St, Lambert. 

Meanwhile, the 3rd Corps (Thielnian) was 
fighting Grouchy at Wavrc. So soon as 
(irouchy attacked him. Thielman — for he 
had only ifi,o(K) men with whom to opjH)sc 
more than jo.ooo of the enemy — sent word 
to Bliiclier, l)egging for reinforcements. 

But Bliieher refused to send a man. " It 
is not at Wavre." he replied, " but at Water- 
loo that the campaign will be decided." And 
in onler to decide that campaign the Prussian 
(k'Ueral deli!)erately left Thielman unaided 
to grapple with Grouchy 's corps as Ix"^! he 
could, while he himself, with the main army, 
advanced on Waterloo. 

By that act. Marshal Vorwarts (" p'or- 
wards ") as his soldiers named liim. more 



During the night of the l7tli-lSth Welling- than justified the faith which WelUngton had 



ton and Bliieher had been in conununication. 
and it was decideil then that tlie latter 
General should resume his march from 
Wavre at daybreak — the ist Corps (Ziethen) 
moving via Ohain to support Wellington's 
left ; the three remaining corps mo\'ing \ia. 



reposed in him. Xot only had Bliieher— and 
le was a man seventy-two years old, it mu>t 
oe remembered, who had been severely 
shaken by the mishap wliich had befallen 
him on the 16th— to contend with the bad- 
ness of the roads and the exhaustion of his 















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Section I 



WATERLOO CAMPAIGN-JUNE, 1815 



army, but also with the o])i)<isitioii of his 
officers. 

Gtneral Gneist-iiau, the Chid of the Staff, 
strongly disapproved of the advance oii 
Waterloo. Gneisenau had but little con- 
fidence in Wellington, and he was greatly 
perturbed as to what would happi-n to 
Bliicher's army should the British retreat 
from Waterloo before the Prussians could 
arrive. 

" If the English," he argued, " only make 
a demonstration with a rear-guard, and then 
fall back on Brussels, we shaU be caught in 
making a flank march in a ditticult country, 
and have the whole weight of the French 
army on us." 

Not until he heard the sound of the he,n-y 
cannonade that opened about 12 o'clock, 
did the Prussian ciiiuf of the Staff feel con- 
rinccd that the Lritish meant to fight on 
their ground. 

Billow's Corps 

At about 4.30 P.M. Billow's corps de- 
bouched from the Bois de Paris, two and 
a half miles due east of La Haye Saintc, 
and before 6 o'clock some 30,000 Prussians 
were marcliing from Frischermont towards 
Planchenoit, directly upon the rear of the 
French right flank. 

Napoleon, at about half-past three, re- 
solved to make yet another attempt to cut 
his way through WelUngton's position, and 
so achieve victory lx;fore the Prussians could 
arrive in force. His infantry had failed to 
move the British; but his cavalry, he 
thought, would prove irresistible. Accord- 
ingly, he gave orders to Marshal Xey to 
charge with a mass of horsemen the right 
centre of the Allied position. 

At the same time, in accordance with his 
practice of colouring reports as he thought 
woul.l best suit the object he had inune- 
diately in view, the Emperor sent his aide- 
de-camp, I,alx-doy4re, to pass down from 
right to left of the attacking colunms, and 
assure the generals that the sound of the 
firing heard on the extreme right and right- 
rear of the French position came from 
Grouchy's corps. 

That firing really was the outcome of the 
desperate struggle then beginning between 



437 



Modern 

the 6th Corps (Lobau's) and the advancing 
Prussians. The French soldiers, therefore, 
had grounds for their distrust of the Staff! 
and for dechning to believe anytliing wliicli 
was not confirmed by their own evesight. 
Such f.alse statements as that tiuotec'l aliove 
were liitteriy resented by Marshal Xev, who 
stigmatised them later in tlie plainest terras. 
Third Phase 

The French army at Watertoo suffered 
more, ixirhaps, from the want of able cavalry- 
leaders than from anything else. There were 
many brave men under Xapoleon at Water- 
loo ; and aU his generals were in the prime 
of life. The Emperor himself was only forty- 
six years of ago, as also were Xey, Soult. 
Lobau, and Kellcrmann, whilst all the other 
generals of note were younger , but, except 
Kellcrmann, there was no cavalry leader. 

Murat would have been an invaluable 
addition of strength, and Xapoleon bitterly 
regretted later that he had decided not to 
employ him. Murat, as the Emix-ror wrote 
at St. Helena, " would perhaps have achieved 
the victory for us." 

Key, who led the cavalry as well as the 
mfantry charges on the iSth, however brave, 
however mucli experienced in war, was so 
far as cavalry was concerned a poor sub- 
stitute for Murat, who had the great charac- 
teristic of inspiring his followers with the 
utmost devotion and his enemies with 
terror. To make matters worse, moreover, 
Ney refused to listen to the adrice of Keller- 
mann, who vv.as greatly suiierior to him as 
a leader of horse, and, cither because he did 
not believe the men and horses to be suffi- 
ciently trained for employment in hue forma- 
tions, or because he |Krsonally preferred to 
use masses similar to those in which he sent 
forward the infantry, advanced his cavalry, 
tlirougliout the battle, in successive lines of 
columns. Thus every horse and rider struck 
down in the crowded rank entailed the foil 
of many others, and impeded the advance 
• • . . 

The French cavalry attacks were pre- 
faced by a terrific cannonade, all Napo- 
leon's available batteries being brought into 
action. Then, about 4 o'clock. Marshal Xey 
led 4,500 men, Milhaud's corps of Cuirasiiiers 






BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



(21 squadrons) and the Light cavalry of the 
Guard (19 squadrons), across the open space 
between La Haye Suinte and Hougouniont. 

The French Cavalry A* tack 

Every French trooper fully believed that 
he was going forward to complete a victory 
which had already been practically won. 
Of the British infantry nothing could be 
seen, and although the Allied artillerymen, 
both British aud German, stood up to their 
guns until the cavalry had actually reached 
them — vvhen "by order," they ran back 
and lay down under the bayonets of the 
squares formed in their rear — the Frenchmen 
thought that Welhngton's infantry were in 
full retreat. 

So the immense mass moved forward 
full of confidence, squadron after squadron, 
with waving plumes and shimmering breast- 
plates, not a single man of the two corps 
being left in reserve. At first they moved at 
a slow trot ; and while their own artillery 
necessarily ceased fire, the British batteries, 
though firing as rapidly as possible, could 
scarcely miss the enormous target. But 
despite the gaps soon made in their ranks, 
the undaunted Frenchmen came on. Steadily, 
though slowly, they advanced until the gxms 
of the Allies, now double-loaded with case 
and canister shot, were fired w^th the 
muzzles, in many cases, actually touching 
mei. and horses ere the gunners ran back 
to the infantry squares. Not even then did 
the Frenchmen waver. 

As the first line mounted the crest of the 
Allied position, trumpeters sounded the 
charge, and the leading squadrons dis- 
appeared momentarily from the sight of 
those following them. A triumphant cheer 
broke from the ranks of the rear French 
squadrons. The victory had been won, it 
seemed ; the Alhes were in full retreat. And 
the troopers pressed fon^'ard, eager for the 
pursuit. 

But the victory had not been won ; and 
as they mounted the crest the French 
squadrons saw, instead of a retreating 
infantry, some 6,000 men — Allen's dinsi n 
— ranged in two hues of nine squares, stand- 
ing there as if rooted in the grmmd. On the 
left of this division stood a brig, k' of Bruns- 



wick troops, and on the right. Maithmd's 
Brigade of Guards. Behind the infantry 
were the remnants of the Heavy cavalry 
and Dombcrg's Light Cavalry Brigade. 

As the Cuirassiers rode against the squares 
not a musket was fired until the Frenchmen 
were within thirty paces, and then the 
havoc wrought was ghastly. But though 
the enemy did not flinch, yet, on the other 
hand, but few actually collided witli the 
squares of bristUng bayonets. Every attack 
was made in column. Indi\iduals rode up 
to our men, and strove to knock aside the 
bayonets. But the only result was that 
their bodies and those of their horses soon 
formed ramparts round the squares. 

Writing to Lord Bcresford on July 2nd, 
the Duke of Welhngton observed : " We 
had the French cavalry walking about us 
for some time as if they had been our own." 
And this is what actually did happen ; the 
enemy walked about but did not charge our 
squares. 

The French officers showed the most 
devoted gallantry. One who. with desperate 
valour, had penetratM a square, lay sorely 
wounded on the ground, and begged our 
soldiers to kill him. This they refused to do ; 
and, intensely mortified by his men's failure 
to follow him, the Frenchman took his own 
life. The enemy's private soldiers were 
courageous enough, but not juificiently 
trained to follow their leaders closely, and 
thus they proved incapable of making 
vigorous concerted attacks. 

British Cavalry Chargre 

As the successive regiments came up they 
got mixed, not only in squadrons but by 
regiments and corps. Then they were charged 
by the British cavalry and driven off the 
plateau. Though now our horsemen, profit- 
ing by the errors of their comrades, generally 
advanced no farther than the southern slopes, 
one regiment, forgetful of orders, charged 
down into the valley, and, being surrounded 
by hostile horsemen, suffered considerably; 
and, when galloping back, the Dragoons lost 
in addition many men from the fire of the 
British infantry, who mistook them for the 
enemy. 

The French cavalr\' after Its first repulse, 



Section I 



WATERLOO CAMPAIGN-JUNE, 1815 



Modern 



.„, AUA^ .vitxiern 

re-formmg under the British position re- nf tv,. r > 

peated theirattaC, this tin. Sd^b^ t^ ^;.^'''^"^ ^' six s,uadro„. of 



pcated their attack, this tin.t- hoUins buck 
=1 I».rt,on of thdr third hnc to „,c.t the 
Bnt.sb squadrons ; but after a time thev 
werc- again repulsed ai„l driven back to the 
ow gr,,u„d i5„rini; one of these attacks 
Urd Lxbndge led a squadron of House- 
hold Cavalry against 
a huge column of the 
cueinys horsemen and, 
ahhough he failed to 
drive it back, arrested 
its jirogrcss. 

Although the French 
squadrons were unable 
to remain halted with- 
in sight of our guns, 
they merely withdrew 
below the crest, and 
individuals menaced 
the guns whenever an 
attempt was made to 
reload them. Major 
Lloyd, with one gunner 
of his battery, suc- 
ceeded in firing six 
rounds into a serried 
mass, the head-dress of 
wliich he could just 
see : but he was inter- 
rupted again and again 
when about to fire by 
an officer of the Im- 
perial Guard, who, 
though alone, rode 
straight at the Major 
several times when he 
was reloading. A 
Brunswick rifleman 
shot the Frenchman, 
and eventually Major 
Lloyd liimself was 

mortally wounded by one of the enemy's 
indonutablc, devoted officers. 



Horse Grenadiers and seven of Drag<»,„ 
all, a reinforcement of 37 squadrons 

Kellerinann implored .Vey to keep in reserve 
a part of this immense force, but Nev re- 
mamed obdurate. And so the French horse- 
men advaoce^d, some 12.000 strong over a 




THE ATTACK ON THE WALL AT HOUOOUMONT 
from a bIc,„„ u, w. B. Woll.n. R.l. 



Ney's Qreat Attack 

Viulaunted by these, costly reverses, Xev 
returned yet again to the crest of Welling- 
ton s position-now with 77 squadrons, for 
he supported the survivons of the former 
charges with Kellermann's dirision (24 squad- 
rons), and Guvofs division of Ik-aiy cavahv 



space too small for their proper employment, 
even in columns, ami, moreover, already 
el.cunibere.1 by the corpses of numberless 
nieii and iiorses, 

I!ut this great .idvance in mass— the 
Kteatest, it is said, that ever has been made 
by cavalry against infantry— proved no 
more successful than the previous ellorts 
•■ For upwards of an hour," declared ],ord 
Hill, •■ our little squares ivere suirounded by 




ARRIVAL OF THE PitUSSlANi 
From a plctuie b;, 



f WATERLOO, 
Granville Baker 




r WATERLOO, JUNE 18th. IfllS 
Granville Baker 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



the elite of the French caviiiry : Iht-y gal- 
lantly stood within forty paces of us, unable 
to leap over the bristUnn line of bayonets, 
unwilling to retire, and determined rever to 
surrender. Hundreds of them were dropping 
in all directions from our murderous tire, yet 
as fast as they dro])jx'd others cante up to 
supply their places." 

Twelve times, between ft)ur and six o'clock. 
Ney led or sent forwanl the French c;ivalry 
against the Biitish squares, and, according 
to the accounts of the French olViccrs, the 
squadrons were handled tx-tter in the later 
than in the early advances ; but the final 
result was identical with that of the previous 
attacks. 

Xor is this failure altogether surprising 
when one remembers that the later advance 
was carried out generally at a walk. The 
Cuirassiers were men of magnificent stature 
— the regiments had Ix-en made up from 
Mounted Police (Gendarmes), and drafts of 
30 picked men from each Dragoon regiment 
in the Service— but they had not worked 
together even in squadrons, and half the 
horses had only recently been purchased. 

Towards six o'clock the horsemen slowly 
withdrew, and those that were left in the 
ranks re-fonned between La Have Sainte 
and Hougoumont, whence they had started. 
Two-thirds of their number were strewn on 
the slopes and plateau of the ^Ulied position ; 
nearly all their field officers had I)cen killed 
or wounded, and some of the few who 
escaped, unscathed by sword rr bullet, had 
been hurt seriously by the pressure in the 
mass of horses. 

Fourth Pha5e 

Under cover of these cavaln.- attacks the 
renmants of D'Krhm's corps came forward 
and made a furious assault on La Haye 
Sainte. P'or a while Baring's men valiantly 
stood their ground, but. as thev had been 
fighting almost without cessation since the 
battle began, their power of resistance was 
now rapidly ebbing, and their amnumition 
had almost given out. Further resistance, 
therefore, was impissible, and at about six 
o'clock Baring abandoned La Haye Sainte. 

Wellington's position w.is stiU criuc.il. The 
French were now established within sixty 



yards of his main position ; and their in- 
fantry, by hning the southern crest of the 
ridge held by the .VUies. were able to pour a 
hot lire into Alten's and Kempt 's divisions. 
F")m this our men suffered terribly, for the 
27th (Royal Inniskilhng) Fusiliers, standing 
inunediately north of the cross-roads, in a 
very short time lost half their numbers, but 
without fiinching or mo\'ing from the spot. 

The Prince of Orange's Blunders 

The enduring courage of the 27tli was 
remarkable, even amongst the many heroic 
deeds performed that day. The battalion 
had been quartered at tihent, and had 
marched thence, over forty miles, without 
halting for more than a few minutes, to 
Mont St. Jean, the \-illage north of Waterloo, 
where the men slept soundly from a.m. to 
3 P.M. on the i8th. Then they took post in 
Wellington's jxisition to close the oix-n gap 
which had l)een caused by the retirement of 
Bylandt's troojjs. Late , when the French 
occupied the knoll alxjve the sand-pit near 
La Haye Sainte, the enemy fired into the 
Inniskillings with such effect that evcntuall} 
two-thirds of the battaUon 'U. 

The survivors of a battalion of Kielman- 
segge's brigade abo stood firm under equally 
trying circumstances. The French succeeded 
in bringing two ijuns into action to the north- 
west of La Haye Sainte, within 300 yards 
of the Allied Une. and before they could he 
driven back, fired two or three rounds at the 
square, blowing away one face of it. 

The Prin 2 of Orange thereupon ordered 
Brigadier-General Ompteda to deploy and 
move against the enemy's infantry, then 
advancing. Ompteda pointed out that the 
French cavalry were inunediately under the 
crest : but the Prince, disregarding tliis 
warning, ordered him to be silent and obey. 
At once, therefore, Omjiteda deployed the 
5th Battalion, and charged. 

The French infantry drew back, but a 
regiment of Cuirassiers catching Ompteda's 
men in flank, rolled them up from richt to 
left, killing the Brigadier and destroj-ing the 
battalion. Only 30 effectives answered the 
muster-roll after this unfortunate attack. 

The Piince of Orange, though a very in- 
competent soldier, was a brave man, and 



Section I WATERLOO CAMPAIGN-JUNE, 



1815 



Modern 




shortly after Ompteda's death, led fonvard 
another hattalion, and was lumself wounded. 
This wound was fortunate for his reputation, 
as it tended to make ixople forget that In- 
had Ix'cn tlie direct cause of the h)ss of the 
6oth British Regiment at Quatre Eras, and 
of Ompteda's two battalions sacrificed at 
Waterloo. 

Happily for Wellington, Napoleon failed 
to observe the advantage wliich his troops 
had gained at I,a Have Sainte. At this time 
the Emperor's attention was distracted by 
the approach of the Prussians. Biilow was 
already attacking Planchenoit ; Ziethen was 
almost in touch with Welhngton ; and this 
serious menace to his right nionopihsed all 
Napoleon's energies. 

The blow at the centre of the AUied posi- 



tion, therefore, was not forced home imme- 
diately, and Welhngton, taking advantage 
of the lessened pressure, called up reinforce- 
ments. Soon after .•j.jo f.M. the Prussian 
cavalry came up on the left of the British 
Ix)sition. Lord r.\l)ri(Ige, therefore, was 
able then to move the brigades of \ivian 
and Vandeleur as an additional supixjrt to 
the infantry near La Haye Sainte. 

When Sir Hus.sey \'ivian arrived at the 
centre of the jwsition, the scene of ruin in 
the vicinity of the cross-roads sliowed no 
indication of the coming victory. Hundreds 
of men. dead and dying, lay cm the ridge : 
while numberless loose and mutilated horses 
wandered in circles, bewildered by the smoke 
and deafening noise of the guns. 

Near the cross-roads Vivian met Lord 



■14.1 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



Edward Somerset with two weak squadrons 
of Iloavy cav;ilr;*, 1 asked : " Where is 
your brigade?" . il Somerset jwinted 
significantly to the few men then in the 
saddles. None the less, the immediate 
danger from La Haye Sainte had passed 
before, at 7.30, Napoleon made his final bid 
for \-ictory — an attack by all three arms 
along the whole of the AlUed position. 

Fifth Phase 

Under cover of u cloud of skirmishers and 
a deafening cannonade, the advance began. 
I)'Erl(jn directed the attack against the 
left centre of the AUi . where stood tlie 
brigades of Lambert, Best, and Kempt ; 
whilst Marshal Xey, with lo battalions of 
the Imperial Guard, and many batteries, 
advanced from " La Belle Alliance," between 
Hougomnont and La Haye Sainte, directly 
against the right centre of Wellington's 
position. 

" Napoleon himself," writes Sir Edward 
Creasy, " rode forward to a spot by which 
his veterans were to pass ; and, as they 
approached, he raised his arm, and jwinted 
to the position of the Allies, as if to tell 
them that their path lay there. They 
answered with loud cries of ' \'ive I'Em- 
pereur t ' and descended the hill from their 
own side, into that ' valley of the shado ■ 
of death,' while the batteries thundered with 
redoubled vigour over their heads upon the 
British line." 

In stately array, moving forward in two 
bodies, one slightly in front of the other, the 
Imperial Guard advanced. As they neared 
the crest of the ridge behind which were 
crouching Maitland's Brigade of Guards and 
the brigade of Adam , the French guns 
ceased fire. The guns of the Allies continued 
in action on the advancing Frenchmen who, 
nevertheless, still moved majestically for- 
ward. Marshal Ney riding at their head, 
till his horse was shot under him ; then that 
dauntless soldier, sword in hand, continued 
to lead his men, on foot, up the lower slopes 
of the hill and on to the crest. 

There, naturally, the French troops ex- 
pected to find W^cllington's battalions await- 
ing them, but, to their amazement, no soldiers 
could l>e seen — only dense clouds of smoke, 



and a small group of officers, among whom 
sat the Duke of Wellington. 

For a moment the French veterans hesi- 
tated. Then a command rang out : " Up, 
Guards ! " and up started a line of the 
British Guards in ix;ifect order. 

The French officers made a brave effort 
to deploy their columns, but it was too late. 
The British Guards were al eady upon them ; 
and, a few minutes later, Xapoleon'sliitherto 
unbeaten veterans turned and went down 
the hill a disorganised rabble. 

The second column of the Imperial Guard 
advanced a Uttk vhile after the first. Tliis 
gave Maitland time to re-form his brigade, 
and furthermore enabled Colonel Colbome, 
of the 52nd, in AdamV brigade, to take up 
a position with his men on thL- left flank of 
the on-coming French. Caught thus between 
two fires, even the picked soldiers hke Napo- 
leon's veterans were powerless, and the 
second column of the Imperial Guard 
turned and retreated, closely pursued by 
Adam's victorious brigade, in the direction 
of La Haye Sainte. 

Hi'-xp they became mingled with the 
infantry of Donzclot's division ; and the 
news that the Guard had been routed soon 
spread through the whole of D'Erlon's cor]>s 
— with disastrous results. If the Guard had 
been routed, the battle, so it seemed to the 
troops, must indeed have been lost. Bat- 
talion after battalion began to waver, and 
officers could not rally them. 

A Striking French Tribute 

One of Napoleon's Generals, Foy, has left 
on record a striking tribute to the splendid 
obstiiiacy of the British infantry as it stood 
unmoved by the assaults of infuriated 
Frenchmen. 

" Wounded, vehicles, reser\'e ammunition 
train, auxiliary troops, were hurrying in con- 
fusion towards Brussels. The Angel of Death 
was ever before their eyes, and busy in their 
ranks. Disgrace lay behind them. 

" In these terrible circumstances, neither 
the bullets of the Imperial Guard nor the 
hitherto victorious French cavalry could 
break the immovable British infantry. One 
would have been inclined to believe that 
they had taken root to the ground if the 



WATERLOO CAMPAIGN-JUNE. 1815 



Section I 



battal,o„s had not, s<,me few moments after 

Tins they did wl.en the arrival of the I'rus^ 
sian army showed WeUington that, thanks 
to h,s numbers, thanks to his mas e „ 
a".v.ty, and to his knowing how to place his 
brave men m a defensive position, he l>a I 
won the most decisive victory of our age '' 
* • • . 

Napoleon, however, near " La BeUe \lli 
ance still had ir> resene two battaions 
of the Impenal Guard, and around these he 
and ^ey proceeded to marshal the remnants 



Model 



The cavalr>- were the remnants of the 
s adrons wh,ch had been recklessly s,u.'n! 

.,r^l, , T -»/■■''«-■"■• tl" i..fantr^-. 
> r battalions of the Mi :dlcr,u,.r,l. The 
Utter were charg«l in „,„k ,„. ^,„ 

The uguivcs ran back, and, accrding to 

the (.uard llymg, thought it was the OU 
Guar an, the panic spread immediate 
f>\er the whole battle-field." 

Uliile \-iv.an was advancinR to attack he 



of the defeated 

., . , ■ " "» "It: iiope that 

■t might yet be possible to deUver another 
attack upon the AUied position. 

Lut Phase 

WelUngton now decided to assume the 
offensive. He ordered Vivian and Vandeleur 
to charge the troops which Napoleon was 

It was now 8 o'clock in the evenine and tl,„/ , ""= destroyed, and the 

as the British and German regimntseageriv nt„ ,T T',"' '"' """■ ^"^ riding 

mov,Ki forward to deal death among the7oe St a ?, '"" ?' "" ""="■>• T" '' 

whose attacks they had been resisttag of' he toflmrvr'"' "'° '" "" "'='""" 

nme hours, the setting sun showed behind ' ^ '^ 



veterans in the hope that unir' 7,, ''" T '" '^''"K'= i"f-try 

— to deuver Lther u^^.Z::.:^:^^-^^:^::- 

■f unmolested, might charge our infantr;-' 
Accordingly, he le.1 the loth Hussars aga nst 

of the French horsemen. 

A squadron of Cuirassiers attempted to 

arrest the advance, but was heatei back 
A regiment of French Carabiniers. charging 
our cava ri- ram. .._,l,^ , , ^"'"Suii, 



it. 1 . ** auoweu Denind 

the douds. and shone, for the first time 
that day, on the bayonets of the Allies now 
surging down the slope. 

Wellington hiraseU rode among the fore- 
most of the pursuers, recklessly exi»sing him 



^« to danger, at the head oTmZZZ; the oth" 'l '■■' ""i'' ™' '■"""-"^ '-' '-' 
-here the bullets still flew thick and ttt XlV^lTl '"' '''"."!"'"' '-■""P-Sn 



where the bullets still flew thick and fast 
Once a member of his Staff ventured to 
remonstrate with him, but the Duke laughed 
lightly. "Xever mind." he said; " let them 
fire away ; the battle's won. and my life is 
of no consequence now." 

Meanwhile, as Vivian's brigade descended 
the slope, covered with dead and wounded 
men, the smoke hung so thick over the 
ground that the Brigadier could see nothing ■ 
but the fire and shouting to the eastward 
showed that the French were falling back 

\yiien the brigade got to the low ground 
\lvian saw in front of him crowds of scat- 
tered fugitives, and two or three weU-formed 
squares of mfantry. flanked on either side 
by cavalry and artillery. 

445 



Vivian and the i8th Hussars 

Having ordere<l the loth to re-form. Vivian 
gaUoped back to the l8th Hussars. On his 
way he was attacked by a Cuirassier, but 
ilthough he had only one hand-he had los 



-he managed to wound his antagonist 
who was killcl by an orderly following the 
General. Riding up to the l8th, X'ivian 
shouted : 
'■Eighteenth, will you follow me? " 
" Ves, General," answered Serjeant-Major 
Jeffs, to hell, if you will lead us." And the 
Hussars gallop«l forward with great deter- 
mination, riding over and destroying a 
battery of artillery which crossed their front 
Ihen, having first upset some squadrons in 
their immeiliate front, they incUned to the 
right and charged a body of horsemen who 
were covermg the retireme.it of one of the 
squares. The French squadrons were driven 
away, and a battery behind them was aban- 
doned by its detachments-aU the troops 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 




tiyinp ill disorder. 
Two squares oi tlic 
01(1 r.uiird, how- 
ever, still stood in- 
tact. 

While the iSth 
were re - forminj;, 
(leneral \'ivian r»nle 
hack for the sup- 
IK)rti:.j:; regiment— 
the 1st King's (Icr- 
niaii Lejijion — :uid 
came <m a weak 
squadron of the 
loth Hussars, stand- 
ing near one of tne 
squares of the Old 
Guard. As he was 
discusjing the situa- 
tion with Maj(tr 
Howard, who com- 
manded the squad- 
ron. Vivian saw a 
British battalion 
approaching on the 
right. apparently 
witli the intention 
of attacking the 
square. 

He ordered the 
[ ussars. therefore, 

charge, and they 
-hargeil right up to 
the Frenchmen's 
hayonets, on tt> 
w h i e h II a i o r 
Howard himself, 
shot in three places, 
litt-rally fell. Hut 
the British bat- 
talion passed on 
without attackinij;. 
Howard 's men, 
liowever, refused to 
le:jve the square, 
and, akhough they 
failed to break it, 
by desperate tigiit- 
ing tliey succeeded 
at last in pusliing the 
l'"renchnieu back to 
the Ct'uappe road. 



446 



Section I 



WATERLOO CAMPAIGN-JUNE, 1815 



\.,„,lcleurs hnsTlc-. under tl,. c„„,n,.,„l 

tl.o pace. „t ,.„„, ,xl,ri,lK., «!,„ h ,1 ^ , 
-undcl ,,assc,l „„ far,,,,, ,„ , '"' ^^^ 
wanl, an.l attacked a lar^L. s„„,ri- , ( . 

■"« " up a„u taki,,,. „..„,. „ri3„„^^^' 

«...^™.r.«t„C';!;:t^™"-;;-;^ 

"; .''"'', '" d«r„yc,l tl,e entire c.,Iumn 

;:"'-'',f''"^'^«tl-sa„,o„,,.„,e,,tt, ."h' 

-V nu.,ar., Li,„t Dra«„„„3, far,,,, 
he westward. t„ok a l>atterv-„,e 1 .s 

Our e.avalr5- were „„w careeri,,, everv- 
wth t|,e Briusl, ami Ha„„veria„ mfantrJ 
rapu h clnsmj; ,„ „,„„ „,„„ ^ 

dc.m„rahse, tr«,ps .,f I-Vance ,1„1 ,,ef.re 
tl.c st„rm ui wU.I cnfusi,,,, - „.;„, „„, ,',.,, 

"aster T '1'' """'' '""■-•■ "-' -vay 

laster than at a f„„t's ,iace 

wiH,' Ir' " ™''-'''^'I"'l'-'"">*i"teuti„n t., stop 

, , """"'■" resistance, sc-kcl the l>ridle 
awa ■" v'''"w'' '""^ ••"«' '1^'>«S«1 him 
not already successful encug,, ? " And tli'e 
Emperor rode off i„ the direction of Charle',r 



MoiKrn 

. oauc.l at aUmt lo ivm. ,,„, .■„, 
l'rus.s.ans. under (Jenerd is, ■ 

"■■ thr,>ugi,„ut t,,.™!.; """f"™' »■«" 

infantry tearied ("^ , ^. ""^" "- 

t™».o„,uswaya,„„;:^,;;;;:-;:;;;"- 

Iron, „n,e distinct and .^.-parate Im, uaes 
the de,r,oral,s„l p-renC, soMiers were . "e 
and, when t -e I,Kl,t of t,,e n.oon w„ i „«"' 
^^toenaMe the pursuers to ki„ .„::;::;::; 
t s, und of a Prussian ,,run,. carried on a 
troop ,,„r.-,.. surticed to soad tl.e fugitil es i ," 
renewed efforts to escape. t'tu cs ,n,„ 

The Horrors of the Night 

N-a,»,Ie„„ en,lea>„ured near Charloroi at 
S^-p—f-.-^^;-- 
e lorts proved unavai,.n,.o'„ an „;„' 

^d^'Jl^e'r^T'"""'''^"-''"''' " 

e is to t '" ';"'""■'■"'' ""-■ '™" '"at 

' , '" •\v>--snes t,ie smaller runninL- ,„ 

wards I'liilippevlle. *> '"" 



Meetinir of Wellington and BlUcher 

On tl,e " HeiRhts of Rossomme " U-elli,,,,. 
ton „r,lere<l l,is troops to halt, and le f,^ 
pursu,t„ ,,,,„, „^,,.^^,^^.Jt the 

and ,1 /' T""'" '" '"" ""*al Blucher, 
and e two General,,, haviuK shaken hamis 
"•'""> '^""Sratulated each other. It ,n„st 
h«beenapro,,da,,dha,,,,y,,,eet, 
he t .,f them. And vet, wrote the Duke of 
^U-Ilmston, soon after the l.nttle ^ M, 
heart ,s broken l,yt,,eterri,,le loss! have 

:;:dr.:;r':^^fr--".-"-..a..io;:: 

weU as .'naguM;e„;;i„ Jl^" " '''""'' "^ 

AlthouRl. the main l„,dv of the British an.l 

German Legion had abandoned the pursu^' 



447 



' rote to l„s „,fe „e^t day, " reseml,le,l a sea- 
Miore shrewn with cannons, hmhers , ,uskS 

mmu,,...on,andl,agRagewasons,'wXe 
"1 .dl descn,)t,oii5," >■ 

The deplorable condition into which the 

^:::;f,:7'^»7,-"'=i-how.n,:d!; "" 

I eh ■ '.' "'"'' ''«"'l"i™ which Ca,,tai„ 
Wafosse, General Foy's ai-le-de-cam,, h, 
Ht on record of his own, ex,,eriences 

■oy and the four officers who „i|| „„, 
v.th hun, „,a-a«ed with difficulty to ,lt 
t..«et„er as escort a corporal and fo, 

IhUit. I tterly exl.austwl, this little body of 
men arr,ve,l at last at a co,.e near Thui^ 
Here, wrote Ca,„ain Delafossc-, " while our 

torses grazed, „.e lay down a,,dsle,,,„rw 
S"eet was that sleeo alter tl>e f ,ti„. - f ,■ 

1^;:^ day of battle: and ^r'^;;";;;^';;? 
ret eat more painful stiU ! Ue reste,, in the 
httle copse t.U noon, and sat there watchi,^ 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



the wrecks of our army defile along the mad 
tiefore us. It was a soul-harrowing sight! 
Yet the diflerent arms of the Ser\-ice had 
resumed a certain degree of order amid their 
disorder ; and our General, feeling his 
strength revive, resolved to follow a strong 
column of cavalry which was taking the di- 
rection of Beaumont, about four leagues off. 

" We drew near Beaumont, when suddenly 
a regiment of horse was seen debouching from 
a wood on our left. The column that we 
followed shouted out. ' The Prussians I The 
Prussians I ' and galloped off in utter dis- 
order. 

"But," added Delafosse. "the troops 
that thus alarmed them were not » i^nih 
part of their numbers, and were, iu '■■.Ahty. 
our own 8th Hussars, who wore greeu uni- 
forms. The panic had been brought even 
thus far from the battle-field, and the dis- 
organised cavalry galloped into Beaumont, 
which was r-'- idy crowded by our infantry. 
We were obliged to follow the debacle." 

In pPi.amont, Delafosse endeavoured to 
fii ' ,od for General Foy, who had been 
A\ -rely wounded. But there was no food 
t J be had ; pillage was going on in every 
direction, and the streets were covered with 
plundered and torn baggage. 

" Plunderersand pillagers— such, "declared 
Delafosse, " were all the comrades that I met 
with. Disgusted with them, I strove, sword 
in hand, to stop one of the plunderers ; but, 
more active than I, be gave me a bayonet 
stab in my right arm, in which I fortunately 
caught his thrust, which had been aimed 
full at my body. ... To be wounded by 
a fellow-countryman after having passed un- 
harmed through all the perils of Ouatre Bras 
and Waterloo— this did seem hard indeed ! " 

Abdication of Napoleon 

No returns were made of the French losses 
in the battle, but certainly not more than 
40,000 men ever recrossed the Sambre. 
The losses of the Allies, killed and wounded, 
amounted in all to some 22,000 men, of 
whom 7,000 were Prussians. 

After lea\-ing Charleroi, Napoleon suc- 
ceeded, but with difficult>', in escaping to 
rhilippe\-illc, From there he sent word to 
all those of his generals whom he had left 



in France, to converge on Paris with their 
triHjps. Then, having ordered Soult to 
collect the fugitives of his own army and 
march with them on Laon, he himself set out 
for Paris, reaching the capital in advance of 
the news of his defeat. But the Litter was 
not long delayed ; and, on the following day, 
the Chamber of Deputies met and issued the 
stem ultimatum that unless tlie Emperor 
should abdicate within one hour, his deposi- 
tion forthwith would be declared. 

Napoleon bowed his head to the inevitable, 
and or 'une 22nd, for the second and final 
time. ai>andoned the Throne of France. 

The Allies Before Paris 

Meanwhile, the Allies were moving steadily 
on Paris— not merely the armies of Welling- 
ton and Bliicher ; Russian, Austrian, and 
Spanish troops, too, now were being poured 
over the frontiers ; and by the middle of July 
there were something like 800,000 invaders 
quartered upon the inhabitants of France. 

Such opposition as Soult could offer was 
useless. And Grouchy, who by skilful man- 
cEuvring h.'d managed to escape with his 
corps from V/avre, likewise fell back before 
the advancing hordes. 

On June 2gth the Allied armies arrived 
before Paris. Bliicher, indomitable as ever, 
wished, it is said, to proceed immediately 
to storm the city, but tlie wiser counsels 
of Wellington prevailed, and on July 3rd. 
a suspension of arms ha\-ing been agreed 
upon, negotiations were begim. Between 
the 4th and the 6th the French army filed 
through the streets of Paris and made its 
way towards the Loire, leaving the Duke of 
Wellington in possession. And on the 8th 
of the month, Louis X\^II. was restored 
to the Throne of France. 

But some days before this Napoleon had 
left the capital. On July 2nd he set out 
for Rochefort. hoping to be able to escapt- 
thence to America. But on July 14th, when 
about to be arrested by the Bourbon Govern- 
ment, he surrendered himself to Captain 
Maitland, commanding H.M.S. BcUerophon. 
On October i6th the ex-Emperor landcil 
at St. Helena, where, in accordance with 
the decision nf the Allied Powers, he was 
detained until his death. 



448 



SECTION 1-unr.r^y 



BHARATPUR 



THIS powerful Ja. ,„„,,,, ,„, .„ 
but Ijeim staiidil- ,., 1,1 1 

Dissensions in Biiaratpur 

1:3 -=•--: 

e musun,l ,s,K,u afterwards Buldc SiuRh 
"Ut in t.,.- fasl„„n so cnnimon in 



;;..;...., d, .!;■;;;;::;- ,:-;;: 
?^:...^p.;::;i=,.^;-:::i£:, 

: 'r, ■""I'"« rcquind, :ui,l „rdurs „„,. 
|«u.,,,r,, „„,,,„„^^^--. 

to Ik at tl e d,s|,,.s;,I „f s.r Charl., M^calfe 



■IC;istc'ni states. 



I'l'tTJiin Sal 



S'ii.Si'sS^.'-rLSisrfc;'."'"' "" '■'" 



449 



Lord Combermere 

Tlic- C.,„„„a„dcr.i,, Chief i„ I„,lia at that 

t..ne was an „ld officer, iuiuhrmlLt," 
unfit t„ take the field, whn had K, . vLi," 
<" r«,K„. The intelligence „f ,he t In ,e 
n--,ty „f«.ar«.ith the State ,,fBI,'^' 

-..r^ce.1 the Curt „fr,ircct„rsi::'X^ 
bnd, and. ,n the a,,p„i„tn,e„t „f a new 

..eces,„rv , "'"''"'■ '' "'•'^ "'"'«• ■•■" thiuKS 
ruir T '''';''"'''''""■''"-"'■• '- 
■■ere, who. as Sir Stapleton Cttc.n h ,,l 

::::,: :i,:^!^-"''-"«'-er..f,;::«r.i; 

retard to Lord Comhermeres selection a 

'"- nngUt indicate t> the", t r . 

hki-K- t,, ,„ ,■ . ^ Cuinmander 

, , -, '" ^""'"pLsh wl,,,t even General Lake 

l-d been unable to effect. In ans,!.^ ,o 



„,, , ,„- ^'u>'ijun .-sal nrasi)«l the c ' , ■>|)])c,intnicnt of a new 

rule of liharatpur. The cita.Iel wa^i,' <-„ni„,a„der-i„-a,ief. it was above all h lu I 

Hp^t-:^i---5^~^ ^ 

'n I.VM the Indian ('...vernraent wis -.t 

that CO intr>- had not .dways been success- 
'"'■ "•"' '^^SKorated stories of failure h.ad 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



t!ieir iiitiuiries ;is to whom the great Duke 
consiilcred the innst tittins iiers.m, he rfipht'il, 
" V<ni can't <lo tiotter than have Lord Cnni- 
benuere. ilu's the man to take Bharat- 
inir." It was well known that tlie Duke's 
o])iniou nf his cavalry <ienerars capacity, 
tlespite hi'-- ^reat services, was not high. 
When he named I/)r<i Cctmhennere. theref -re, 
tlie astonished deputation coulil not help 
rcinarkint;, " Rut we thought that your 
(jrace did not consider him a man of great 
genius." 

'■ I tell you he's the man to take Ilharat- 
jHir," exclaimed the l>uke, who riglitly 
a]>preciatod Coml)erniere"s determination. 
After this emphatic recommendation tliere 
could be no further doubt about the appcniit- 
ment, and in June. 1825, I.ord Combermere 
sailed for India. 

Situation of Bharatpur 

Bliaratpur is situated about thirty miles 
wei't of Agra, and is surrounded by a wide, 
Hun-baked plain, whose surface is broken by a 
few insignificant cmniences and some low 
rocky ridges. In 1825 tlie town was about 
eiglit miles in circumference, enclosed by 
an enceinte of 5=; semicircular bastions 
Connected by curtahis. These fortifications 
were built of clay mixed witti straw and cow- 
dung, and as tliis comjiosition liad been put 
together in layers, eacli of which was allowed 
to harden in the sun's rays before another 
was added, wliile the wliole was strengthened 
by rows of tree-trunk? i)uriel upright, it 
was considered almost iinpossitile with the 
artillery of that time to establish a practic- 
alde breach hi the city walls. From the 
construction of the bastions, enfilade was 
also dilhcult in many cases. On some of 
tlie bastions tiiere were cavaliers, and 
the body of the place was coni]>leteIy com- 
niandetl 1> ■ a citadel of great strength, 
rising to a height of 114 feet above the 
level of the ground, Since the attack by 
Lord Lake ni.iny aildilions had been inndc 
to the defenci'S (lutside the enceinte was 
a strongly revetted dry ditch iif, feet 
broad and 50 feet deep, whici; Could be 
filled with w.iter by cutting the bund, or 
eml)auknieut, wliicli separated it from the 
Moti Jheel (the IV.in lak-1, situated a short 



distance from the place. The garris<m 
numbered 25,000 men. belonging to some 
of tlie mtipt warlike races of India. Strong 
in position, armament, resources, and, above 
all, in the proud rcmeml)rance and prestige 
nf former victory, Kharatpur stood a formid- 
able antagonist, challenging the supremacy 
in India of ICnglatid. 

Combermere's Army 

The army of which Lord Combermere 
was about to take comni;ind had been 
assemble<l at Agra and Muttra. It was cnni- 
poscd of nearly .V'ooo men of all arms. 
ineluding a jHiwerful siege-train, and drawn 
from tlie Kuroi)ean and Native armies. 
Major-derieral Reyiiell commanded tlie rii:ht 
wing then at Muttra, and MaJHr-Ceiieral 
NichoIIs the left at Agra. Kverytliini; that 
foresight couI<l de\-ise as necessary for the 
operations in \iew was carefully jirepared. 
ami the whole fnree was animated by tlie 
most confident spirit. 

On December :stli Lord Condjermere was 
joined at Muttra by Sir Cliarles Metcalfe, 
who. havhig exhausted all peaceful n^ .ans to 
induce Doorjuii Sal and his foU.iwers to give 
way, now useil tlie authority \ested in him to 
Set the arm\' in motion, and ]»laeed the further 
conduct of affairs in the hands nf the Com- 
inaiuler-in-Chief. lie accompanied t!ie army 
as a sjiectator of its operations. The mo\-e- 
ment from Agra and Muttra commenced 
on December 8th-()tli, (".eneral Xicholls 
lieing directed tit take up a jKJsition on the 
west of Dharatpur, while (ieneral Kcynell 
was to estat)lish himself opixtsite the north- 
east angle. 

'I'lie first object to Ite secured was the safety 
of the bund. It was known that the enemy 
Wf)uld at once cut it as soon as HIiarat])nr 
was seriously threatened, so as to let the 
waters of the Pearl lake into the ditch. T>> 
frustrate such an attempt, the success i>f 
which would have added greatly to tlie 
difficulties of the siege, General Xieliolls sent 
forward an advanced guard of the ibth 
Lancers and Skinner's Ihjrsc, sujiijorted bv 
the I4tli Regiment. This detachment arrived 
as the enemy began to make an opening, 
through wliich the waters itf the lake were 
beginning to ilow. Skinner's Horse was at 



BHARATPUR-MN. m,, ,,26 



Section I 

'''•ek to the tow,,. T1«^U;T ''"""' '^'"--"-■^■u s , !'; -h "■'•>• "PPro.clK.l 
close by the Irr.m,I,, ,^Val„ ,,'""' "' '"■■ -'^Pres* 1 ."'''^^'"■'"^■-■..ul.l ,,,,t 

R''™ell stockading ' ''"'"'' 



it. made it a stroi.K 
'"■Htary ,«siti„„. 
« ln-n I^rd Lake at- 
'■■"■'■■"' liliaratpiir, lie 
'■"^'1 ill tliiiikinj; tl,at 
lllc defoiices could l,e 
carried at once 1,,- 
■'i-siui.t. and I.,,,;, 
toiuliermere, wit I, 
tins ivarninj! I,cfore 
'ii"i, res.ilicd not to 
break ground until -, 
careful exan,, ,ti..n 
lw<l beer, made of tlie 
"I'stacles to be o,er. 
"^""c. After tl,e in- 
^■cstn,ent was co,n- 
Plcte,! on Ih^,,,,,,. 
''" lltb, therefore 
tbc folloiving „i,n: 
(lays Here empl.ned 
l>y liim and tbe i;„. 
Ki"eer ofticers under 
Ills command i„ j^,. 
connoitring everv nirt „i n , 
'!'-"""8^cl reconiK,^:" It, ;;""'■ ..'"'^ 
.""sliadbesidestbeus^,:,; ™' -'■-■■ 

cm|>l.,ve,l bv tl!i ,r ■■"!'' "■"'■' l""«tablv 

-''■t.iec.va,,L::;; t,'--- Ontbe 
«->» coin„|ete fl,„ ■ "^ "' "ct ou 

l-kvverr,,l\l!"«^-'™"-'''™»:i.ieer 

-tf ^IgE'^Sf^- '- ^^^ 

7cei,.„te";;'t' 7^,:";';^ '^ »'"^ .- 

451 




sllall,„v 



- ""s'e were t lat li^ 
"ere unflanked, the dite , 
>l'^'" at other par" ,,"""""'^' 

-".mui.ieati„gwith',lJ.S:rrr'"'-"' 

K'"- Kood cover ,„ . ,' "'"^•'' »""l'l 

"""I't liaee ,„ dex-end n',"!; it''""" "''" 

'I'lie point ,,f .|t_ 

'™k having 1,^.;,,, 

■'cteriuiueil, it 

I'ecauie necessary to 

yf '"" positions. 

'"tlierto heM bv „„. 

;™">-. Soo yards 
'[""' the place and 
•111' same distance 
I'""! eacl, ,„|,,r^ „„. 
':'""f "' Kullam 
f^uiKly and the pl^a- 
~"re-gardeii <,f Bnldeo 
>"i,«li. This was done 
"ith httle l,,ss, and 
'"'til positions K„^. 
strongly fortiiied ai-,1 
-t"ckade<l to .serve as 
■"ikmg suj.ports for 
"."■■ !i"c to be oecn- 
I''"' I-;- the working 
!"'""''■ rile line „f 
"Hestinent was drawn 
closer round niiarat- 

'■" -^.ifl the first p.,r.|ll!l ""''' "" "'■"■■"- 

^'^/-i-iyana™;;"^:-^;-""""- 

24th. shot ndl, ""■ ""'">">R nf the 
'-cesandi t^t:,:::;':;"""'■""-'- 
^■<"•™madeto;q ™;^™';- """' 

^:;:fn:n;r-----:".^;:; 

"-.1 h ti,: L":^;x ™"""' "■ '"- 

""searehe,! "' '"-*''tlied and 

'■■'•'"" the ,„h till ,,„, 
works Mere sleidi',- 1 ' ""W 

''■"''■' ""•' tapidly carried 



lORU COMBl.BMER,,: 
P'cluie by Mrs. Pe „ 
^v Messrs. T. H. K 




THE 16TH LANCERS AND SKINNERS HORSE DRIVING THE JATS INTO BHARATPUK. 

DECEMBER. 1825 

hroin a picture by Sluiiky L. Wood 



BHAKATPUR-JAN. ISth. 1826 



Modern 
heroic enten,ri„ ■ ""' ''= '^'"'*^ 'or Ws 



Section f 

^-'n« "«r ^~ ,•- 1 ':^ 

Engineers were established Tl„ „„ .• 

were daily covered hv i , "'"'■'■''"'ons 

V-'iy taken fr^ .e'"'""":;"''''' ""rinci- 

b^ttalion. whosel. '"'" ^'""""^ 

accurate .haiTar eh- Tll"'"'^"' ""'" -=--^^ >- u,e e 

'o raise his Lead :!;er Z't7"l' f'f '"^ -™"vha, Te. 

.heu,,re„i„i„;^^!'-:;^Xe2;;:::s^"' """"" ^"-"""-^ Hxp.„i. 

by breaching alone ^'1? ff*' ""^ ""™ ''is adventure ,\ "'? '"" ""d ='>are 

-d more rLotc" Srt "'""T "'"" "^ ^"-- ""d the .r';'!-;''?""'' '•"«'' '" 
™d a ,reat gap was^"'":;Z!,:?™.".'^^> "- "un.bers «!:^,;: 'd "itM^ T 'l' "«" 

limits. The fnt.r ' . '""" '"e desired 
twelve, haf of J " '"''™ «= ""'v 

and li;d 1 kin '""c'T ■'''''■ "™'"«™ 
tl.e BenJ ' ^"'""'" """''son. of 

I-«v »SlfST;''"^""«'"-'i'tle 
quie.lv^S^SJ:'''^^:™-"-'. stole 



"Id a g ea "^w T' ''"' ''"'"""''■^. 
as it was IS^r : '"'' '""'""I. which 
peared to„"e a™" f "'"-"-^n.. ap: 

anxietv their ra',''°'- "'""' '''''"«>less 

Continuous B.ttery the f.w ,e , ''jr'' •■'""•'' "- ditcl, ,„ 

The history of the siW. „ , ~"'^''<>es le I. ■ 1 1 T ""'"'"' '''' ""■'' 

7th is a rcirord of Tl ^ ^"""''^ ^'^1 that a hii M n ""'>■ '""^'-- " "^'s 

"...l ho^bard^e t, „cr:"'cri 'f'"^ '"= "nTa'rts /Let':,""''"''""'''"'" 
pcrscveriiic ,.ff„rt ■ . instant and no eith, r ,i, ' ""■'"' away. But 

•niliing, Ihetl '""""« "■"■ -«"'"■ no' 1 ^" '^;r>V'^'--a'-''fcss, the ;,ats gave 

-^:^er':!r\i-i^V^ -ptam ca. t^:t^tz''^rr'^:^^^ 

-ote than pashif 1,^ *'''"'™'' •'^■^"''^'^ '"".ced the s.«,^ ™''- 'f'"^'' "^"m- 

the»ldier.yi;S;^h; 1.™,T-1^' ™ "-ds"m. S L, ta X^:^;,"? ■""'"« 

""hi" the fortihcation ,X l:"',rr'" 
'"i.g watched from a distance ^ "' 

wakefulness bv ,he sudjen ''' """ 

their foe so elnsc.fH "l'l"-"'rai,ce of 

less took Z leThe 7r"''""' """ ''""^t- 
the Jats«.«l '''■•■'''"' "'"™'"K party, 

'f--'c;:r:;;:::;r^rrir/"i 

advantage of fl,„ . ■ """"•' took lull 

lircHl a V n '"■"* an.l deliber.telv 

ureu a vulJev into llu- /l. . . - 

in front of' 1 1™ \u ""''" "' ""'" 

cieared awav l"'- ' r,', "' ""= ^""*e 

Camucli:)era 



sSv^svrT "■■-"-"' "' 

brilliant con S^rof'v ''"'''■"'''''■= 

re|K>rt had been C, Ih "^ r,""'""""- -^ 
"m|>thattheRl„J. - ^l'"-'^ '"to the 

acroL t'\,ea:h '''''"'"''"■' ""^'-^''es 
fieholls,"di,-:^^J'^^.,';- '-'eral 
fort lied it as to , ■ . "'herwise so 

a-,r„4';::."t:n:n;"^:7:;'"^'" 

anxous to o ,t,;,', """"eral .Nuliolls was 

t-;i;hrL;j::r't'"»'''=^''"' ■'■'>- d 

""mennis u■f,:,':;":,"""'~•"''"■'"'"- 
=Pear-poh,tst:ld"e:e,;",i','^'^■''""'' 
ramparts r . . ™ Khnting on the .iirt.-ti >■ : ='"'"' 

' """" -'-^--'■s-^trepid i<:";jSL"ihrt:ri;:^ 

453 



.1,41 



mm 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 

object had been Rained, however, and he for the ser\-ice, placed under Generals Re>TielI 
plunced *l"vvn the breach in retreat. There and XichoUs respectively. General NichoIIs 



plunged 

was a rt -,ii, in pursuit, of the exasperated 
enem^- I" tin- top of the breach, and the 
little rcciMiaoirriiig band was in deadly 
danger fn-m the many weapons about to be 
pointta at them. But tlie muskets in the 
Enghsh trenches were ready and aimed. 
Fingers were now on the triggers, and the 
first crowd of the enemy was swept away by 
the calculated discharge before they could 
use their matchlocks. The places of the 
first that fell were quickly supplied, but ever 

the heavy and 

well -aimed fire 
from the 
trenches flamed 
forth with crush- 
ing effect, and, 
covered by the 
friendly storm 
which hurtled 
over their heads. 
Captain Carnii- 
chael and his 
m e n regained 
the shelter of 
their lines 
almost un- 
scathed. The 
sole casualty was 
one Grenadier. 

struck dead and falling into the advanced 
English trench, so nearly had he achieved 
safety. The result of the daruig adventure 
was the knowletlge that the breach, though 
a formidable obstacle, was not impregnable, 
a knowledge which was soon to be of ines- 
timable value. 

On January 17th the Engineers reported 
to Lord Combermere that the mines on 
which the issue of the siege depended would 
be ready that night. They were three in 
number : one under the angle of the north- 
east bastion, loaded with 10,000 pounds of 
jxiwder connected by a train ;joo feet lung 
lea<liiig under the ditch ; another, less 
heavily loaded, destined to improve and 
i'xtend the breach ; while a third, still 
smaller, was to blow in the counterscarp. 
Orders were given for the assault on the 
following day. Two columns were formed 



attacked the left-hand breach. Brigadiei 
Adams had command of a reser\'c formed 
in the trenches, in case the assault failed. 

At half-past four on the morning of the 
iSth the troops silently entered the trenches, 
where they were to remain hidden till the 
signal for assault- was given. The most 
advinccd parallels were not occupied, as it 
was feared that the debris of the exploding 
mines would cause many injuries to i)eople 
within their influence. The Commander- 
in-Chief himself 




;-?:5; 



PLAN OF ASSAULT OF BHABATPUR 



inspectetl each 
column, made 
sure that his 
orders had been 
carried out and 
that every pre- 
caution had 
been taken to 
keep the assem- 
blage of soldiers 
hidden from the 
enemy with 
whom they were 
so soon to 
grapple hand to 
hand. Not a 
head was raised, 
not a bayonet 
was to be seen over the trendies, not a 
sound was to be heard in the still morning 
but the low hum rising from a mass ol 
men quivering with excitement and with 
dirticulty restraining their pent-up feelings, 
A little after eight o'clock an Enginttt 
officer reported to Lord Combermere that 
the mines were ready, and the orckr 
was given that they should be firt.Hl 
Every eye was turned to the points of tin 
expected explosions, and followed witli 
keenest suspense the lightly curling smoke 
wiiich showed the gradual ignition of tin. 
trains. At last with a mighty roar the twe 
lesser mines exploded, doing all the work 
that had been expected from them. Alarmn! 
by the sudden and mighty shocks, and fear 
ing an immediate assault, the garrison 
crowded to the angle of the liastion. tin 
sunlight gleaming on their white garments 



454 



Section I 



BHARATPlJR^j.vN. ]8,h, 1826 



their arm„ur. and ,vavi„,, 
weapons, Wttle did they think 
that death was e^■c„ n„„ 
eapn,Ktmvard., then,, and that 
their time ™, earth was i„ 
he couute.l hy seconds. Vn.,, 
=;» they gathered and sh„at,d 
defiance there was the c„n- 
vuls,„n „f the sreat mines 
explosion. The whole hastion 
heaxed and rent. \„ e.r 
sphtting crash like loudest 
thun.ler shook the air. and 
»i>ere the bastion had l,een ., 
Jense cloud of dust and sn,oke 
arose, mingled with the ho.lies 
ami «n,l.s of the ill- fate,, 
wretches, with stones. timl,ers 
masses of earth, and indefinable 
debr,,.. To the authors of 
that terrible <lestruction the 
spectacle was appalling ;amo„. 

expedient of cruel war were 

scattered broadcast confusion, 

d«may. and ,leath in its most 

horrible fornis. 
-V"r were the effects of the 

great explosion confinHl to the 

tiefenders of Bharatpur „l„„e 

tven more far-reaching than 
was anticipated sprea.l the 
shadow of death. Seattere,! 
fragments of t|,e „ ,,,.,^.^,| 

;::™lrthr■r'r^"* ~.™.h.o_ 
^-^r;™Lr{'-^™-^^^ -^. 

,„,.-- ;.. command. Two «" tile attack!::^ il^j-'S^^T;:^:-;*^:: 



Mo,lern 







senovs .» .■■—"' Ill command. Twi 

sepois standmg close bv ti,, ,• 

in-Chief were kill, .""^, '-'"""'••"■■ier 

was sfr,,,!, 1 Bngadier JfcC 

™s struck down, and Brigadier Paiton 



'Ith, made good his ascent 'md' in '"V"" 

with captiin-v-: •""■ ""«-'- ■>^' Z7Z'!:""T""^""^'^^-«^ 



theijth ,„i , ""'""ant Dale „ 
wreAh; k!lM-'*™'''"'™"'"-'4'i'. 
whoi:;!^™'' !>;-?'; '-'ceased, the 



stirring strains of the " British (•', "r '"' 
- they left the trenche t 1^ :^t, 
steelier, the fire ,„ i,, "riacli was 

thanat,l.„;„" ™-'""-''-ior 



whole scene wr^mrn '"" «"«'■ the steeper „ „„ ",7 "" '"'"''' «'" 

— " .'.e enemy ijirrs ^iT:!:;^ i::^^:-:-- "-«=:: 

^.j -^ "" "■"! led the w.,y. There 



i ■'■ ! 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 

eiit'iny hdure them. And of that 
ctU'iiiy many brave men died where 
they stood rather than step one back- 
ward pace. The gunners in particu- 
lar woulil not forsake the pieces 
which they had ser\'etl so well, and, 
at the close of the fisht, were almost 
to a man found lying dead, sword 
in hand, round their lo\cd artiller>-. 
I.ieutcnant-Colonel Delamain had 
led a column to the attack of a 
breach near the Juggeenah gate on 
tlic right of C.eneral Rcynell's ma.n 
.is-Siiult. He had won his way into 
the town, though with heavy loss, 
as a niuie had been fired by the 
enemy beneath the feet of his 
stormers and blown up many. His 
success was complete, however, and 
clearing his path to his left along 
the fortilications he met Major 
Everard. who was coming in the 
opposite direction. \iu\ now one of 
the most terrible catastrophes of the 
day happened to the defeated but 
stiil desperately fighting Jats. Be- 
■•THE MIS, MAKING A FRANTIC LEAP FOR SAKKiv. WERE twccn Coloncl Dclamain and Major 

Everard there yawned a steep and 
narrow gorge, about si.\ty feet deep, 
and the two bodies of Enghsh 




BURIED IN ITS DEPTHS" 
From a picture by W. H. Overeml 



was a moment of hesitation in one Native 
infantry corps, Imt when General Re\-nell 
himself, standing on the top of the mined 
bastion, exposed to the heavy tire from the 
citadel, called out to tlieni to follow him, 
they answereil to the appeal and plunged 
with confidence into the fight. 

As had been directed in orders, the head of 
General Kexniell's colunni turned to the right 
to clear the ramparts as soon as the breach 
had been crowned, while the Xative infantrj' 
penetrated into the town and moved through 
it parallel to the storming party. The Jats 
rallied gallantly and, facing K\Lrard and his 
Grenadiers in hand to hand contlict, dis- 
puted ever\ inch of ground. There was no 
time for the actual combatants to load and 
fire. The struggle was between tulwar on 
one side and bayonet and niuskct-lnitt on 
the other. Matcillock lire loan the adjacent 
houses told heavily on the English, but still 
the 14th fought their way on, driving their 



troops arrived at the opposite side of tins 
gorge, simultaneously pressing their foes 
before them. From both sides the Jats 
were driven backwards at the ix)iiit of 
the bayonet towards the abyss and. making 
a frantic leap for siitety, were buried 
in its depths. In a few minutes severid 
hunilreds lay piled at the bottom of tli. 
gorge, a helpless, groaning mass. To ad'l to 
the horror of their conditiim many of tlicni 
wore armour of quilted cotton, impervious to 
sword-cut and e\en to nuisket-ball. Tln> 
armour had in many cases been set on lirt- 
by the close <lischarge of musket or [listol 
and the wretched wearers were slowlv 
roasted till death came as relief to their incon- 
ceivable torture. A noble attempt was mad.' 
to rescue some of them, and a few wcri 
extricated, but time and means were nnl 
available for t!ie work of mercy, and, a ft* 
hours later, nothing was left but " a con- 
fused mass of burned and burning bodies. 



BHARATPUR-JAN. 18.h, 1826 



Section I 



1"^ from I,„ri Cambermeres army' °' 



Modern 
triumiili, fr)r it toiri *i, 
<l^.y, storn >v„'k " """''^""" '" •'- 



rue Summons to Surrender 

the fir»t t„ „,„u„t tl "bread, w? " "?' ""' 
Lis o„-„ prudence LnLthr ■'' "!'" 
verba, .i.„as.„n .nd IC„ tV^ ^tff 

"f in«>ndili„„a| surrender The ,-th V 
Infantrv was sent for t„ ,1, '' "'"" 

after l,ri J , , ' '" ''»'"■' P'ssession. and 

after brief delay they entere<l an,l the Kin»'. 
coJ.ur of „,e regiment was l,„ist S ™ ,t: 
batt,eu.e„,s„f the d.adel-a sight of joyo!;: 



Capture of Ooorjun Sal 

cwMren.i.'rL-fT'^tr^ri 

trke,rt " '" ""• ■•'■'"^"■•ler were 

":;;ri;t:::r'X:-;^:r.tT"^"-^ 

-™ed. TheBr.;is:;a:2:L:^^,r::;™: 
s^a„dn■,heassaultan.„u„,edtot 

?'"tr:ss'i„d':^si^"-"- 



:if .(' 



SECTION I.— MODERN 



THE CONQUEST OF SCINDE 



L\I)V SARAH LUN'XOX." wrott-- Horace 
\ValiK)le, " was morL- l>eauti£ul than 
^ yuu can concLivc. N'o Magdalen by 
CorreR>;i<» was half si Invdy and express- 
ive." So thought the yoiins King Ceor^e 
III., wh.j !>ent her a ^jroposal of marriage 
through a common friend. On tlie next 
Court-day the King took Lady Sarah aside, 
and asked what she tliought of his message. 
" Tell me." he pleaded. " for my hapiiiness 
depends on your answer." " Nothing, sir," 
replied the lady, who just then had someone 
else in her head. " Nothing comes of nothing," 
said His Majesty, as he turned away in mani- 
fest vexation ; but he never ceased to treat 
the lady with marked distinction. 

Napier'5 Family 

Had Lady Sarah accepted (Jeorge, there 
had been no Sir Charles Xapier to conquer 
Scin<le. Lady Sarah, after a most unhappy 
firs', marriage, married, in 1 777, Colonel George 
Napier. She became the mother of a numerous 
family, in whose veins llowed illustrious 
blood ; for on the paternal side the pedigree 
went back to Montrose, the Napiers of Mer- 
chiston. and the Scctts of Tliirlestane ; on tlie 
maternal side it descended from Bonrlxms, 
Stuarts, and Medicis, 

The family was reared in the village of Cel- 
bri'Ige, a few miles from DubUii. The three 
'Idest sons— Cliarles, (Jeorge, and William — 
became distinguished soldiers : William in 
liis later years was the author of the " History 
of tlie reiiinsular War." In that war they 
were all repeatedly wonnde<l, and performed 
many acts of valour, 'i! , eldest S(«i, Charles, 
received a commission in 1794, when he was 
just twelve years old. He had interest, and 
rose rapidly being mostly employed on Staff 
duty. All three brothers ser\'cd under Sir 
John Moore when, in the Slutmcliffe camp in 
1805, that great S(.ildier taught the prhicijiles 



and practice of war to the regiments which. 
a few years later, became Wellington's fauKms 
Light Division. The three brothers took 
part in Moore's retreat to Corunna in the 
winter of iSoS-^. and fought in the battle 
which was the brilliant ending to the disas- 
trous retreat. 

Taken Priwner at Corunna 

This campaign was Charies Napier's first 
ex(}erience of active 5er\-ice, yet he was then 
a Major, in command of the 50th Regiment. 
When Moore was struck down in the heart 
of the fighting at Corunna, the 5uth was 
suddenly recalled, when Napier and four 
soldiers were left in the extreme front. 
They were immediately surrounded and the 
four soldiers were instantly bayoneted ; 
Napier was struck down, repeatedly stabbed, 
and struck as he lay with clubbed muskets, 
A French drummer saved his life and was 
assisting him to the rear when a lone soldier 
of the 50th was met. Napier himself must 
recount the sectuel. 

'• He (the s(jldier of the 50th) instantK 
halted, recovered his arms, and cocked hi- 
piece, looking fiercely at us to make out tin.' 
situation. Then he levelletl at my l-'rencli 
drummer ; but T struck up his musket, call- 
ing out. ' For Cod's sake don't fire ! I am .1 
pr' -Mier, badly wounded, and can't help ymi , 
surrender.' ' Tor why would I surrender ? ' 
the soldier shouteil. in the deepest of Irish 
brogues. ' Because,' said ^ ' there are 1' 
least twenty men upon y. " Will, ii 1 

must surriiuier. thcri' I ' he i uneil dasii- 
ing down his firelnck acr<!s> : .cir legs and 
making them jumi>— ' there's me tirelock for 
yez.' Then, coming close up he threw In- 
arm round me, :md giving the drummer .1 
push that sent lum and one or two moa 
reeling against a wall, he shouted out 
' vStand back, ye bloody spaliwens ! — Ml 



•'ir. retl * 



-- ' ^«'^Q^ESTOPSC,NDE-SEPT.,8-,2-MAR is,, 

earn- I„m nnself. Ii„i i...... . .. '"AK. J843 



"•i<i luclc t., the whole. 



earn- him myself, 
of rcz ! 

lw»rtunity in- 
'luccd the 
<rt>\eninicnt to 
sent! to ascer- 
tain Ills f;]te. 
«'hat hap- 
lienctl then il- 
lustrated the 
chivalry of the 
French of th t 
Iieriod. Uouet 
received tlie 
"ag of truce 
and informed 
^"ey. nlio re- 
plied, "Lef 
Ilim sec his 
friends and tell 
them he is well 
and well-treat- 
^-" Clonet 
looked ear- 
nestly, I,ut did 
not nioAe; antl 
iN"ey asked hini 
whyhewaiteil. 
" He has an 
oM mother." 
said Uouet, 
"a widow, and 
Mind." " Has 
he?" ex-^ 
claimed \cv ; j, 
" let him g,i, 
then, and tell her l„„„cll th ,t l„. i • v , . 

;;;,<;^:^^pa.chofM.„^,t:ir^^-„ 
kI:d"Tr'"''''^""-i"'««|-"ongt 

In-r 'rtvo'T"r"''"'^™•>^--'-- 
-fa„;m^::Ssa:""^'■'''^•'»•" 
n.c.<.™,._,,ee„,.,edK.r.;;:;i;:c:f 

' ' '" '"■ ^^"^ »•> "' i" the hattle, out 



lolocr.ipli 



459 



Modem 

-— f.i.e'c^.r^ho'tf:.^^"'^ 
M::.''Ti:^Ui"--i:r,rr 

' '"e'""oivmR tenor: 
"I" the 
'< " o d s of 
Charles James 
-Vapier. j;sq., 
heretofore sup- 
posed to be 
<lcad, 

■ In Feljru- 
ary last pro- 
hate of the last 
"ill and testa- 
ment of the 
above was 
Kranted to 
Kichard Xa- 
pier, l-sq., as 
hrother and 
sole esecutor 
najncd in the 
said will, 
K:chardXapier 
ha\ing made 
an aliidavit de- 
_ that he 
had received 
intellii.ence, 
«lncli he be- 
lieved correct, 
that the said 
Charles James 
-Vapier had 
l>een killed in 
l>attle at Co- 
runa on the 

,irv I, St" r , "'"' "' Janu- 

•^t- I.>cr after Corutma Napier's 

n , """ °'''' ''■'^''^-^^ '""-"Men 
that he was enabled to return to 




SIR CHAKLES NAPJKR 



■ H. P.irl, 



U: ::^^ 



1810, 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



the Peninsula, when he joined the Lisht 
Division as a volunteer, and presently took 
part in the action of the Coa. where his 
lirotlier William was dangerously wounded. 
At Busaco he himself was shot ehrouRh the 
lace when on Wellington's StafT, and had to 
go into hospital at Listmn. " My jaws are 
crooked." he wr> e, " and will always be so ; 
my mouth opens hut stifHy." He was return- 
ing to the front in the spring of 1811. when 
he heard the noise of battle and met a litter 
borne by soldiers and covered with a blanket. 
" WTiat wounded officer is that ? " he askwl. 
"Captain Napier, of the 32nd— a broken 
limb." Another litter followed. " Who is 
that ? " " Captain Napier, of the 43rd, 
mortally wounded "—it was thought so theu. 
Charles Napier li«>kcd at his two brothers, 
and passed on to the flght in front. Tlie 
Xapiers were always getting hit. Charles 
himself had seven wounds : his brothers had 
some sixteen between them. 

Tlw Inactivity ol PMce Times 

Charles Napier, after I'vo years' hard 
fighting, was still a Major ; but in the summer 
of 181 1 he was promoted to the Lieutenant- 
Colonelcy of the lQ2nd Regiment— a corps 
just returned from Botany Bay with a bad 
character for insulM)rdination. In the begin- 
ning of 1812 he took the regiment to Bermuda, 
where he restoreil it to order by firm yet not 
tyrannical resolution. Years passed without 
employment, for the wars were over For 
eleven years he was in the Ionian Islands for 
the most part as Mihtar>- Resident of Cepha- 
lonia— a pleasant, useful time, the happiest 
period of his life ; diversified occasionally, 
however, by friction with the home authori- 
ties. Canning, then Prime Minister, had been 
listening to statements that Napier had been 
using his position to negotiate with the Greek 
chiefs. The storv' was wholly untrue, and in 
as many words he s;iid that it was so, adding : 
" For my part, I scorn to deprecate the 
wrath of any man who suspects my integrity. 
If you doubt my conduct, or wisli my place 
for' a better man, m God's name use your 
]>owcr to employ the men you thuik best 
calculate.! for the King's ■-(■r\-ice." Napier 
) recalled 



When he was in his fifty-si.\th year, and 



had l)een unemployed for eight >-ear9, I/)rd 
John Russell gave him the Command of the 
Northern nistrict, a post for which he was 
now eligible, haWng become a Major-General. 
He did much, with resolution yet with discreet 
moderation, to hold within bounds the 
Chartist agitation. But home duty, with its 
continuous correspondence, was irksome to 
him : rumours of war in India rekindled his 
military ardour ; and on his tifty-eightli 
birthday we find him writing : " I dare sware 
few men have had more .adventures than my- 
self ; and yet, eventful as my life has Iwen. 
my present position and the threatening 
state of the countr>- render it probable that 
the short ]»rtion of life wliicli is left to nii 
may Iw the most eventful of the whole. " 
This anticipation turned out a true prophecy. 
In the autumn of 1S41, in his sixtieth year, 
he was voyaging to India, With a !wdy worn 
with wounds and toil, with two children un- 
provided for, he was on his way to e:i\mn 
himself to fresh dangers and undertak. 
arduous duties in a land where the climatf 
alone, in the opinion of th<tse who knew him 
would be more than he could bear. When 
he had paid for his passage he landed in 
Bombay with just thirty shillings in his 
pocket, 

Napier Sets Out for Sdnde 

Sir Charles Napier— the (Jucen, in 1838. 
had made him Knight-Omimander of the 
Bath— was in command of the I'oona Di\i- 
sion for nearly a year. On September 3rJ, 
1842. he sailed from Bombay for Kurrachec 
in a vessel carr>Tng 200 Eurojieaji troops. 
She was scarcely clear of Bombay harbour 
when \-irulent cholera broke out. Wlieii 
next morning dawned. 25 bodies had been 
thrown overboard. " The darkness of tlic 
night." wrote Napier. " the pouring rain, tl.v 
roaring of the waves, the noise of the enpiii, 
and the wheels, the dreadful groans of tlit 
men dying in horrid amvulsions, the lamen- 
tations of men and women who were losing 
wives, husbands, and children, the solemnity 
of the burial service read by the light of a 
solitar>- lanteni, presented altogether a dreail- 
ful .scene." Fifty-four Uves were lost durii;g 
the three days' voyage : 80 men more wi:c 
down on the filthy, reeking deck. Of ti.t 



46a 



s^-oH, CONQUEST OF SCINDE-SEPT 184. m.. 



snn-ii-nrs l,r„ugl,t nshcre a d„zen „, 
penslicJ. In ek-ht ,hy^ ,.. '"' 

<^i^ "f ...e ..t;;L,;:::/'t,:;^rr, 

to tlic same K-K ivhicli 

lie had brukc-n wl.c, 

a boy, and vvliicli had 

been sul,sc.,j,M,t|v 

damascd at Corunna. ' 

-Veverthiless. nitliin a 

ivfck after ar.ivinR ;,t 

Kurrachec, lie „,,s 

steaming up the In- 

Jus, the great river 

"" ivliose shores he 

was soon to lieconie 

the central figure in a 

senes of great e^■,•nt^ 

The iKipulation of 
?^<le in 1S4. num- 
•wred rather more than 
a million souls. It 
consisted of four dis- 
tinct elements— Sein- 
dians pro|)er. Hindus 
Beloochees of the 
plain, and Beloocluvs 
of the mountains. The 
two former «ere the 
helots of the territorv 
Tlie chieftainship was 
vested in the Belooch 
''^n of Tal,«orees, 

"■e march in 8,"" '"""'"."'■ """"« 

«-ghrpp^^i::,^XS;'""'^ 

P-ceediug to Afghanistan t S ShaT 

'-emand-i.^r^i':-:;;;-:^,-;. 



lern 

-■itiKh.s„/pa::;^':':;;-'";'n-Kcs, 

«'--''"n^,lKlK-,„r,V,,.'' '"■''■'■''I'''"' 

;i->a-i his territ'n';^ ;;;':;■;" V'^^"' 




^'""""^""'^-^r'"" "--"-• -^--^ 



«-«-to'nhrau",'^„j'^--™-« 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



urnlur British protiction : that the Ameers 
should he al)S(jlute in regard V > their own s'jli- 
jecls, hut quarrels amimg themsiilves were tD 
be referretl to British mediation ; that their 
foreign ixilicy was to lie sanctioucil hy tlie 
British ('...veniment. and that they were to 
furnish a defensive force at call ; and that 
tolls on trading boats on the Indus should 
be aljolished. 



Napier's Arrival at Hyderabad 

At the date of Najiier's arrival in Scinde, 
Major ( lutrani. " the Bayard of India," was 
Resident at Hyderabad. I.ord Ellenl»)rough, 
the new C.overnor-Oeneral. communicateil to 
him his fixed determination to jumish, cost 
what it might, the first chief who should 
prove faithless, by the confiscation of his 
dominions. Outram temporised because < f 
his knowledge that the Ameers as a body 
were so conscious of treasonable designs that 
l^rd Ellenborough's menacing tone might 
drive them to extremities. It was at this 
stage when Sir Charies Xajrier, on Septem- 
ber Z5th, arrived at Hyderabad, had his 
first interview with the Ameers of Lower 
Scinde. and took over the management of 
affairs, as Lord Ellenborough's instructions 
directed him to " exercise entire authority 
over all political and civil officers within the 
limit of the military command." 

Napier, in full uniform and wearing his 
decorations, was borne into Hyderabad in 
a magnificent palanquin— his wound pre- 
venting him from riding— surrounded by an 
escort of Scinde Irregular horsemen— wild, 
picturesque figures in brilliantly coloured 
trappings. At the city gate he was met by 
the Sirdars, mounted on lean, active horses. 
When the procession reached the palace of 
the Ameers he was carried to a seat on the 
right hand of Nusseer Klian. the chief Ameer, 
and compliments were exchanged. Xext day 
Napier was ofl on his farther voyage up the 
Indus to Sukkur, where his ijolitical work 
began. Apparently at this time he had the 
conviction that the practical annexation of 
Scinde hy peaceful means was neither difficult 
nor far distant. But it was not long before 
he discovered serious breaches of the treaty 
on the part of the Ameers, and he became 
aware also that tbev were entering into secret 

46 



compacts against the English, and were send- 
ing messages to their feudatories and the 
chiefs rif the hill tribes. Matters came to a 
head when Xapier had to present a new and 
more stringent treaty than tiiat [irevionsly 
in force. Violent remonstrances eame from 
the Ameers, followed quickly by assurances 
of submis,sion which were only meant ♦(> <aui 
time. The mihtary strength of the .mieei.s 
was variously estimated fnmi .io 000 iji to 
double that number. The total Brili?'i fnrce 
in Scinde amcmnted to H.ikm) men. oi .vhcm 
alK)Ut 2.000 were in garrison at Kurracliee. 
If Napier meant fighting he had no time 
to lose, for no military operations could be 
carried on in Scinde later than the beginning 
of April. A garrison was left in Sukkur, and 
the Indus was crossed in the middle of 
December. 



Napier Aims at Emaum Qhur 

" It is rare," wrote Sir William Xapier. the 
historian, " to see great prudence in war 
teniiwring the heroic valour and confidence 
of a youthful general ; more rare to find the 
sanguine daring of early years untamed by 
age and its infirmities," Charles Napier 
was both ]»rudent and daring. The Ameers 
thought to harass the veteran by petty war- 
fare, and by watching for opi»)rtunities to 
assail his base and annoy his communications. 
But that sort of hostihties did not commend 
itself to Napier. When they were hesitathig 
and trifling, he was acting. He had heard 
of the fortress of Emaum Ghur. a hundred 
miles out in the great eastern desert. Tlie 
Ameers believed that it was invulnerable 
and that a hostile force could not reacli it 
wliile. should he assemble a large force, tlR' 
could fall back on the desert fortress and > > 
be safe. Napier believed that he could re.te'.i 
Emaum tihur, and so eonvhiee the .Vnieer^ 
that they could find no refuge from tiu 
British iH)wer, and no resource but goi»l 
behaviour. He was aware of the risks in- 
volved, but he was the man to surmoui;t 
them. 

The site of the desert fortress was unkaowi 
to Napier, but it was believed to be abort 
eight lone marches from Khyrpoor by vatlib 
ill-defined tracks. The scouts, for whose r. - 
jKirts he had halted, brought in such disiii 1 



-.on , CONQUEST OF SONDE -SEPT. ,842-MAR 18., 

.•.cc,.„,„s„f „i.i S3„,,, ,„ . ^^ ""^ MAR. 1843 Mode, 



for five Tl,e f, r . -" ""•' "••"" 

''.eni«,,,o?a:;;:;:";i'r'"''r^''"" 

qmngs of Don, „.,! ■•■'■ "■■"''''"' ""^ 

150 troopers „ere sent ,'kvV"' 
'he gallant little l,a„ 1 , ot,l ™' """ '■'* " 
thuling water .:.,„ ,.''"'""' ""■ »K>il"nKs 

cheer' am ;es^"r""" ?°'' '"" ■*"-- 

eminence Xapier l,H,kM ' " "' " ^'"''>- 
and,vell-W,,'^;ttt -;.V'"-.rong 

P<ete*„ceal„u.tlu.pir,o t™*; 

it .-as sai r ', ""'""'""• """'''ering. 

'e:i,-r'l,^^:™-nt1h^"'= "''''"'' 
refuge of the 1„ '™s the impregnable 

Enropel, ?,a,; ir,? '"""^ ^"'''^ "" 

British „a„'s'«-;,itr,orof?-"i" 

VonHetriptS. •"'""*■' ""^ S'-'' "- 



*'""'•'"■ «l,icl,|,e„r,„.e to ^vert q. 

"ig was lie t,, , I . , "*ert. So mm 1 - 

"•H>*ra„a:,,a,;;;-':,:v™;;;,7'^"- 

rapidlyconverKi„Kontl,e, ,.',';',' "'",'"■" "'■■" 
On Fel.ruarv ,..,1, "it"' "''""'""'■ 

j;^^.^v..,s:„x:i:rfr.:::^ 
<^'a.™ :ci:''"""""''"^'-'"-''ei.. 

^:r:si~?~"'^^c^ ^ 

" '" '" 'ejom the main fn,ce. 



to compete the treatv Tapfc' "' ^'"■''~" 

ram. e;;x:t, -s-hr ;!;'"■ ""'- 
pa"..withthe.wsi„^:i^;;z^;i;;g 

■465 



The Ameer's Letter 

""an- 6th. l,eh,-s oecurrO ■,'..;:■ 

"'""•'" ""I'fe'^i,,. I , . r. 

"■e Amec-rs. (,„ ,ae „i ,„ , /.' ,',.. 
•V.p.er» eavalry «,izrf so. . ,:,;.,.■' 

on h ,, .,„,^,^ ,,,„„„^/,;- ■ 'J^e-ee 

"St;;:rr^r™;;,:"r"'"^"-- 

to hostilities Tl ,r ""■"' '" "-^o" 

deeided Xapier he t'",7 "' "'" "'"^^'«^- 
on Sleanee." Oat ,;::,"'''"'' ^'™«''' 

""-■ '""'■■^' estimate „1 „,„ „,,p, ,1,^, 






<^i 



THE BATTLK OF MEANEE, FEBKliAS» ,„j: THE 
Vion\ a I'- lu" '^P 'lojiher Clark 




■^ 1943: THE MGHT AT THE GUNS 
■"'i"l'her Clark R.[. 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



strength was 22.000 figbtiiiR men ; according 
to the Ameers' pay-roll suhsequently found, 
it amounted to 40,000. Wlien the baggage 
guard over the camel-laager and Outram's 
detachment were deductcl, there were but 
2,200 under arms, of whom less than .500 
were Euroiwans. It was i>lain to Na|>ier at 
a glance that there was no chance of man- 
CEUvring to gain the lieloochee flank, and 
tliat he had no alternative but to attack 
the enemy's centre directly in front across 
the bare white plain, narrowed as it was 
bv the ''.ense and ruggetl shikargas. or 
iMWting forests. Ixmnding it on either side. 
Meanwhile, with the enemy's 18 guns jiouring 
their shot on Napier's troops, the order of 
battle was forme<l. On the right were Ll'yd's 
12 guns Banked Ijy 50 Madras Sappers On 
Lloyds left stood, less than 500 strong, 
the 22nd Cheshire Regiment liader Colonel 
I'ennefather, consisting in great ireasure of 
Irishmen. On the left of the 22nd were the 




^ '%K;:p 

i \ ft ^1 





PI.Ar4 OF THE BATTLK OF MKANF.F. 



three Bombay Nati%e regiments, of which the 
25tli was immediately on the left of tlie 22nd. 
then in succession towards the left the 12th, 
and the 1st Crenadiers : the whole force in 
echelon of battalions from the right. Closing 
the extreme left, but somewhat held back, 
rode the 9th Bengal Cavc'-ry under Colonel 
Pattle. on which flank also the gallant Jacob 
with his Scinde Horse were out to the front, 
along with the Grenadier and Light companies 
of the 22nd in front of the centre and right, 
taunting the enemy to show his strength. 

The Battle of Meanee, 
February lyth. '»43 

Wlion the Beloochee front, just showing 
ab<.\e the hither bank of tlH- hollow, was 
distant alx>ut 1,000 yards, the order was 
given to advance. Napier with his Staff 
joined the skirmishers, he con»picu'.\i« in blue 
uniform and lielmeted hcad-dre» and rode 
forward under a heavy fire from tl«- enemy's 
guns. As he passed near the high con- 
taining wall of the shikarjtah on his rixlit. 
(,/■ observe<l a gap in it thonlgh whirh his 
rlj<)<t rear couM be taken in reverse. He 
instantly thrust into this gap Captain Tew's 
company of the 22nd. with orders to hold 
it to tl>e l.iBl extremitv His orders were 
obeye<l. 'few was slain, but the gap was 
maintauiexl. and (1.000 Belochees were 
paralysed by the resistance of a single 
comjiany. The main bo<ly advanced in 
cohimns of regimcTits. When within a few 
hundred yards of the FuU.olUe. the 22nd 
rapidly deployed into line, and all the 
colnnnis toruRd in succes.sion. each com- 
pany as it came iijt directing its lire on 
the top uf the bank. o\er which tlie f.ices 
of the Ikloochccs conlil just be discerne<l 
over their lev elled matchlocks Tile British 
front was still incomplete when llie voice 
of the Oeiicral rang out shrill and clc.ir as 
he stood out to the front ordering the 
charge. Then msi- the answering British 
shout, as heiidiiig with the forw.inl rush of 
a mighty movement tin' red wall of the 
.:2nd, fronted with steel, went rushing on at 
the charge. If to the Beloochee foenieii the 
sisht and sound of a British charge must 
haw been strange, not less terrible w.is 
the scene as it all at once opened on the 



T^mrz. 



^^iEik^^itMiThTlfZ 



T 



>'i*?atei?' 



Section 1 CONQUEST OF SCINDE-SEPT. I8-t2-MAR. 1843 M«iern 




THE 9J1I BENGAL CAVALRY AT MEANEE, FtBRUARY 17tl,, 



Britisli regiment. Htlow, on tlic wiik- 1k-.I 
vi the dry ri\ lt, a <ltnsc iii.iss of w.irriors 
stood ready to witlistand the sliock. V\'itli 
tulwars and shields held lii^'h owr turhaiied 
liL-ads. ^o.ooo (ightin>; men, .sjunitiny tiieir 
war-cries and elashiii^ sword and shield tn- 
Kether, >!.i\e fierce welcome to tlie eneniv 
I"or ii moment tlie vast niiniericdl superiority 
of tlieir op[)fments iheeked tlie ardtmr of the 
Iiritish advance. Tiie r.d wall siemed to 
staj^Ker and then uioinentariiy rea)iled, wlien 
the ea^er and animated li^i iv of the l>ra\e 
veteran chief w.is seen out iu front nf his 
addicrs, as with pe.dinj; voice and vi^;nrijus 
gesture he ur^ed them to fight forw.ird into 
the furious crowd. The youny Wildicrs nf the 
Jjnd — it was their lirst hattlo— resi>inided 
gallanlly to tiie old leaders call. Tiic Sipalii 
regiments prolou^cii lU'j hue of lire to the 
left, coining into action successively with 
ardour and resolution. 

Hut tlie Heloochees did not yield Thev 
closc-d in den.se masses, the rush nf llnir 
swordsmen w.is fierce, and their shouts, 
answered by the pealini; nuisketr\- fire, were 
heard aldni; the ane, Such a fii;lit ensue<i as 



lias seJdom I.een told of in tlie aim.d- ..f war. 
J-'or e\i'r Iliose wild hen e warriors w h 
shields held liigh ami tJad^-s drawii hack. 
strove with might and valour to l.rcak 
thnugh the Hritish ranks Xo liru of small 
arms, no sweeping disclurnes <A g/Ji>e, no 
pusli of hay<mets could driM- them track; 
tliey yii\e their breast< m tiie sliot thejr 
shields to the bayonets an. I, leaping at tlw 
guns and gunners were blown ; wyy by scor«r» 
iit t'ver>' discharge, their diad rolling down 
the steep slopes till tlie cori«ies r(j»e m piU-s , 
iHit till, gaps W..-V..' eontilUIally filled fro*^* 
l>eliind. and swor-i and bayonet clasiied in 
furious conflut Tiie antagonists fought 
Iiaml to hand, ottvn. indeed intermingled, 
and se\er.d times thi' British regiments wtre 
forced vudently Ivickuard, staggering imder 
the charge of the Uelooelne swordsmen. 
Hut Napier was alwa\ s there to rally and 
cheer on ins people. 

l"or more than tliuv hours tliis stiuggle 
contmued, until every Iiritish rei;imental 
otheer was either wcmilded or killed. Things 
were going wrong on Napier's left. Hut the 
(ieneral could mit ".-nt the right, so stern uud 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 

dreadful were still the Bel.vH:hee nnslaushts, Napier s feet. Napier instantly returned them, 

so wearied ami exhauste.1 were his men. In He learnetl that the Lum of MeenHior. 

This dilemma he se-nt orders to Colonel Pattle Shere Mohamme,!. had been mthm a few 

to charge the enemy s nght with the whole miles of Meanee dunng the battle 
mass of the BenRal and Sonde cavalry. It 



was the conunand of a master in battle, and 
it was obeyed witli brilliant courage. The 
trooper-, dasheil throujih the Beloochee guns, 
crosseil the dceji bed. Rained the plain beyond, 
charged with irresistible fury, and spread 
confusion al.ing the rear of the masses opiH)sed 
to the Britisli hifantry The barbarian swords- 
men abated their fury and looked behind. 
Tiien the 22nd Laped forward with the shout 
of victorv. and pushed tUeii antagonists 
hack into the deep rarine. The Ameers had 
lost the battle, and their dogged tribesmen 
Aiwly and reluctantly retired, the conrpierors 
following closely, jiouring in volley after 
volley. So threatening still was the lieliMcliee 
attitude tliat the General thonglit it exiK-dient 
in recall his cavalry and form a square round 
the liaggage aiul followers. 

Meanee was one of the fiercest actions of 
modem times. The li>ss of the Beloocliees 
was about 7.000 men. Twenty British officers 
(ell. of whom sis were killed ; 23c 
down, of whom more tlian fifty were killed. 
No quarter was gi\en. When the old General, 
emerging uninjure<l from the strife, exclaimeil, 
■■ The enemy are beaten ! God save the 
yueen I " the army, with an unanimous 
shout, hailed him the hero of the day. He 
was in so great pain from a maimed liand 
that he could si-areely hold his reins ; yet 
he had never ceased to walk his hmsv s'owK- 
up anil down in tlie tliiek of the righting. 
At one time he was alone for sei'eral niinut -s 
in the midst of the enemy, who " stalkid 
round him with raised shields and seowli ig 
eyes ; but none lifted weaixm against liim. 
and he got away unharmeil." 

Napier at Hyderabad 

Immeilialely .itter the victor;- of Meanee. 
Najiier summoned llyilerabail to surrender. 
In answer tti the question of terms, he olfered 
■■ Life, and nothuig else " ; adding that the 
decision must be taken before midday. " for 



with 
10.000 men. So confident had the Ameers 
lieen of victory that he had iimiKisely stood 
aloof to a\ciid swelling their anticipateii 
triunipli Najiier was desirous to attack 
the I.ion while the result of Meanee was 
tresli in men s minds, but Outram lielieveil 
tlie Lion t.i be friendly. The result was 
that the I.ion. thankful for the respite, 
retreated on Meeriioor. found himself in a 
few days at the head of 23,000 men. and 
presently rekindled the war. 

The Battle of Dubba, March 14th, 1843 

Napier w as a man who could strike quickly, 
Imt who also ccndd wait patiently. The lieat 
of Scindc ill March is terrific, and Napiei 
determined to remain quietiy on the ilc 
fensii-e in a fortified |»isition on the Indus 
leaving to tlie I.ion the time to recruit to 
himself the beaten Beloocliees iif Meanee 
ami then come down and offer battle to the 
British General. Meanwhile the Ameers were 
men went detained as ]»risoners of war, having free 



intercourse with the city and the country 
They abuseil the initulgcnce, whereuiwii 
Napier conlined them on a riv.r steanici 
till they were sent to Bombay. 'Hie Lion 
was approaching, and Napier was anxiou: 
to receive his reinforcements. He had pist 
resolvcil to light the I.ion next momiiiB. 
when the reinforcements from dowat-streani 
were seen steaming up : and almost inniK- 
iliately afterwaiils there came into view 
fr.im up-stream his troops from Sukknr 
In the evening the wliole force was drawn ii| 
in front of the camp, to accustom ofticers and 
men to their posts and duties. Just as the 
Une was formed, envoys came from the 
Lion with a fuKil sunnnons to the British 
General to suriender. Napi--'r simply bail^ 
them report to their master what they bad 
seen, and then dismissed them. By tho-c 
o'clock next morning lie was in the saddK 
niarclnng straight on the enemy- ^ After .1 
ten-mile march Napier touiul himself iii 
the dead will then be buried, and mv si.ldiers sight of tlie enemy and of the b..ltle-ha ', 
will have hid their breakfasts," Six Ameers of nnbba. The Lion's right rested on (Ik- 
promptly came and laid their swords at I-'ullaiUee ,it the village of Dubba ; that llml- 

411S 



Secion , CONQUEST OF SCINDE-SEPT. 1842 MAR. 



c .uU not he tume,! becnuse of a Rreat po„,J 
" soft n,„<l ,„ ,|,e riviT Iwl. I-mm I.ul.ba 
here strctclied alonR a nullah. f„r two n.ile, 
t" he left, a double line of Beimel, infants 
3S far as a wood which appeare,! t., he the 
left na„k l,„t i„ reality a single line wa. 
prolonged farther to the left belnnd another 
nnllali somewhat retired. The enemvs ™,si- 
tion was skilfully chosen and occupiwl ■ it 



1843 Modern 
the I.ion_s skill. He was r.dn.g to the at- 
tack of Duhba at the hea.l of the -.nd^ 
this day on the left of the infantr^• Fine- 
when tuhngs came to Imn fron, the right 
that all the cavalr>- on that „,„„ was char., 
mg prematurely. He onkrcl .Major I-.^le 
of the ..nd. to contrn,e the a.hance o„ 
I ubba and himsc-lf galloped to the nght 
'«■**' «''"''-■ t«"l:'"<caudrv was at f, I 




THE BATII.E Ol- DUBBA, MARCH «,!,. .WJ 
rrjm n picture by S, Pnutt 



was held by at kast JCooo men will, „Mteh- 
locks and artillery ; while .\ai.iers force 
lons.sle.l (,f 5000 men, of whom i,ioo were 
|--n^dry, wit], ,„ guns live „( ,,,,i,|, „,^ ^., 
liorse artdlery pieces 

•I'he village of 1,uMm .lid not sum to he 
"cc.ipie.1, and Napier hoped to sii.e it in 
■■■Ivanee ,,f the eMeni> , He sent forward his 
horse artdlery in its dirKtion, and .id, aneed 
"■■Ih his infantry in echelon of battalions 

lint the Beloochees were too ,p,iek for him 
■md the village was found full of men The 
• -eneral recognised that he had underrated 



speed, dashing acro.ss the smaller nullahs 
the riders shouting triumphantly and iv iving 
.heir sword.,. The (ieneral, having ascertained 
that lus horsemen on the right were doing 
well, galloped back t., his left and .,ue the 
order for the infantry charge With de.ifening 
shouts the s,.Miers swept down h„o, he luids, 
" ! "■ 'l"."^'^"'"'- .Mi.r.lcro„s was the (ire 
»f the Unt.sh guns and musketry an<l the 
.a.,on, ts drove hack the bravest ,.f the Be- 
oochees until the struggling throngs were 
forced into the .second of ,lee.,er nullah 
where with desperate fnrv the f,..l,t ,.-,5 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



renewed. Simn the victorious trniips pnssed 
the second nullah, pressing fiercely on tlie 
rcMr of tlie retreatiuR swordsmen until the 
villase of llubba was reached, where the 
most wariike ttil>esraen of Sciiule were found 
entrenched in the houses. Two of Napier's 
regiments lappeil round tiie nearest point of 
the villaj;e, wliile the cavalry of the left wins 
turne<l the place. In a few minutes more 
Dubba was completely in\e5teil by the 



to be greeted with ringing cheers by the 
infantry. Of the enemy, 5.000 lay dead ; 
Napier's loss amcmntcd to 270 officers and 
men. of whom 147 were of the 22nd Regi- 
ment, T'lie I.ion of Mecrpoor ultimately 
escaped across the Indus, and took refuge 
with the Ikloochees of Khelat ami the Af- 
ghans. He ended his days at Lahore, sunk 
in fatuous sloth. 
The war was now at an end, and the con- 



UArTLE uDUiiBA 
(BYUEKAUAD) 

.iv'i' M'-i>mia 




PLAN OK THE BATTLE OK DUBBA. MARCH Mill 



infantry while tlie cavalry and horse artillery 
repeatedly charged the retiring nias,se5 in the 
plain beyond. The l.icn himself was very 
neatly captureil. The General, after leading 
the storm of Duliba, ami pursuing with the 
cavalrv on the left for several miles, returneil 



quest of Seindc was complete, " We have 
taught the Relooch," wrote Napier. " that 
neither his sun, nor his deserts, nor his 
jungles, nor liis nullahs can stop us. He ivill 
never face us more." And in this respect Sir 
Ciiarles Napier was a true prophet. 



^m^^^^' 



SECTION ll-p^n.y 



EDGniLL 



The vouns Kin^ r.v,^ ■ . , . . ' ' 



1_ 

him .. 

earlier. ,, 

,fimertii of James . . 

thctr purses." 



imp 
''nenls vhhL „ ,,„ 
fortniiiht after th 



nr suhi^rtv „«j ■,. ,""""h" ^ titirur to 



-«'-^^;;».;;,n^.:j:^;-»?^-j^^25 






/■■"<• Ihc next lively,. ,.,,„ 
fl""'i;li from 11,2,, lo th^„ ,1,, 









failin<;s \.rre int,-MK,fi .,/ tt'^;'" "*"" """^ 






^'tiiincd lltcu 



•"'igrd Urn 1,1 Simmon „mlLr ',', '";-'""-""y-''^o An; 
Ilii'leenycars-V.. \V t'artmmmt. some M,-mlm 



-'vers. „anLn"?h "''"'I'""""'"' 

'■■VVT.S .a L :,,:'■' rV"'""''"'' "'^' '^'^«^' 



.,/;„/( 



umcs They had at their .li.,,,,.,,1,,,, ,rlv 
.1 the „,,htaryston.„f the !.„,„,„,„, 

able ,„ ,n,,,„^. ,|„„,,„„ ,^^ . - 

,""" ^'''''■•"' •'"<! "" various pr.„luct, „„ 
^ume.n, erv;wh,le,heKi,^..,,,siu' 
v.dcd wtth amllory a,ul a,u„„,„id„„. V 

ax« which he was c.„ahk,l,„ lav „„th,t 
r a, d.st.ct,, which were te,h,K,ra„K. ,, c" 

,""' '•" •"' """P= P'"i"»J far less than 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 




CHARLES I. EXCLUDED KROM HULL 
From an old engravins 



rarliamciit coiiUl draw from the City of 
Lundoii alone. Hot pecuniary aid lie relied 
chiefly on the generous muuificcnce of his 
generally high-born adherents. Many of 
th*-se deeply mortgaged their old ancestral 
estates, pawned their jewels, melted their 
plutc. the wassail bowls, and silver chargers, 
in order to assist their struggling King. 

When the tactions flew to arms the soldiers 
i>f the King were chiefly gentlemen and their 
immediate dei)endants, well mounted and 
skilled in the use of arms ; while tlie ranks 
of the Parliament were recruitt^l from yeoman 
farmers and tradesmen, as yet raw and un- 
trained. The King in person commanded 
the CavaUers, and the Earl of Kssex the 
Roundheads ; while f>rince Rupert, the 
nephew of Charles, led the Royalist 
cavalry. 

Excluded from Hull, where all the arms 
procured for the cnrnpniRn against the 



Scots were stored. Charles unfurled tin 
Royal Standard at Nottingham on August 
2ith. 

Charles had found that the I'arliameut 
denounced his proclamations ; l.e retaliattii. 
Hanng sounded the disposition of the loy.tl 
and gallant cavaliers of Yorkshire, he smu- 
moned all his " loving subjects " north "f 
the Trent, and within twenty miles south 
of that river, to meet him in arms at 
Nottingham. 

M first the muster of the King's force at 
Nottingham was so small that he did nm 
feel himself justified in attempting to attaik 
the Earl of Essex, who. when the scatter. 1 
Ixidies of the Parhamentary army ji'i""' 
him at Northampton, found himself at t' ■ 
head of 15.0(0 men. L'harles, theref".' 
deeme<l it more prudent to retire liy si « 
marches towards IVrhy, and thence 
Shrewsbury, in order to encourage 11 



.mXKvmt^ 



I»s friraci 



were raising 



Section II 



levii-i Bliicli 
those parts 

~u^:'^:r^i::r:;;'rt::;/"- 
^-r;:r'":,:;;i*r""'^"-^- 

K-cru,t» fr„n, I.„,„ •„ .^"«"""'-' by 

alKnc twenty miles distant 



pule ,.f 



xntre. 
Tile 

-■4 trn„,,s of I„,rs., 
. a Sci.td-Siveilisl, 



two ■narched'teirda^-sTTw: "'' ''•■"' "'^ 

;'"- ^'.....eh^a'; t^s";"'"'"• 
;^..^n«a..d,irstS:,z,;r;:;rc;:': 

th^'o"™:;. "1, ''"*-■'"« "•-■•■'Banburv; 

AS Ik Ktngs troop, n.arcl,e,l „^,.r „,.. 

».s|^.,o„,navaIe,w,,ic,Mies«idw;Vr 
•ween kmctnn an<l Edgchill 

Haring left i„ his rear 2,000 infantry ,no 

'"g^Re, and was 

satislied that he 

hail arrested the 

king's inarch on 

London. 
I'rince Ruiwrt 

commanded the 
right wing ot 
cavalry. Tlie left 
"as under Com- 
missary . Ceneral 
ll'ilmut aided bv 
^i' Arthur Astern': 
■■""1 I.iiulsi'y leil 
"le i'lfantry. 

The right v.uig 
'f thel'arhameiit- 
■ir> arm\ consist- 
ing of three regi- 



EDGEHILL-OCT. 23rd. 164' 

K.1,1,- 

mcnts of horsj. ;,. I 

^-..r,4it,;;-rs"-: 

-1 n-oke and ilol,^\ ' \t 
I'll wmg consisted „f 

offic'" '"*" •'"'"" "'""""^ 

rr"':~;'m:;;r-:e;r^^"^ 
"-rtfr-:;:---a„';r 

the enemv's left was si^l 1 V ' ''"'*-"■' 

•-."■id their ranks In a, ,™ " ■""""' '"'" 
Sir Ka,thf„. Fortel: ,:;; 'T '"■' "' """" 
•■ver fron, IrehmT H-T '"'' ""'"■■ 



his 




S'Wiers now char. ,.,1 ''' ■■"'"""• ' 

«l.-.hey harCrI7" ';',"""". "'- 

-pireds„chdoui,tin;wcav ;y„;°™'™• 
K.,.er.'ra^; k' 'Th"' ^ " '"^ ""'• "' 
"".ted, an.l pursued f'rt """l """'•~' 

"">-fro„,the'a.,d,:f,,a;;,;"""^ ""•' •«■" 

a..""::^k:^r::;\rir'vf™" 

-gaged without any .„''•' ""' '-"■ 

"ig to line some 
li edges on the 
rigl't of i;s5t.x, 
were clri\en in l.y 
Dragoons, hut the 
main hody, with 
the Koyal .Stand- 
ard, pres.sed on 
within musket- 
shot of the enemy. 
" t.>m xvhieh, ' 
sa.vsl.udlow, ■we. 
ohsiryingnoliurst 
to encounter with- 
al, charged iheni. 
"ith some loss 
'torn their pikes, 
tliough lery little 
from i!!,ir jh,,, . 
but not Ixfing able 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 




|.;NaAGKMi:NT AT THE BATTLK Ot EUCtHILL. 
OCTOBER 2Jrd. 161Z 



to break them, we retreated 
tn our fiirnier station, aii-l 
Sir i'liilii) Stapk-ton, our lmji- 
tain. wisliiii^; for a rfKimtiii 
of foot to secure the cannon, 
we promised to stand by him 
ill defence of them, causing 
one of our servants to load 
and If^tl one of them, whitli 
lie had scarcely done, when a 
I)ody of horse apixared ad- 
\'ancing towards us from that 
side whtTc the enemy was 
We fired at thim with case- 
shot (i.e. all kill-Is of old iron, 
stones, nails. luuski-t - balls, 
ftc), but did no other mis- 
chief save only wounding one 
man through the hand, our 
f^un being overloaded and 
planted on high ground ; 
which fell out very happily, 
this i)ody being of our own 
armv and commanded by Sir 
William Balfour." 

Ivssex had sent two rcgi 
ments of horse in succession 
to charge the centre with tin 
Royal Standard ; and then Sir 
William Balfour, a wcll-trainci 
Scottish ofticer. finding tlmt 
Frincc Rupert, in his wild 
pursuit, was fairly out of tlu 
liL-ld with nearly all the cavalry 
of the King, swept round with 
his squadrons, made a tlaiik 
movement, and falling <m tlu' 
centre where Charles was, with 
sword and pistol, made sucl' 
havoc and disorder that tli> 
King and the boy Trinces, hi- 
sons, were in imminent dangt! 
of being taken. Sir Kdmnii' 
Verney, who bore the Rov 
banner, was shun, and t! 
standard taken ; but it ^^ 
r.-covered by John Snnt 
Lieutenant of the Lord J-ih 
.Stuart's (of Lennox) tro"i 
who. putting over his should. ' 
an orange scarf (the Karl ■ 
Kssex's colour), gallantly >: 



->■• tl„l, II 



'"P"! i"i') tin- mulst , i II 
enemy, t.re it from the l,.„„l, 
"' ■"'" >''"> If re It, .11.,! I.,j,l 
■' at tl.c fi-rt of the Ki„„ 

Therei i,rii„fl'rii,ccK,iiKrt 
"■■th the l„,rsc- alone ,,r... 
>ente,l the total .k-fcat „f 
>.lKirles. „l„,si. „^,,„ „.,,,^ 
lie hail lift cmpli-tily t-x 
IxiMl ; for BaKour, ivlio 1,,. 
the IliKht , f tiR. cavalre hul 
nmv.aily a small l,„,|y„(, 
reserve siciire.1 hin.si^lf ma, 
the infantry c.f J-lsscx 

If the kii.K an,l Ivini, 
Ku,)erteonl,ll,ayc|H^rsua,l„l 
tlieir cavalry to chatRo t|n 
infantry „f Kssi-j. „.1,„ iverc- 
iiowunM,i,,»,rt„|, tlu.v„,ig|„ 
have been sure „f a victorv 
but the kuyal eavalrv cam.- 
hack in such extreni, 
order that tliey ivouM not at 
tack the steady front sli.ra-i, 
liy the pikernen ami musket- 
eers of |.:sst.x-, „.,,„ ,,,■,, ,„„ 
howciir. fcvl hin,sclf Milli- 
cieutly stroni! to ackalioe 
The battle closed l',v a ,le- 
sultor\ cannonade 

Knpi.rfs I ivalry when re- 
turning were .,s*,iled l,v I-\ 
Kx's guard of horse, „hic|, 
fell u|>on their rear. 

Adnitiht and next dav the 
armies lay uniler arms,' f,,ce 
to face . but neither rene%ve,l 
the attack, though the abse-nt 
forces of Ksscx had all -su e 
Cromweirs tr<K,p-- come in 
under Colonel Hamixlen, with' 
the remainder of l,is cannon. 
Ihe day passcil «iil„,„t a 
shot being fired. IJssex wis 
"dvi5e<l to attack be some of 
Ins officers, hut preferred Ihe 
advice of Col,a,el Ilalbier 
»ho d,.,seuted. He marclnd 
'" ^Varwick in the ev,„i„g 
"liile the King retire.1 u, 
lanbury. The Parliament 
claimeil a drawn battle. 



EUGEHILL-OCT. 23rd, 1642 



f.arly 




LlKUrKNANT JOHN SMITH RETAKING THE 
AT EDGEHILI, 

From a picture bv [r.hr, .t^ Wjii 
475 



KINGS STANDARD 



MiarOCOFY lESOlUTKm TEST CHART 

(ANSI and ISO TEST CHART No 2) 



1.0 [fi^ 1^ 

^^= LI |£ 1 2.2 



APPLIED \MA3E he 



SECTION ll.-EARLY 



ROUNDWAY DOWN AND NEWBURY 



SIR RALPH HOl'TON was in com- 
iiuiul of the Kiiin's iufantry at "The 
Devixc's," ;is the town wns then 
naniLHi, but W.ilk-r apiK'aa-d before that 
|)Iace and invested these troops, then in 
s ire straits owin^- t<> want cf provisions. 
Aware that they woulil imt remain Urns in 
this conditio', he prnpo^ed to them a 
capitulation, which Sir Ralph Hopton. iv 
the uncertainty wlietlier any succour would 
reach him from Oxford, discussed with 
Waller ; but so confident was Waller that 
he had them all completely at his mercy 
that he s^nt word to Parliament " that 
their business was done, and that by the 
next post he would send the number and 
rank of his prisoners." 

Arrival of Relieving: Torce at Devizes 

Meanwhile a body of 1,500 horse sent by 
King Charles, at the urgent request of the 
Marquis of Hertford and Prince Maurice, 
was advancing from Oxford under the 
Lord Wilmot ; and. fortunately for Sir 
Ralph, this foi;ce, on the morning of Sep- 
tember 8th, appei red witliin two miles of 
Uevizcs before his capitulation with Waller 
was signed. 

Sir William, the instant he learned the 
.■dvance of thesi- succours, drew out liis 
wliole force, witliout sound of drum or 
trumpet, on Roundway Powti. over which 
Wilmot's cavalry would have to pass ere 
thev could form a junction witli the infantry 
.11 the town ; and tliere, notwithstanding 
the astonishing disparity of the forces in 
strength, ensued tlie most signal defeat of 
the Parliament during the war. 

On a go<nl jM)sition along the green shipc 
of the down, he drew up four regiments of 
pikcmen and nuisketcers, six regiments of 
horse, 5(X) Dragoons, anil eight pieces of 
brass cannon. In Wallers force was still 



the Cuirassier regiment of Sir Arthur Hesil- 
rige, so comjiletely armed that tliey were 
called on the other side tlie " Regiment of 
Lobsters." 

The Battle of Roundway Down 

Lord Wilnint. finding it im])Ossihle to 
reach L'evizes without figliting, halte<l when 
almost witliin muskej-shot of Waller's lint 
(September 8th, i'>4.)). 

There can bo l)ut little doubt that he 
might have justly deemed that discretion 
was the better part of valour before, witli 
only 1.300 horse, he attacked an army so 
superior in strength. 

The tight began by Hesilrige charging at 
the head of his Cuirassiers and other cavalry, 
confident that they must sweep all before 
them. Sir John Byron's regiment encoun- 
tered the first shock, and he received many 
sword wounds. Sharj) and short, but deci- 
sive, was the hand to hand confiict that 
ensued ; but in an mcredibly brief space 
tlie Cavaliers, ia their doublets of velvet and 
coats of buff, compelled the boasted 
" Lobsters "—hitherto deemed invincible— 
to give ground, wlieel about, and fall back 
.i|K'n their ]>ikemen and musketeers. 

The Cavaliers pressed forward ; a univer- 
sil panic seized the enemy's ca\ulry force ; 
it (|uitted the field with Waller, wlio threw 
the blame of the whole mishap on Hcsilrigt 
as they lied in hopeless rout for Hristol, 
Wilmot now seized the cannon, and 
turned them on the infantry, who, finding 
tiiemsehes left U) tlieir f.ite. and attacked 
in their rear and fiank bv tlie troops of Sir 
Ralph Hojiton, who i-'-.ied from Devizes 
ga\-e way and tied. 

Of the Puritans there were nearly fiooo 
slain, and 000 taken prisoners, together willi 
the cannon, eight cavalry standards, iiUi' 
24 infantry colours. 



HOUNDWAV DOWN-SEPT. 8.h, ,643 

the jov. ninrpo,-^^ _e .. ■ 



Section If 

.«. ~:;;:;";,"r r '«- «■-■> —.5 V"r- " »* •- 

dreaded a battle with Z.._\" ,"'• ' ""''''^ 



(■.l„ucestet that L ?" """ '" ""'"^ 

thoritv. more ^ZZ,T ',"' '*"•"' ""- 
brought with he'roo ' „f",t 'T't'^""? "'" 

The New Paritamentary Leader 



"'' i-eaaer , •" -"^ "I'rrei ot powder tlip ,,„ . J 

s ■» lo take his recogn spr? ni — .._ • . . •■'"""' surpnsine a roji,-^,. ,.< ■. 



■n that town. WtlLt 11^ h ""' 

l"s march towa 1, i"! "^^ ,'"-" '=""t">ue.i 

alreadv ,„ • "K""' marches, was 
already in possessirm „f .1 i, _ "* 



r''4o, bu i, „' " '" '^•""•■"»™' sine 
began ,0 take i" """' '"^^ "'" "« 

members " ,e „„ p";'- '""""8 ""' 

;^-e„.ar^^b,/t::«hfr;^'d::s™? 

I untan cut and sombre clour and for hi 

HrdfrinS'",'!"'*' ""'' ""="''"'"^ speeches' S^ Z'"^- """"f "' ""•■ K™"-^' 

:;:r£S- -- -'= ""* '■ ~- •'■■'•'- 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 




THE DEATH OK LORD FALKLAND AT NEWBURY. SEPTEMBER JOlh, 1M3 
From an old ensravinK 



he might well have added, a stubborn 
pitched battle. 

The troops of Essex we^e advantaseously 
posted on lofty ground, called Brigshill, hib 
cannon and cavalry covering liis infantry. 
Among the latter were the Trained Bands 
of London, who were placed under Major- 
General Skippon at their first muster in 
Finsbury Fields in 1642, when six rcgime'its, 
comprising 8,000 men, appeared under 
arms. 

With those of the King were the Earl of 
Carnarvon, Eiirl of Sunderland, and \'iscount 
Falkland. The latter made himself some- 
what remarkable on this day. He wa's then 
only in his thirty-fourth year, and thniigh 
Secretary of State, was serving as a vitlun- 
teer in the cavalry corps of Colonel l.nrd 
liyron. He was a young man of brilliant 
parts and of great honour and virtue. 
He had ever assisted the King, his master, 
with the most salutary advice. He had 
used his utmost endeavnirs to effect a 
reconciliation between the hostile parties. 

On tlie morning of tlie Battle of Newbury, 
[Septenber zntii, i(i4,i) he appeared to have 



some presentiment of his approaching fate, 
and he bestowed unusual care upon the 
decoration of his person, and in selecting his 
richest Cavalier apparel, saying jocularly 
to a friend that his body should not be 
found by the enemy in a slovenly condi- 
tion. 

■■ I am weary," he added. " of the times, 
and foresee much misery to my country ; 
but believe I shall be out of it before night." 
And ins])ired by this solemn conviction, he 
took his place in the ranks. 

The Royal infantry was led by Sir Nicholas 
Byron. The battle began by small advanced 
parties of musketeers skirmishing from 
behind walls, hedges, and trees, until the 
lines were so near that Charles found ii 
necessary to engage in general action 
towards tlie afternoon, 

Essex advanced with his own regiment, 
and the Lord Robert's brigade of horse 
Led by the impetuous Trinco Rupert, tin 
Royal ca\alry made a furioui charge upim 
that of the Puritans, and compelle.' thai 
usually solid force to give way. Remeni- 
bering tlie error he had committed at iCd^'e 



Si-ctlori II 



'-. I aiki.„d was shot ,S„,.,: ,;',";- 

Tlje Royalis, cavalry couM „„t ,„„k, 
«'li.l ra,i,|,art „f pikes. ■■ j.,,,. ,,... ,''■' 

VfttTan troDps " '■"IH-Cti'd fr„ni 

pikes ™ ""= """" "' "•^■' wall of 

>>"iKbt came on, and still tl,.. r, i . 

"Ix'se soldiery had '"' 



NEWBURY SEPT. 20th, 164.3 



Farly 



the pillage „f the dead 
(Whiteliick), 

Essex also marched 
off. His trooi)s '■ left 
their heavy carriages 
hehinil, some barrels 
t>f shot, a surgeon's 
cliest. aiKl their dead 
Ixidies to the view of 
the Cavaliers," 

The loss of lisscx 
was one colonel of the 
t'ity Trained Bainls, 
a few jiiMior officers, 
fi'i'i a considerable 
inimhcr of rank and 
hie; but the loss on 
the King's side in 
men of rank and in- 
fluence, and of their 
retainers was gre^it 



noth armies received a shock tint ,i; 

'>yl..s party since the war began 

F"Kh„g the ground clear .and the w.v 

-.'."« the narrow' 11 '::,'■""' ;l"" 
attacked a,„l harasse,! his r killh,: m' 
"Ptnr^tgmany; bnt this did nt'^,:^ 

acdamations as ^ co:,;;:,"-^ ""'"' """ 
Ihe loss on both sides in the Battle of 

™-<iuaLs;ii:z\j;;c;rs 

Parhament and the \ss,.„,i i . ' ""*s oi 

-tag^edtoad^^tl:^::;;''^;:^'^;::; 

Covenant, and to invite the assistaS of the 
R»/ahsts withdrew from the field. 




' """ "• °'' "'=«'■>"". SEPTEMBER ..."k, ,„3 

479 




v 



*;,^ 



):;:--^-., 






^^; 



MARSTON MOOR. JULY Jnd, 1644: THE SCOTTISH CAVALRVMI'NDER I 

from a r --■'"" ■:■'■''''"> de W 




m^ v^ 



7 \r^ 



'>-Fl 



/^' ', ~ 'F, 






»lnllr< »E. 



lLBV«r»DER LESLIE. ATrACK.NO PPINCE RUPERTS PLANK 

Lirt ^'Hl'nr. dc Walton 



'I'.'i 



SECTION II.— EARLY 



MARSTON MOOR 



THE Battle of Marston Moor, July 2nd, 
1644, is considtTcd by many to be 
tht; most imijortaut of all the battles 
of the Great Rcln-llion. 

In the first place, the number of troops 
engaged in it was greater than in any 
other of the battles. Secondly, it marked 
the turning-jK)int in the fortunes of the 
Parhamentary party. And thirdly, by assur- 
ing the ascendancy of the army of the 
Eastern Association*^ that force whicli 
later developed into Cromwell's New Model 
Anny — it inaugurated a new era in British 
military organisation. 

A Oloomy Outiook 

At the beginning of the year 1644 the 
outlook of the Parliamentary' paity was 
gloomy. 

Save only in the Eastern counties, where 
the Roundheads held undisputed sway, and 
in the Midlands, where the two parties were 
evenly divided, the Royalist power was 
ever>-where predominant. Sir Ralph Hopton 
had overrun the country between Cornwall 
and Hampshire so thoroughly that, except 
the ports of Plymouth and Portsmouth, 
the Roundheads retained nothing in the 
south. The whole of Wales had declared 
for King Charles ; and m the King's name, 
also, the Marquis of Newcastle had taken 
possession of Vorksliire, with the excep' ■ m 
of Hull. This town Fairfax still hel.l for 
Parliament. 

Thus Charles I. was master of two-thirds 

• Duriug the early months of the war, Partiaiiicat 
relied on local or^atiisaticm (or the military defence 
uf each county, but subsequently larger units and 
groups "f counties were associatcrf for this purpose, 
of these groups the Eastern Association — which 
included the counties of ICssex, Suffolk, Norfolk, 
CambridRe, Hertford, and Uncoln^alone survived ; 
and it survived only owing to Cromwell's untiring 
ciK-ryy diid i^rgaiiisiiig genius. 



of the counir>' ; and if during the latter 
part of 164J he had summoned Hopton 
and Newcastle to Oxford, and Iiad advanced 
on Ivondon, he ml:;ht perhaps have endetl 
the war at a blon-. 

He was prevented tiom doing this owing 
to the pt'cuhar nature tf his armies. Both 
the Royalists of tlic wesi and the Royalists 
of the north were loath to leave their own 
districts until they had nade a complete 
end of their local enemies, and in conse- 
ouence valuable time and money was spent 
in sieges and mhior operations which, from 
a military point of view, were unimportant. 

Strategically, the siege of (lloucester was 
undoubtedly a mistake. Nor did the siege 
of Hull serve any useful purixise ; and the 
Marquis of Newcastle was still sitting down 
before the walls of that town when, in 
January, 1(144, the Scottish army, which 
ParUament had persuaded I/ird I.,e\en to 
bring into England, crossed the Border. 

The Balance of Power in the North 

The coining of the Scots changed the 
balance of jxjwer in the north, and New- 
castle, comi>elletl to raise the siege of Hull, 
hastened towards the Tweed to meet the 
iu;w enemy. leaWng Lord Bellasis with a 
small detachment to hold Ycrksluie. 

But Newcastle dared not to give battle. 
Being hopelessly outnumbered, he retreated 
slowly before the advancing Scots until, 
when Leven was joined by Fairfax— who 
in the meanwh'h had ventured out of Hull 
and defeated lellasis — he was forced to 
seek refuge in Voik. 

Here, before the end of April, he found 
himself besieged in the same way that, a 
few months earlier, he had been besieging 
Hull. 

As did all the Royalist generals when in 
trouble, Newc;istk' forthwith appealed to the 



482 



BRITISH ^ATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



King, begging him to send Prince Rupt:rt 
to his aid. 

But Ch.-irks was reluctant to do this. 
Mutters had been going none too well for 
him in tlie &iuth. His hold on Oxford 
seemed t" be insecure. 

Still, he felt confident that & well-forti- 
fied a city could stan*' a few months* siege, 
and a few months, so Rupert argued, would 
afford a Royalist army ample opportunity 
to relieve York. d. feat the Scots, and be 
back iigain at Oxford in time for a final 
blow. At last, therefore, the King grudg- 
ingly yielded. 

Siege of York Raised 

In the middle of May Rupert began his 
march northwards ; and, having passed 
through Shropshire. Che:, ire. and Lanca- 
shire, arrived. June 30th, with nearly 10,000 
men at Knaresborough. within 13 miles of 
the northern capital. 

But while Rupert had been advanciig 
through the Midlands the army of the 
Eastern Association, under the Earl of Man- 
chester and his great lieutenant, Oliver 
Cromwell, had also been moving northwards, 
and on June 2nd had joined the forces of 
I,even and Fairfax in the trenches before 
York. Thus Rupert, wi.en he arrived, 
was opposed by nearly 30,000 men. 

As the Prince approached, the Roundheads 
raised the siege and advanced to meet hin. 
Rupert, however, by clever manoeuvring, 
avoided them ; working round by the north, 
he crossed the Ouse and succeeds in en- 
tering York without engaging the enemy. 

The first part of 'us mission had been 
accomplished vsitli surprising ease, but this 
very success now placed uim in a difficulty. 
Newcastle was averse to mo\ing out of 
York an<l offering battle ; he strongly urged 
(Jelav— a policy which it was impossible for 
Rupert to adopt, seeing that he had been 
forbidden to tarr>' in the north 

" If York be reheved." the King had 
written to him on June 14th, " and you 
beat the rebels' armies of both kingdoms 
wliich were before it, then, but otherways 
not. I may poaaibly make a shift upon the 
defensive to spin out time until you come 
to assist me." 



Rupert interpreted these instrur*--""^ as 
"a positive and absolute commam 
The only possible alternative seei. 
for h'.m to return immediately to Oxford, 
but that obviously v/ould have left the 
enemy free to resume the siege of York. 

Accoi-.ingly, contrary to the counsels ot 
Xewcastle, tlie Prince drew out his forces, 
and on the morning of July 2nd, haWng 
advaii,;e<l with his cavalry, fell on the rear- 
guard of the I'adiamentarians and Scots, who 
were then moving towards the south-west. 

Rupert's attack ff)rced the enemy to halt 
and deploy, and tliey took up their stand 
on 'ising gnmnd on the s<mthern edge of 
Marston Moor, ^evcn miles from York, 
their position being defined b> Long Marston 
on the right (east flank) and Tockwith on 
the left (west flank), and separated from the 
Royalist army by the open moor (whicli 
is now dinded by a lane connecting the 
two villages). 

The Opposing Armies 

The Roundhearls liad in all 20,000 foot 
and 7,000 horse. The forces of Newcastle 
and Rupert numbered about 11.000 foot 
and 7,000 cavalrj', who until that day had 
btijn generally successful. 

In both armies the proportion of c. '-y 
to infantry was far greater than it wouM 
be to-day, but this was in accordance with 
the military practice of the seventeenth 
century. General Monk, writing m 1645. 
laid it down as a principle that an arm\ 
operating in the field should consist of oiif 
'orseman to every two infantrymen, an^! 
that, when required for siet ; purposes, the 
proportion should be one to three. 

The left of the Roundhead line was formed 
by the Scottish cavalry under Major-Genenl 
Leshe (800 strong) and the cavalr>' of tlio 
Eastern Association under Lieu tenant -Oen- 
eral Cromwell (2,500 strong). Next to them 
stood the infantry of the Eastern Associa- 
tion under Major-General Crawford ; thcii 
the Scottish infantry under I^t-rd Leven, ani 
the Yorkshire Pariiamentarians under Lord 
Fairfax; the right wing being formed bv 
the Yorkshire .avalry under Sir Thom.is 
Fairfax. 

Prince Rupert formed up on the open 



4S4 



^'- " MARSTON MOOR^ JULY 3„,, ,^ 



Karl, 




•"'■ "On. ihe eftgravitiir Irt.t t, m 



(■•emen w„rtl,v of respect '"'" 

Angli AvaL ","™r "' ""• East 

tl,c.re?'^ '"^ q"';st,o„, "Is Cromwell 

Early in the afternoon tli.. i>,,t- 

-«ner, opened,. re r;;;^;;:'::^';^^ 



48 



;tr;„«""at'rrr"T"'"°"-"'- 
«"l«^r.arti«e'",'rf:r^r" '""■•' 
"as considered ofve^v it e T*'' ''"""''■'■ 
, ^''^^'> '" any battle of ti>e C vi u - 

-uS^t:r™-^--^--" 

•listance ■• H„, "-'""e to a greater 
intl,e„atile '" '""^^ ^'"•■'""'d .K.ll,ins 



.Sfctron n 



KtilKTl rcliro.1 f„ 



morning, fell nut, v.hil, 
■•■■I'l-.T. and liK- .Mar,,,, 
Ins coach to smoke 

—a..,.:^,:-;^;"-- <;;-.., fir. 
»iy for tlie horse- l,v ,l" ■ ' "''""' ""-■ 

-counts „ call." ,;t '" <^"«.™I'"rary 
«>'!*rfs r,„l,t. ""'' ""-^i' ■ ■• 

" w;';,aS'::r.;ii^t ':',;;:;, "r""'""' 

l''--il'fc tor them to „,j „ " "" ""- 
rnoiintci. Tliev ,I„rf i '"^' "'"fe 

"- <iri„R,i„e to how •„;;.',„,.::■"'••' '-'"■■<) 
''i-^isi'tit'^rrrr^'™'^'-* 

>lTect,,-c, an,l o,, tl,r Wragoons ,,nn,d 

>'">( assault thev beit ,1^ ■" "' ''"-' 

•litch.andshortiyafierk ^™™>■"""•"- 
■'■"'l-'■ttherest^or,'ut" ^"'•""-"-^■' 

R'^!"caSrv:i"'™,''^^'>»'"«'-''-thc 
"■•■-le I'arliamentar: 1- ,f ''^" "" "'""« t'.e 

^-weiis ch::^: ::;l^'z. Tt 

»as onv clehvere,? K, ■ , attack 

"cl. unit cr,3t,,/ , '""''''-^ '■■ff"«s. as 
the front. '" '""^ ""J '"™'ed to 



MARSTON MOOR-,CLV 3„.. ,,., 



'-. -liL, ;: K. """"-,'""'™-l i" reck. 

^^-; H«ht , .::,,-:, -;f-...e 

In the centre. t,„, v,.„.„ ,,'." 
country ■■ \\l,ite Coat" ? ""'"'■ 

Po^'l of the fines, a„,l, „,.,',:'■';"■•■ <^'™- 
"' either armv, ha,I «,,'", '""'" » 

K.ti- ::.;:■;?-- "■• : 



Cromwell Wounded 



The Brave Scots 

""n again V.e ■'"""• '""' '"" '>'M 
"S-uiiM i.jcass aUaoti! " tj • 

■"tcrhne,! iheir n.usketeers 'vi' h ,J f. 

icconling to one e.,J , I"''«'ncn," 

fc u, one chronicler. '■ thcr n,.,.i„ 

Vhe ,r';"'" '" «'™ «""""i" 

I he steadiness -if these s„l ,■ 
dav, and cn-il,!,,! "'""^ ,f"'''"-'^ saved the 
victorvou ™-f"t"ally to pluck 

The eZ 'oyal'sts' hands, 

from . Mr' 1., *;./■•'""'>'- '-"-n,ed 

K"perthaLe;t,en;:;r ','■""" 
da.shi„g Cavaliers ■ ^ ^1 1 ? ''"'" '° ''« 

pursued, to wl,,.,! t,; ,, ''''""" "■''<^'> 

troops When "t";!!'":'::^"'".''"'" 



troops when lei.. '"''■'"" °' °"«'^ 



^:x::::!'rez:,^,----th; 

->f being wounded, th'e E , VnT ""' '""*■ 
nenslowlvhegantoLttck"''"""'"'- 

scmisi;':.,^:r; r""" '-^^"^ -■' «- 

^"d,lenlv swuug f''°^ «"""" '" '""' ''■''■ 



. ...... u,u not louow up in 

-^.;>-.ou„<;:^r^-:f:;;:-;-^^ 

an easyvielt',;™:::^ :,-;-"- f "■^'' 
whilst Crawford, witi , ."e" : ^^f "/ "™ ^ 

'-.nfantrywhohadnotyerSVrwi; 

Ml, foUowei the ),„ _.. , "^""'y 



tfoopors-m accordance with that ti e B ■ ° '"™'>'= l-o^'ti""- 

,8; ^°''"'''' """ fo™" themselves 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



surrounded, and were soon broken up into 
isol.itt.-d units, disordered, helpless, and at 
the mercy of CronuveH's cavalry. 

One regiment only stood lirni— New- 
castle's " White Coats." These gallant 
men retreated into an enclosure, and there, 
fiercely rejectinn »iiiarter, founlit slioulder 
»o shoulder till tticy died to a man. 



and Hnpland north of the Trent was lost 
to the King. 

i'rince Rupert managed to rally some 
ii.ooo men, and with them escaped over the 
lulls into Lancashire, but the northern arm\ 
- tlic main hoi>e of the Royalist cause- 
had ceased to exist. 

On lH>tli sides the losses at Marston Moor 




PLAN OK THE BATTLE OF MARSTON MOOR, JULY Znd. 1M4 



The remainder of tlie troops were either 
cut down or scattered in pursuit, and at 
nishtfall the Royalist army had l)ecn swept 
from the t-eld. A few regiments found their 
way by oulight to York, but the dis- 
spirited ;. '.son only held out a fortnight, 



were heavy. Tiie killed alone nundjere^l 
4.150, and of these j 000 were Royalists 
The Royalists, moreover, lost the whole ot 
their artillery and baggage, together witli 
mo colours and 10,000 arms. 
It was the most decisive battle yet fought 



NASEBY 



T^WOt-GH Comma„der.i„<:,,i , . """" ^ 



-';. -d the lidXew tW""'™™'"'.-- 
«"<) that all |„s laLou,"!, '^ T""'"' '" 
was abortive, left F„l","' ""J-"' "use 

«ghty more exiles ™''' ""'• a"ne 

General «„ 5,'™", cTm "/•''=■"»''"•- 
J-Kland on Augult /of """"f"' "vaded 
^^■vcastle, carried tbv:/" '''°'^'''«'i„g 
"Mks' siege. *^ ^•"™ ^ler a ten 



The Roundhead Ami,, 

'"^v";;^'±!^''"''«"«^.ast battle 
«« ^emodeningX^twr^-^- '""='-« ' 

^Wien h„.,iliii'?r! ^^'" "'" ""^f- 
!'•- 'WO ,..e;;;:;.rp;^,^f; out between 
["' war. In „,e .h,«i; e,l ' ""P'opared 
'a-r tern,, ; „, „„, ™' «";'> Part.v was on 

"' »'' King n.et ,1,1 !. 1 *'P"""' tnwps 

•-'-.«oftbe,v,':,™T""rr'"*'"«-<' 
'""■taria,,, ranidl,- ' "' "■" Parlia- 

'*• a, the'begi," 1'^™ ''^^" <«■ either 
aderaWe force „fp*' 7 ""^ "»'• anv eon- 
""■•n existed in Fran«T„H '=""!"■ "'^'> as 

"■;',"■■■« s, l,ave?ee„ H P"°' "" '^°"- 

'■'■;;'- par!, 'l™"J„f'-t oft,, 
h-.„g strength i„TJZ Tf «"- 



">^ Earls of Essex and xV' •^""••dinglv 
removed. ''"'' Manchester were 

Sir Thon,as Pairfiv „«. 
'•"■"- of Can,:*'^:^*:™""^ third W, 
■"an<ler-i„.chief, while <■ "''1»""«) Corn- 
fed, with the iaTo, ^ '""'"'■" "" «»n 
o'ead the cavalr^V' ';l"'e"ant-General, 
'■' '65°, in reali^: 7,' '«''"'e. even Prior 
'-eneral of the en ire f"*',^ ,""' -" "ame. 
orfian,sed .ha, remarkaMe'f ' """■' '««' 

^^'r:i:f ifr'^^- ^" "' """ 

*"■"«•">«,,■■ into , he °' '^PSters and 
T^l: '" engage „„„, "^^ ' ?"<' -^ed his 
''Od-feanng ,„en ■ "' honest and 

'"O- regiment. In Lv J '*"™ '^"•aded 
•f'^"^ and men net '™rr'""'^"<^». 
^;:>- "either gambit' St"" '" ^^-^ -■ 
T^l'ey sang hy,nns Z ,t ' ""' ^wore. 
ac„„„, as they marched into 



«athe gXn«, '■ '■"" '^ ^n-e lime iT'"'"' '"■"' ^"■'-"dDri''" ''"'"^ '''■'-<' 
fromwell w,!?. '" ^"«'''"''- Of th^ ']' """' '"'"ess deLrin f /' 'r '^"™" "' 



»"»•« «nd the p„p,. 

'"■"■TthfS,;;;"V'.^'"-<«-appare, 
W-en Charles I ;„''':''"«■'' "'e people 

' *'<- I-ieu.e,'ant rrt '" ^^""'^' 

''""■ the notorious r ™" of I,„„. 

"■■■-« t'.eeredi;<Vexdf '•'"'"""""'' to 
•iKamst him and Lord n" ' "*■' '' '"" '""'ed 
"''■ '"o^t pitiless deLrin f •■■ "/ '^"™" of 
where General ,-**"P"""- J'- the ,v«l 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



people, called clubmen, in many places 
tlucked together, armed with clubs and 
stones, and slew the soldiers of both par- 
ties. * Many thousands of these tumult- 
uary peasants were assembled in different 
parts of England, who killed all straggling 
soldiers." 

Such was the state of the two forces when 
Charles committed his fate once again to 
the issue of a battle. 

Parliamentarian Alarm 

In the midsummer of 1645 the new- 
modelled army of the Parliament, under 
Fairfax and Cromwell, was p(jsted at Windsor, 
20.000 stronjf ; yet Charles, in spite of them, 
effected the relief of Chester, which had long 
been blockaded by Sir William Brereton, and 
on his return southwards he took Leicester 
by storm, and there 1.500 prisoners and 
much plunder were taken. 

Alarmed by this dimble Royalist success, 
Fairfax, who had received orders to besiege 
Oxford . immediately left that place and 
marched to Leicester, intending to give the 
Cavaliers battle. In the meantime, Charles 
was hastening towanls Oxford, in order to 
raise the siege and relie\-e his loyal city ; 
so that the two armies were placed within a 
few miles of each other suddenly. 

Charles called a Council of War, in which 
it was resolved, through the influence of 
Prince RuiH;rt and the nobles and gentr\'. 
to engage Fairfax immediately, though the 
Rovalists had the prospect of being so*jn 
reinforced by 3,000 horse and 2,000 foot. 

They accordingly advanced upon the 
ParUamentary army, which, on June 14th, 
they found drawn up in order of battle, 
on rising ground, near the \illage of Naseby 
in Northamptonshire. 

It is related that " it was like the sudden 
bursting of a thunder-clnud " to Charles, 
when information readied him on the 
I2th that the rebels were in full march 
towards him, and that they were approach- 
ing Northampton with an overwhelming 
force of cavalry and infantry to him. as his 
strength was only 7.400 men of all arms. 
At first he had issued orders for a retieat ; 
the retrogression began at midnight, and 
by daybreak on the fotluwtng morning his 



advance-guard entered Market Harb(irougIi. 
on the southern l>order of Leicestershire. 

Cl<tsing up. the whole column was com- 
pelled to halt, in conseqm-nce of repeate<i 
attacks made by the enemy's horse, under 
Ireton. on their rear, cutting off some 
prisoners, from whom information relative 
to the numbers of the CavaUers was extorted. 
In consequence, it was resolved upon by 
Fairfax to bring on a decisive battle on 
the morrow. An hour before dawn on the 
morning of the 14th, the whole Parlia- 
mentary army began its march in silence 
and in good order. No hymn or psalm 
was sung, and no drum or trumpet was 
heard. 

They had proceeded as far as Naseby, when 
a corps of cavalry bearing the Royal Stand- 
ard of Britain was obser\'ed advancing. This 
assured them of the vicinity of the King 
Cromwell recommended that advantage 
should be taken of favourable ground to the 
north-west of where they stood, and thut 
the line should be formed at once. 

Sir Thomas Fairfax immediately adopted 
the suggestions of his Lientenant-Oeneral 
and formed his army along the ridge, with 
the infantry in the centre, cavalry on tlu 
flanks, and 20 pieces of cannon posted s'> 
as to command and sweep every avenue uf 
approach. 

Disposition of the Troops 

The right wing he assigned to CromwtH 
the left to Ireton ; the centre he reserv.'l 
for himself, with Major-C.eneral Skippoii 
All hanng sung a psalm, sat compose<!I\ 
down in tlieir ranks, and awaited the ap 
proach of tlie " Moabites," as they nauR-l 
the Cavaliers. 

Meanwhile Charles, who had also selecti* 1 
a favourable position, just in front it 
Harbortmgh, where he had established lii 
head-quarters, was persuaded by Print 
RuiRTt to advance under an idea that tli 
enemy were retreating , and ' ' that on ■ 
fierce attack would utterly rout them." 

The King's troops did not exceed Q.o'i 
men. His cavalry were formed in tw ' 
corps on each flank, and there are th. 
usual discrepancies in detail between tlif 
iiCCuuuls, but Prince Rupert led thf ;:;;';;'- 



Section U 



NASEBV-juNE J4,h. 



164S 




'■'"om .'in 
»'"« ;m(I Sir M T 

-"- -t;;e\,f-r "-- '.... 

■^""■powl „f ,„ " '»■■ superior f„r„. 

,•;'-'"">■ trd„o,,,r:;'"'«V" vic,„rv 
"•err fiorce roligio, , o',,^ ';.™'' ''"Wed i„ 

"« peat achantage of S' "'' "■■■>^' 

''";ar,l ,■„,•„„, ,„■„";"« ™cc„urs under 
'""'^' "'0 ™c„u„te"'n, re /'' ."""'■' ''''« 
'y'^^-'.n'aJu^ ™-;-a,eex.perie„„a, 

s'ackcne,! reins .,!,"'' '^•"■»'"-, •• „i,i, 
''■'''■"-n;,;^,t„^/""'-<-ar«eag.i:';: 






4QI 



Saddles u,.t 

«"I'"t I'crn,i„,r f , ;™'"""». I'rince 

-"-n were 4 "r,"""", «-^ I««s ,„ 
''"«sl,.„ „„,,„"' J; Ireton had j,i, 

''-^ »I*e, and,, C''; "•"""''"'!« ,,,e fa?; 
"■•■"'Is escaped. '""""'•■■• '"" lie after- 

Boding Biti, ,,, 

'he Chase „ ,h r"' ,f """' """""ed 
;'"*to,he,„^„'':,^^^^'"'ean right wi„g 

'»'e „ns/aught he Jsa^ 'f '" "'^ Precipi* 
'te whole of Crom' ,,?!'"""■ '"''^P'nring 
""'■•^*. in returning":;''? """'"'■ ''"i 
f™-""" it to surreal T"""' '" '"J 
''e.ng,he„».e„p"J™^", '' ■' the train 
°f muslieteers he 1 '' " ='t"ni; force 

,.„«-"^.i.is^;,;";7;'f-capt'Lrei" 
"ferent issue occur"? r.^r"'™' " ^''^rv 
-yiere Sir Mar,„aduke !^""'" "•"■k. 

f?" "f Rupert, cl«rU 7 '"^^ '" ■"""- 
,'"'>'»«tage 0, , y^'f^j de,p.te the j;,. 
™ a heavy £„ „, 






■;#^*^ 



■*«r^ 






THE RETREAT AT MASEfl 
A!t«r a picture by A. Cooper, B.A . iiosM 



tr 



MASElBU'E 14,h, 16,3 

•'■vinj l.„, by M.S,,., T. H. P.,|,„ b,o,. 






«»».;■.>* 




BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



cannnn. So resolutely was he mt-t by 
Cromwell and the Ironsides, whose war-cry 
was '■ C'od with us ! " that his division 
recoiled from the shock. At this crisis 
Crc^mwell, who had kept two squadrons in 
reserve wheeled them round by a half- 
circular sweep on I.anjidale's left Hank. 
They came on in closed rank, a:id. taking 
the Royal horse, who were already ovcr- 



ofJ, and rode up and down his lines 
bareheailed. 

General SkipiK)n was wounded in the 
beginning of the action, and advised to 
quit the field ; but he replied that " he 
would not stir so long as a man would 
stand ! " 

Philip Skippon was a rough, blunt veteran 
of the I,ow Country wars, who had shown 




ACCOUTREMENTS OK CHARLES I. AND PRINCE RUPERT. AT WISTOW HALL. WHERE THE KING 
STAYED FOR A DAY AFTER NASEBY 

By pcrmiiiion of Mark Frilh. Etq.. and Ihe Hon. P. F. FremantU 



matched in front, at disadvantage, they 
totally routed them and drove them back 
for a quarter of a mile. 

Leaving two squadrons to watch and 
oppose Langdale should he return or rally 
Cromwell with the rest of the dixnsion rode 
against the King's infantry, which wis now 
warmly engaged with the centre under 
Fairfax and Skippon, and which had come 
on with such spirit with charged pikes 
that the RepubUcans were falling into dis- 
order. Fairfax had his helmet knocked 



great tact and skill in disciplining the 
Trained Bands of London. He had ^1,000 
per annum settled on him by Parliament 
out of the Duke of Buckingham's forfeited 
estate ; and it is averred by Walker that in 
the Low Countries he had acted as wagoner 
to Sir Francis Vert- 
Fairfax's charge in iiont and rear, together 
with Cromwell's movement on the flank, 
caused the total rout of the King's infantrj-. 
who were cut down like grass the moment 
their close ranks were broken by the charging 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



horse. Multitudes were slain, "and multi- 
tudes more cast away their weapons, call- 
ing for quarter." till they were scattered 
beyond all possibility of rall>-ing ; and at 
the head of the reser\-e Charles saw the 
tide nf battle turning against him. " The 
King," says Sanderson, '" kept close witii 
his horse, himself in person rallj-ing them, 
as men use to doe, 

for their lives' j^-S-^/Cj*^ 
l,l,x>d"; and Ru- ,,.^."2^^ 
pert, now sensible 
of his errors, on 
lea\'ing his futile 
attack on the 
artillery, joined 
him, with all the 
horse he could 
collect. 

Charles, with hiS 
sword drawn, ex- 
horted this body 
of cavalry not to 
despair. 

" Gentlemen," he 
said, " one charge 
mote, and we re- 
cover th<' day ! " 

But they could 
not be persuaded 
t(t advance. Their 
little force of in- 
fantry had been de- 
■■■-royed; and Fair- 
fax, Skippon (the 
latter bleeding with 
a musket-shot in 
his side), and 
Cromwell, instead 

of pursuing the fugitives, held their mtn well 
in hand, dressed their runks. and prepared 
alike to receive or to chtirge the remnant of 
the King's cavalr\-. 

Then it was that Robert Dalziel, V.arl of 
Camwath, a Scottish noble, seeing that 
Charles was resolved to charge, rude up to 
him and said imploringly. " Sire, will you 
go upon your death this instant? " 

In his loyal anxiety he grasjwd the bridle 
if the King's horse, and caused the animal 
to swerve round to the right. On perceiving 
this, his cavalry conceiving it was the first 



movement preparatory to flight, broke their 
ranks and galloped in all directions. " The> 
rode on the spur without looking behind 
them." 

Never was rout more hnjH-less or victor\ 
more complete than the Battle of Naseby, 
Charles had 800 men slain (of whom 150 
were officers), and 5,000 were taken prisoners. 
On the Battle 
of Naseby, Lord 
Clarendon makes 
the renicrk that a 
difference was al 
ways observable in 
the discipline of 
the King's troops 
and those under 
Fairfax and Croni 
well. Even when 
the former suc- 
ceeded in a chargt- 
they seldom rallieii 
again in good 
order, or could lie 
got to make ,i 
second charge tlie 
same day ; where- 
as the jthertro()i)s 
even if beaten, ini 
mediately ralHeil 
again, and re- 
formed in tluii 
ranks, till they re- 
ceived new orders. 
Prince Rupert 
rode to Bristol tn 
prepare it for .l 
siege ; while tin. 
King retired iiit<> 
Wales, and made soine stay at Raglan Castli 
(iis indomitable courage giving him hoi>e cf 
being able to form yet another army. 

On June 17th, the day after rarliameiit 
received tidings of the "ictory. both Housis 
were feasted by the City of London in 
Grocers' Hall, where they sang the 4*'tli 
Psalm, and then separated. 

An oval medal was struck in commemori 
tion of the battle. The captured styridanis 
were hung in Westminster Hall, and thf 
prisoners were penned up like sheep in tli*. 
artillery-ground near Tothill Fields. 




PLAN OF THE BATTLE OF NASEBY. JUNE Hth. IMS 



496 



SECTIOIV ll-Fjn,,^, 



PRESTON 



WHi;N- diaries was surrciKkT.-il by 
t.c- (..nenanters to the En(,.|ish 
larlianient. Kebruarv i,t ,0.- 
..eys„,.u,,, , ,,,,^^^.,^,,. ^^^ j-.^ safetvan.i 
freertom; and the English expressed 'firea 
"Hl.K..at,o„ that they should l,e suspected 
^1 any evd des.gns agains their anointed 
Sovereign. Hence it is but due to ,l,e',e 
Scottish Presbyterians to ,;n- that ■ , .„ 
they gave up diaries thev lia.l not I'nn- 

tuu jcars later m Whitehall. 

Seizure of Charles I. 

A band of horse, under a Puritan named 

I'T.iet Joyce, seize,l Charles at Holnibv 

House. ,„ Xorthaniptoushire, where he had 

iH-.-n placed by order of I'arliament, and 

carrie<l l„„i ,o Hampton Court. He escaped 
and reached the Isle of U-ight, but surren^ 
■lire' to Colonel Hammond, commaniing 
Umsbrooke Castle. Tliere Charles became 
'Iqected ,n spirit, so as e^en to neglect his 
1'cr.son permitting his long H„„.iiig hair an,l 

'""""' •"=^"■'1 t" remain undipped and 
uncombed. 

And now some of ,he .Scots becoming 
■ lar ned at the growing |„„.er of the Inde- 

:."d ;...-, by .h^t';:;i^:s':::r:,:s: *"'^"^'™ '■■ ^^"«'-'^' ■ 

nR loy.alty that never dies in the north 
S ■ """' '°° ''"'^' ^" ""■>• f" h^ 
Hie command of this force was bestowed 
"Pon James, first Duke of Hamilton K O 
a brave noble b, t an inexperienccl soMier! 
In tlie Parliament at Edinburgh he Ind 

!:rts- '" "*- "' - ^ 

" Is this the result of all your protesta- 

.ns o duty and affection to His Majesty > 

Is tins the keeping of your Covenant, where' 



4'=7 



in you have swoni to ,lefe„,l the King's 
person and authority? Is this a i.l: 
return for the King's goodness, V.th in 
consenting to all your desires in rb^ and 
Jf -en.,,, trusting his persoi^ w^"h 
><>u. What censures will the world pass 
npon this action ! What a stain will i be 
on the whole reformed religion ' " 

I he Duke obtained a v-ote from the Scottish 
Parlument to arm 4o,„„o me:, in support o 
tl.e kings authority in Engl.,nd, and to call 
over from Irelan.l a cmsiderable fo-e under 
Major-General Robert .Junto 

Although .!,e Duke openly protested that 

l.e maintenance of the Covenant was the 

"undation of all his measures, he entered 

mto a secret c.rrcspondence with Sir M,r 

nmduke Langdale and Sir Philip Musgr'a^e 

Many peers v.ho, by age or otherwise, 
vere unable to accompany the Duke, gave 
him money. *' 

"The Malignants 

Guided and inlluenceil by Argvll, the 
Oeneral .Isse-mMy behel.l with drea.l a 
movement that, if .-uceessful, would restore 
the moiLirehv without smiring Presby- 

„ ,, - ' and they thundered 

anathemas ,m all who obeved the Parlia- 
ment. Houriy they reviled the Jlalignaiits 
as they styled tin- new arniv of Cavaliers 
and their expedition was denounced as " Tlie 
Duke of Hamilton's Unlawful Engagement " 
In consequence of the hostility of the Church 
only i.ooo horse and lo.ooo foot cniH he 
muslercl, nor were these- ready nn.il the 
month of July, and by that time the nppor! 
tumty for action in behalf of the captive 
King w.as lost. 

England was convulsed in every shire 
and full of discontent ; and had tile force 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 




SEIZURE O CHARLES L AT HOLMBY HOUSE 
After a piclure by Sir John Gilbert. R.A. From an old enun 



orii^iuallv proposed by Hamilton crossed 
the Border, its success can scarcvly l>e 
doubted. Impatient of delays on the part 
of the Scots, wliich tlif>' failed to under- 
stand, the Knglisli R^, ilists had already 
takey up arms in Wales. Keiit . Ks.iex . 
SufTolk. and Xorf'^k. and other districts. 
Tlie people found themselves overloaded by 
taxes, hitherto unknown, for the sup]K)rt 
of a standing army which tyrannisetl over 
tliem, But there was no concert observed 
in these numerous insurrections. 

The insurgents in the neighbourhood of 
London were defeated by Fairfax. Unable 
to cope with the rarliamentar>' army, a Ijody 
of 3,000 horse and foot threw themselves into 
Colchester, whicli was immediately besieged 
liv Fairfax and Ireton, and captured after an 
obstinate defence. At Kingston, tlie Earl 
of Holland was routed and taken prisoner. 
Cromw" in person marched against the 
Welsh insurgents. 

Such was the con\-ulsed state of England 
when Hamilton's army, now increased to 
15.000 men of all arms, indifferently equipped 
and discii)lined, crossed the Border in the 



month of July, 1*148. The important for- 
tresses of Benvick and Carlisle had been 
pre\'iously seized by Sir Marmnluke I.ani,'- 
dale and Sir F':ilip Musgro^e. who ha-l 
agreed to co-operate with the Scots in the 
north of England, find the Royalists if 
Northumberland and the adjoining counti',^ 
immediately took up arms. 

The Duke of Hamilton was followed by 
Major-General Munro, with 1,000 cavalry ami 
2,000 infantry from the Scottish garrisons 
in Ireland, thus making his total strengtli 
18,000 men. 

The English Royalists were not per- 
mitted openly to join the Scottish army, ami 
to save appearances, Langdale, at the hcid 
of 4,o(X) men, kept a day's march in advaiac 
of it. but acted in concert with the Duki 
from whom he received all his or;1eis, wliilc' 
Munro followed a day's march in rear. 

" The Duke himself marches in the van 
says Sanderson, " with his trumpeters befuu' 
in scarlet coats with silver lace, and mui !i 
state; liis lifeguard, proper peisons, w-ll 
cicathed ; his standard and other equipa^^c 
nrince-Uke." 



498 



^C^.lion II 



PRESTON-AUG. 17th. 1648 



It s.i„„ iKcame t,i,l..„t ;liat H.nniltoTi 
, I'l ini.krtr.kv-n an ratrrprisi. for wliiil, his 
ufniitii-s WLTc alloijetlHT unt-fiual. 

A raiiiil marcli nii I..jmlrm niiKht liave 
crii«ln-.l the iil.iiDxi.ms IrKU-|>eiiikTits an.l 
-j\M thf KiiiK ; f„r ]-.,irfax was still l.iisy 
ivitli till- sic-Ki- of CofclK-sttT, «hik- Croni- 
u.ll had liis hands full at IVrnbrcike ; but 
i;jf Hukc, waitinK f„r drafts, tixik ^o ,lavs 
t.^r a march of 80 mik-s ! 

Ik- raarchwl tlirouijh I.ancasl.iri-. anil liis 
f.rcis. insti-ad of being conccntratul. were 
clra«n out owr many miles of countrv, so 
l.r apart as to be incapable of supixirting 
or c.iraraunicalr ^ with each other. Tlivis, 
ulien his mar :,ody reached the banks of 
•lie Kibble. ,r I'reston. I.anplale was far 
la advance .,1 it. while Munro, with the best- 
trained soldiers in the army, was 30 miles 
"II. at Kirby, in Westmorland : and so 
.kfeetive was the Llukes intelligence that 
he remained in ignorance alike of the sur- 
render of I'embrokc, of the approach of 
Uonmell at tile head of his victorious troops, 
ind of his junction with tlio.sc of Major- 
Oeueral I.anibcrt until their united forces 



Karly 



fell on those of Sir Marma.luke I.angdale on 
August 17th. 

I.u.llnw says: ■The llou>. of (.oramons 
ikelared the Scots who iiuaded laigaiid to 
be enemies, and ordercl the I.ieutenant- 
l.eiieral to a<lvance and fight then.; but 
the Lords declined to concur with them. 
Vt both of them, with the Cite (,f l.ou.loii' 
joined in carrying on a tier.s.,nal treatv wiili 
•'.e King in the Isle of iVight. and I., that 
..d revoke<l the votes for non-addres.ses, 
"hereby the King siei.ied to be on sure 
ground ; for if the Scots arrav failed he 
might still make tei.-is .vith the Parliament ■' 
Cr.raiwell was at the head of «,„oo horse 
and foot when he fell sudilenly on Sir llarma- 
duke I.angdale. near I'reston, in I.,incasliire 
He had sent forwaril 200 l,„rse and 400 foot. 
These were briskly encnimtere,! bv the 
advanced jMsts of Sir llarmaduke ' who 
after his main body was engaged, sent 
pressing mess.ages to the .Scottish army for 
supiKirt, but without elTect. Cromwell 
pressed onward at the head of his whole 
force, over wet. miry ground, anil eharging 
through a lane, after a four lio,.-s' dispute 




THE BATTLE OF PRESTON. AUGUST 
From nn old oorraTlns 
499 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



with I'ikc and niuskct. Urnvu l.ann.lale. 
witli tlif loss I'f nuiny men slain or taktii 
prisniufi, back n]Kin rrtston. 

Arrival of the Duke of Hamilton 

At t!ii^ crisis the I»uki.- <>t Hamilton arrived 
with a (c'v .Scottish cavalry, but hrouylit 
tlicni up in such disorder that they only 
«kT\ed to add to the confusion of I.angdale's 
retreat. Their presence, huwtvcr, caused 
a renewLi! of the conllict in tlie strctts and 
at the bridge, where the Royalists made a 
deterniineil stanfl. 

" Then e-.sued." says Cromwell, " a very 
hot disi-ute betwixt the Lancashire re^i- 
ment« art of my Lord-Ccneral's {Hamil- 
ton's 1 them beint; at push of pike ; 
but thi .vere beaten from the bridtje, and 
■ mr Iwrse ; d fo'>t foUowi g tliem, killed 
many and took divers prisoners. We ix>s- 
sessed the briilge over the Derwent. and a 
lew houses there, the enemy being drawn 
up within musket-shot of us. we not being 
able to attempt further upon them, the 
night prevenring us. In tliis i>osition did 
we He most yart of that night." 

Superior in numbt^r to their assailants, the 
Sci>ttish troops might and should have 
made a vik-»rous resistance ; but '' head 
and heart seemed alike to have failed the 
unfortunate 1 ''ike. ' 

In the couI^ of the night, to the surprise 
.nd satisfacti) :i of Cromwell, lie began a 
hasty retreat over execrable roads, under 
torrents of rain. The artillery, ammunition, 
and baggay;e u re left behind, and fell into 
the hands of the enemy. 

Some >f tlifc .-^cottish cavalry rode towards 
Lancaster. closi.ly followed up by the English, 
A ten-mile sk: iiiish ensued, of whicli Crom- 
well states: We possessed in the fight 
very much of the enemy's ammunition ; I 
believe they lost four or five thousand 
(stand of) arms. The number of slain we 
judge to be about i,ooo, the prisrmers we 
took about 4.000." 

Then darkness caused a cessation of 
hof'iUties for the night, save an occasional 
skirmish, and in one of tliese Major-General 
Sir John I'rie was ca]»tured. 

Daylircak found the Scots retreating to- 
wards Warrington. Two miles and a half 



from that place they took [possession oi 
what Cromwell calls "a pass," which they 
maintained by musketry, with the i;reate>t 
resolution, for four hours; hut, he ad l 
" (mr men. by the blessing of Cod. thar.;..i 
home ui)on them, Iwat them from tluir 
standing, killed 1,000. and took, as wl 
believe, almut i,ooo pris«iners." 

The Conflict on the Briilffe 

At Wanington they held the stone bridge 
across the Mersey, with the intention .1 
making another resolute stand ; but beiii;; 
now without cavalry, baggage, cannon, ,. 
anmmnition. Lieutenant-OeneraJ Hailhe. stv- 
ing the futility of resisting and losing motv 
lives, se'Ut a drunmier to Cromwell olternn; 
to capitulate; "to which I yielded," say^ 
the future Protector, ' -id gave him the>c 
terms: tliat he should surrender hinisvll 
and all his olHcers and soldiers prisoners .-1 
war. with all his arms, ammunition, aiiu 
horses, uixm quarter for life, which is ac- 
cordingly done. Here are took (vc) al".i:t 
4,000 comi)lete arms, and as many prisoner- ; 
and thus you have their infantr\' ruined. ' 
At the head of ,5,000 cavalry. Hamilt-n 
retreated to X .ntwich, where 500 '•• -, 
cut oil by the gentlemen of the di 
who were in arms and killed all wlio ftl. 
their tiands. Cromwell dispatched a body 
horse under General Lambert tr cut off ti 
retreat of the Duke, who was in hopes •>[ 
reaching Munro, who. with the horse ami 
foot of the Scoto-Irish garrisons, was still 
hovc-ng in C''"iberland. 

Aftei three .ys' retreating and figh'i::'.; 
the Duke was iv dy overtaken by Laml^rt 
at I'ttoxeter, in Staffordshire, ami thi-re 
he capitulated to Colonel W.;\-te, an ottictr 
of the Leicestershire horse. 

Of the .Scottish cavalry at Xantwicli iiniie 
escaped, save one resolute corps under the 
Earl of Callander, an officer of tried cour,ii;e 
and o]{l exncrience. These, exasperated .it 
the conduct of their -eneral, and disdaining; 
an ignominious surrender, broke tlirout;h the 
enemv's cav;i^ry sword in hand, and cvA a 
passage back :i> their own country. Mu;.rn 
and Hamilton's brother, tlie Earl of L. ti- 
ark, also fell back into Scotland, whe-icc -'ic 
former returned to Ireland, for ♦lie protect 'n 




i,.i: 



PRESTO^f, AUGUST 17,1, ,.^. 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



of the Scottish colonists ; and so ended the 
last hopes of Charles, for the defeat of 
the Scots was followed by the fall of Col- 
chester, where many prisoners were taken, 
and Sir George Lisle and Sir Charles Lucas 
were executed. 

The number of prisoners now in the 
hands of the Parliament proving trouble- 
some, a committee was appointed to treat 
with merchants for their conveyance abroad. 
" for foreign service, and not to return back 
in arms." 

The few survivors of this unfortunate 
anny, on their return to their native parishes, 
were subjected to fines, imprisonment, and 
every kind of humiliation, by the petty 
eccle itical tyrants who in each district had 
const, ted themselves not only a Kirk 
Session, but a High Court of Inquisition, 
before which all tl' .se who followed the 
banner of Itamiltou were arraigned like 
criminals : and many otlicers and soldiers, 
though still suffering from severe wounds 



and sickness, w-re degraded by severe 
captivity and insulting penances, having to 
appear in absurd canvas frocks at the doors 
of the churches, " like the most pitiful 
criminals, for such was the Ught in which 
they were viewed by the Scottish fanatical 
bigots at whose mercy the fortune of war 
had cast them." 

The English rarUament. on the quiblik- 
that the Duke of Hamilton bore the English 
title of Earl of Cambridge, tried and beheaded 
him as a traitor on March 5th. 1649. 

In the autumn subsequent to the rout of 
Hamilton, the Marquis of Argyll, a sell- 
made dictator in Scotland, invited Cromwell 
to Edinburgh, where he entertained him 
with more than royal munificence in the 
hall of the castle : and " they held several 
meetings at the Lady IIo..ie's house in the 
Canongate. where the necessitie to take- 
away the King's life was openly discussed 
and approved of, for which concurrence the 
dictator afterwards lost his head." 




PLAN OF THE BATTLE OF PRESTON. AUGUST 17th IfrW 



SECTION l.-MODERN 



ALIWAL AND SOBRAON 

s»» "^^^cccs.or mkal Singh, ua. LilZ^^tlk/ '"'"^'"" "'""""'« "/''""" *" 
Ihc largest lr,butary rive, to tlZus °"' f"^'"- "*"'' "'"s «<• left bank of the S„t!,i 

17 0/ their 22 guns. ^ '™ *'""' ""^ ■•■'""'*''. «'« drove off the SiBs, taking 

.^ >. . ., aeneral LUtler P:it-hX Slr:;!^l. ^^ ^.^^^^'IJ'JS ^^ 
of a uing of the armv. They aTekSatsuJelZ^- '° '"7 ""t' *""■ "«'' *' '""^ ''""■«<■ 

Br,t,sh gum were unable to 4'/ ..^m' v Aa/r' "i, "f"!-" "';"' ""'' "'""■•'' "«• ^'^ 

BnlKh troops.-V,. W. ' """ '" ^" *'" '"'"' countryman crushed by Ike 

THE stemly-contested action of Firoz- 
shah, when the British army under 
Sir Hugh Gough, after two days' 
fiplituig. heat the Sikhs on Deeemher 
22nd. 1845, exhausted the resources of tlie 
conquerors, and for a month re<h.ced them 
to mactlon. The Comman,ler-in-Cliief took 
"P his head-quarters at Sultan Khdn Wahi 
^1 village but three miles nearer to the Sikli 
Irontier han the hattle-fiehl, and showed no 
signs .advancing. There have lived few more 
""petuous. gaUant men than Oougli. and only 
..e most cogent reasons couM have restrauie<l 
'mn from resuming the contest at once 
Amniumtion, stores, heavy gun^all were 



short, and had to be sent up from Delhi, 200 
miles distant. Reinforcements, too. were 
required, especially of cavalry (for the 
Sutlcj Campaign was fought on the level 
Punjab plains, where a horseman might ride 
for a week in a beadliiie). to resume the 
offensive against so determined a foe as 
the Sikhs had jiroveil themselves. Despite 
the capture of 100 of their guns at Muilki 
antl Kirozshah. they were still in the pos- 
ses.sion of a numerous artillery and of large 
reserves of disciplined troops eager to give 
spirit to those who. in the moment of 
almost assured victory, hail turned and re- 
treated before that "thin, red line" which 




^r^- 



ALIWAL-JAN. 28th, 1846 



Modern 

pulse. Sir Hnrr,. „.^- , , _ '"' "*' 



Section I 

Predatory Bands of Sikhs 

After their repulse at Krozsl.al,, the Khalsa 
army,v.tl,drew,,,,hevvest„ftheSuUe, bu^ - ^.... .. „.,„. 

i.ree s„all is.,,ate.l Sikh „u.,„s,s sS,' fl™ repuJe Sr H™'" ""' ""•■ *' "' '- '^»- 

^;^=s:^-7z;h:-i'^-s:^H 
p^u-s Ln-rS™ SS-^S — — 



I "^ main ariiiv sn tliif 

"..ly a weak garrison remained iufcl'rt 
lo the very walls of ,he f„rt tl e S k^s 
a.lvane.1. an.l l,„r„t .^oral bung ow 
U.a«™,ts and civil lines ain:"i" 
S mitanennsly one of their ehiefs. Ranjur 

troops u,d wuh 70 guns, crossed the river 
at another point, either with the intention 



^„.„ , '"" '-'ver-contidciice n tlieir 

men ",',.t™ ""' """' ="'■■"«' '" ^» "»" 
a "dr/esir"^"-'"'^'' '"-""«'■ 

Bejinninj of the Battle of Allwal 

Hattle of Ahwal began with a smart cm 
nonade from tl,» 5.1,1, . " '^■"' 



<•' redue„,g I.„,„,ia„a or. as was thought nonad. I '^"'^ ""' ''' ^"'"t ■=•'"- 

more probable, of intercepting a sieg -tr^in theBriri "","" ''""' >"'"'■ """" »hieh 

movmg „p fr„„, „,,|,i ^e tram "^^ Bnfsh mfantry deployed into line The 

S,r Harry Smith was immediately detach«1 Son" , ™' T' "'" ''''■ '" ""^ -^"^Vs 

by ti.e Co„,mander.i„-Cl,ief to reheve I ud «„ raTe'l *"",'"■'' "''' "'" """^k ^^ con- 

"'"h.:;!,-^--— --Hit ss't:n;:d'iejdl;r.^:er"t-'' 

recinw'titc 0,1.. . ., . _ - ■ *^^ 



Sin„l, 7 , m"'-ciiients of Ranjur 

.^."Bh. who. hearing of his approach, broke 
up camp and retired to Badhnwdl. a small 
fort^wlnch lay n. ,he route of the relieving 

Ins stronghold, and was, in.Ieed. warned to 
out diffi : T capturing Dharmk6t with- 
"Ut d fficulty. he advanced on I.udhiana 

■..'"uentlv t,akh,g a roa.l that led S 
under the bastions of n.-.dlinwdl 

Ranjur Singh immediately opened fire on 
luni to which Smith did not respond • where- 
J™ the Sikh chief, by a clever ,c "a, 
■""yement. completely enveloped Sndtl 



-. -" ,)j.v4 n^auiiit- [lie wav. As our 

loTl'T","!""'^'^''' '■'"i"' Lawrenson ga" 
foM his light battery of horse artiller, , 

h^ '",' ","","' "'''"'"' "' "- Sikh pm 
halted, wheeled round, an.l unlnnbered w i 
admirabk celerity, and opened such a br k 
and well-directed fire that he force,l the 
swarthy Khalsa artillerymen to quit , he 
P.eces.a„dmateria.,y assisted our capture „; 

Sir Harry Smith now fell ,„, ,|,e left and 
centre of the .Sikh line, whilst the cavalr^■ 
co-operating, delivere,! sexeral elTective 
charges, to receiie the brunt of which the 
enemy made a singular disposition. sai.I to 
'>e copied from tl.o r,«.,„i. t ^- , ,, 



,.-,,., ....up.cteiy enveloped Smith's et..,„ i ' "'"C" the 

"■k .Sir Harry was cr.mpelled to w h I^. ■"i"";'' " '"""''" '"«I>™itio". sai.l to 
•!r.,w. losing the greater iK.rtion of his T ' ^ '°'""' ''""' ""■ f'och. Instead of form- 
«^R<' His retreat was skilfnily cove ed by ZLT'"' ,"'"' *'"' "" "' " '"'"•«"'" 
»n,g,.dier Cureton, the manoeuvres of ^',„'e ZTT' T, '''"' '" "" '"'"' ^ "■" 
cu-alry, and their dashing charges we l Z i ! "^"' '•""^"'' "'•" "" ''"^ 'la^' 
-ongst the most brilliant feat^s ofTl,: tt'l 'fof 't '^ t!',",'^;' "'"''r"""«" 

' w tins ,.o\ Li (k'ft'iicc *' — - 
505 



tiiey were 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



confronted by the base, bristling with 
bayonets. XotliinK daunted, and splendidly 
led by their officers, our trixipets broke 
through the wedge of flame and stetl — a feat 
seldom accomplislied by mounted men even 
against Asiatic troops. As the impetus of 
l>eir charge carried them past the dense mass, 
tlie Sikhs flung themselves flat on the 
ground, out of reach of the lances, only to 
rise directly the squadnms had emerged and 
pour a volley of l)ullets after them. Throe 
times did the determmed i6th repeat this 



ALIWAL. 



. 


u 


Tfcam 


V:,.i,. 


, sww^. 


, 




J V, 


?^ 


^ 


^ 


-pz 


-_Eji;aS;-e^- 




■^7' 

.'''■■%. 

<;'>,_^ 




ndes 


rh 


}' 










^ 



PLAN OF THE BATTLE OK ALIWAL, JANUARY I8ih. 1B46 



charge, losing:; a hundred of their number in 
the effort, or i. early tme-fifth of the total 
casualties on the British side during the 
action. 

Animated by this example, the infantrj' 
took the Sikh batteries one after another, 
notwithstanding the resolution with which 
they were defended. Step by step tlic 
Khalsa troops fell back, true to the discipline 
that had be^n so well taught, halting every 



combined powers of infantr>-, artillery, and 
cavaln- were successively and successfully 
brought into play. To this day Aliwal is 
one of the most cherished memories of the 
i6tli Lancers. 

Three defeats had the Khalsa army suf- 
fered, but they still retained what Americans 
call their " grit." The remnants of Ranjur 
Singh's force rallied at vSobraon, where the 
Sikh nation, represented by its warriors, 
intended to make a great effort. Their 
leadei.^ had already resolved on another 
occupation of the east bank of che 
Sutlcj, across which they had thro\ni 
a bridge of Iwats and possessed them- 
selves of the village of Sol>raon, situated 
on the British side in n deep bend nf 
the river just below its junction with 
the Beas. Here they fonne<l another 
vast entrenchment, semicircular in 
form, bristluig with triple rows of gun- 
and much stronger hi design than tlu 
earthworks of Firozshah. The plans 
had been laid down by an able Spanish 
engineer otUcer, nciincd Huerba. Thv 
tcte dc pont. co\ering the bridge ^f 
Ixjats, consisted of a series of half- 
moon bastions connected by curtahi. 
its front defended by a ditch and its 
flanks resting on the river, and furthtr 
protectetl by batteries on the western 
bank of the river which could enfilad.- 
any hostile attack. These formidable 
works, which, for reasons never e\ 
plained, contuiued in progress for six weeks 
without any nn^l-t'-ation from us, extendnl 
two and a half miles in length. A Frenci; 
ofticer, Monsieur Mouton, sen-ing under tli 
Sikh Hag, assured Tej Singh, the Khalsa O.ii; 
niander-iu -Chief, that it was utterly imp<issil <\v 
for the Knglish to effect an entrance jntn 
Sobraon, which, defended as it was by iJo 
pieces of artillery ami 3o,(K)0 jiicked troit; i-^, 
was an impregnable fortification comparel 



few paces to discharge a volley into the faces with the entrenchments of Firozshah 



of their foes. Finally, they were forced to 
abandon the last of their 52 guns, and, behig 
flriven to the banks of tlic Sutlej, crossed 
in confusion under a heavy artillery lire, 
abandoning ever>lhing to their conquerors 
and saving only their bare lives. 

It was a brilliant battle, in which the 



So slow was the crisis in culminating tli t 
our troops grew stale witii waiting for tl.> 
siege-tr un from Delhi. " The army w, s 
sickenmg for want of a battle." wrui' 
Sir Herbert Kdwards. Between Dcccnil'T 
22nd and February loth. 1846, all th t 
had been :lone was to advance the can") 



506 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 




e b^ Lowe* Dickir. 

Metira. T. H. Parker Bro«. 

and head-quiirters a few miles nearer the 
river on three successi\e occasions. 

On February 7th the first jxtrtion of the 
siege-train arrived, and on tlie followinc 
mnrninj^ Sir Harr\- Smith's division rejoined 
the Commander-in-Chief. The British camp 
was pitched opposite Soliraon, and between 
them by a dry nullah, or ri\-er bed. 
Xnrectiy froutiii^; Uie centre was the outpost 
of Rhodawala, and about two miles to the 



advanced right the Tower of 
Chota, or Little Sobraon. Rho- 
dawala was the point of de- 
marcation between the two 
armies, being, !)y a sort of tacit 
understanding, occupied bv us 
during dayhght and by the 
Sikhs after nightfall. Between 
Rhodawala and Little S<jbraon 
stretched one of those tracts 
of low jungle which fringe 
most of the Punjab rivers. It 
alwunded with wild pig, " and 
it was one of the events of the 
day to watch General Gilbert— 
a noted ' pig-sticker ' and tlic 
commander of the central di- 
vision of the army — ridin;; 
after the boar with an en- 
thusiasm which took him prett\' 
close to the enemy's range, t)ut 
without molestation." It is 
curious to note that the lo\e 
of sport, so characteristic of 
the British race, was chival- 
rously respected by an enemy 
who, in the heat of action and 
when their fury was aroused, 
had proved themselves utterly 
merciless. 

Orders were issued on Feb- 
ruarj- qth for the assault to 
be delivered on the f(dlowim; 
morning. It was proposed to 
cannonade and then storm the 
enemy's right or western flank, 
and sweep the camp from west 
to east. To accomplish tiii^ 
we had 15,000 men in the fieM 
of whom one-third were Euro- 
peans, and about too guns 
The enemy's numbers wero 
more than double, their artillery superior 
and their whole front protected by formid- 
able field fortifications. 

It was a misty morning— this memorablt- 
loth of Fobruarv-— such as is often experi 
enced during the cold weather in the PunjaN 
plains. Under cover of a fleecy bank of foii 
in the cold, shivering dawn, the British armv 
farmed up in silence, the artillery in an 
extended semicircle which embraced the 



:o8 



f 



1^ ^ 



Section I 

the cavalry!^ Sir tZ^ D 'L": ^^^^ ">• 
on the left of tl,c line f ^. i , 'i'"K^'l<!S ""e 

the margin o/i^'Xef "o it^' ""*''""« 
•lie centre his nVhf ■ '"""^" commandecl 

'-..tie .Sohri™ turH' ™ f .t.'"'^^ "' 
sion completed ,h. ' "■'"J^mth's <livi- 

•'.ro™u/,'rar,hrsrr"^;"-"' 

Joseph Thackwell the ^ '' ''™""' ■'^'.• 
cavulo- division „a"r„ ^"""'7 "' ""^ 
and centre divisi,r , ''" °' "« '^'t 

Msade .up or "d ■«*,'"'"""'' ^uretons 
K-rded the'Ha^chi'ghaf "'7f"' ^"^ 
farther side of which ,Te Sikh l""'' ™ ""^ 
'•"" «..Kh, hovered th :aten'tg ""' """" 



SOBRAON-FEB. lOth. 18^6 



The Battle o/ Sobraon Opens 

and ,n a few moments the mM , u """• 

1r» J sfk , f' 'T ""^ "■•■* "f battle, had 

t'.cijrft/;;s"a""'"''r-™^- 

entrenchmentsin.I „ f ""'' ""■■ ■'^""' 

f„rm„ > 7 "'"**" "f J^ritisli soldicrv 

■ rmed up for „,e attack came into ■ ew 

"■esu:^:tt'^,^;;^nr:hrt''r 

entrenchments, whence tongu of f - V"""' 

'""R the artillerv duel was in fi "•' 

tilt air rane witl.T "''' Pf'Ktcss : 

tars roctos^ T' "' """^ ""'' t""'- 

dart d o erhea"™"',H " 'V "•'"^'"' """ 

■ -^"^ 2^t<--r Jiieitectually 



Modern 

FSn\:'zthri;;n'r---- 

dent that if Sol.r , " '«-'<'inie eii- 

^-tthe,^i^;^;;x: :--"..itn.ust 

»des«,tiairr:.f ' ""f •'""«'■ '--i. 

of officers ■ Tl ' , •"" "' "'^ "'''" ^^h""! 
>-cai., . hat f !' "■™''« '= almost the onlv 

'"■'I'«l to w4, hdi" *='""' ^'"'""-^ "''o 

".-.i.ttore:d!;:;j:/-;™f';-;penns 

5<-"-ice required of t e, °-'-™net is the 

n.ea„ themXslv ■■■""' ""' ""■'■ ''-=- 
TLcsescntin^tsa 1, ,""•' •■" "" '"<>•' " 
years hefore "4 "e i; '""""*" ^"■™'>- 
"er animate,! Sir Hn.h^"' ? """* "■""^" 
determined to drive 24""^''- ""<' ''^ ""w 
with cold steel """'"'Sobraon 

1«1 In- the loth an 1, r - ' ''"■"'■"''^' 

on eithc. h I .^^''"^""'^'"'^W-rted 

advanced qui Sv „, "I"" ^""'"■^■- ^'-.v 
tlie ginis took i,;^' '".""'ect line, whilst 

extreme left efilcttran } '""^' "" "'^ 
parapet and'.re,:h::rrthrrk^''''r 

a:i^^'m:^rr-"'«-^-"eH: 

broket et form '' ''" "' ""= ^l-eck 

in. th™:j:rrw'w*""?'^- '""■'■ 

stormed the e„,r , *- ^ ""'' '"asses, 

dash and UrovlrS-M' "'"' "'"'^''bfe 
confuskm ""^ '"^''^ '''''"'= ""em in 



SO9 



A Chanjfed Plan 

ob^v.^j'^S'fH'r'^'''^"'"'- 
i^^:r^!;t;tr--"-*"-s: 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



temporary repulse of the left, the ])Ian of 
action was chaiigeii ; and first CilluTt. then 
Sir Harry Smith, were (irdered fnrward t'l 
storm the lines and batteries directly in their 
fronts. 

(lilliert's leadint; hri'^^ade tuck a s miewliat 
div^onal hue with a view to assistin^; Staccy, 
hut it niis^tl tlie objccti\e and arrived, un- 
s-.iiii)<>rted by either cavalry or artillery, in 
fr>>nt of tiie apex and stronRest iK)int of t!ie 
eiieniv's defences. Her Majesty's -'(»th and 
II.IvI.C.'s 1st luiropL-an I.ij;l»t Infantry were 
leaditu^ and in the face of a lire of Krajie and 
canister. cn)ssed a dry ravmc and thari;ed 
riyiit up to tlie earthworks, \.hich were too 
high to clamber o\cr. 

A Desperate Position 

The i)osition was a desperate one, for the 
walls rose iiii^li a1)i>ve the reach of the men. 
Thrice (Hd the 2qth and the Kuro])ean Li^ht 
Infantry attempt to scale ti' u, and thrice 
were tliey repulsed and dr' i hack across 
the ravine, followed eacli time to its edge by 
the Sikhs, who spared none and cut to ])ieces 
the wounded. At this critical moment Sir 
Henry Hardinge shouted out, " Rally those 
men ! " His aide-de-camp, Colonel Wood, 
instantly galloped to the centre of the waver- 
ing line, snatched the colours from the hand 
of an ensign, and, waving them aloft, carried 
them to the front. The act of heroism was 
responded to as nobly as it was performed. 
The line ralhed, returned to the assault, and 
thmg itself against the high endxmkmcnt. 
The men helped each other to scramble over, 
the pioneers tore open Itreachcs with their 
pickaxes, and just as I)ick's di\-isiou liad 
made good its footing on the left, (Gilbert's 
men burst into the centre of the Sikh camp. 

Smith, on the right, fared in much the same 
wise, his men sustainuig a check before they 
liually carried tlie defences; ■" I"or u few 
Seconds they winced under a hailstorm of 
bullets, but, in their extremity, tlie caxalry 
were ordered to their assistance, and ,slied 
up under (leneral Sir Jf>sc-ph Tliackwell, an 
ideal leader, who, in tlie somewhat lalxmred 
phrase of tlie Conimander-in-Cliief. " estab- 
lislied a claim on this day to the rare c<tni- 
mcudation of having tlYected much with 
a cavalrv force, where the duty to be done 



consistcfl of an attack on field works, usually 
sup]Kise<l to I)e the jtarticular ])rovince of 
infantry and artill'Tv." 

I>uring the process of the assault tlie 
pioneers had made some njicnhigs in the Sikh 
e.irtliworks, and through one of tliese Sir 
Josepli Tliackwell k-d his squadrons in singk- 
file. •■ It seemed as though they were doomed 
to annihilation." an eyewitness has reconled. 
Tliis feat of darhig was achieved by tlie ,',rd 
Light Ipragoons, the same horsemen who hatl 
swept through the Sikh cam]) at Firozshah, 
and '■ wiiom no obstacles usually hcltl for- 
midable by horse ajipeared to clieck." The 
memory of their former act of prowess was 
\-ivid in thi-'ir recollections and gave confidence 
to their audacity. I'ihng through the earth- 
works, furrowed with trenches and blocked 
with batteries, they re-formed inside the 
hostile camp, and then charged and cut down 
the Sikhs as they ser\-e(l their guns. A f-^w 
minutes later, reinforced by the resei\e 
brigade. Sir Harry Smith's diviMon had 
carried its objective iM)int. With this final 
success the whole weight of tlie three divi- 
sions of the Uritish army was brought to 
bear simultaneously on the Siklis, and with 
an irresistible force the semicircular attack 
cimcentrated uixm the head of the bridge. 

The Khalsa army defended itself with 
resolution, disjjlaying a cohesion which had 
never before been apparent in its ranks. 
Slioulder to shoulder the Sikhs stood, and 
resisted stubl>ornly as one man, I'erchance 
they had learnt tlie lesson from the Hritis' 
soldier against whom they had mate 
themselves s<i often and so gallantly hi the 
seven weeks of tlie war. They fought witli 
the lion-hearted valour their national desig- 
nation claimed for them, these Sin^hs of the 
Punjab. 

A Time for Prompt Action 

Although their Commander-in-Chief, Tej 
Singli. lied at the first glint of British 
bayf>nets in his camp, there remaine<l .■ 
worthy leader to the Siklis, Sham Singh 
Atdriwala was ai: old and brave soldier wli ■ 
had fought undci Runjeet Singh duriii , 
his warlike career. On this day Sham Singli 
commanded in the entrenchments, and wa- 
engaged at his <ievutions when the first boom 




SOBRAON: MR JOSEPH THACKWELL LEAD.NG THK ^ 

S.«OLE ...E THHOUOH sIme^^^eVrThwS".;"'^*""""^ ™ 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 




iOBRAON- THIC UGHT ON THt BRIUGIC OVER THE SUTLEJ 
From a picture by A. Monro 



of tliL' Ilritisli cannon fell u\nni his curs. 
Iinmcdiiitcly Hiitherins his olliccrs and chiefs 
around him, he remindtd thcni how 5;rL-at 
was the stake at issue, and l>ade them ti^ht 
in a way wortliy of the sons of Guru (lol)ind. 
The only road to i;lory was tlie mad in fmnt 
of them ; and that there nii^ht be nn retreat 
from it, the veteran chief commanded the two 
cent"; l)oats of the bridge over the Sutkj 
to he cut adrift. This done, he solemnly 
vowed to offer up his life that day as a pro- 
jutiatory sacrifice to the (Vurus »i their race. 
Clnthinj^ himself in white, in token that he 
liad devoted himself to death, he took his 
stand in tlie front of the Khalsa army, and 
there remained, a rallying point for his 
countrymen, until, covered with .vounds and 
glory, lie fell where the slaughtered bodies 
of his followers lay thickest. 

llirectly the British infantry had gained a 
footing in the works the Siklis betook them- 
selves to tlieir swords, and a hand to hand 
struggle succeeded. Closer and more furious 
grew the conflict ; but ever, with resistless 



pressure, like tiie contracting coils of sonir 
huge serpent wound round its victim, the r<.-\ 
circle narrowed, as line after line of l:";^- 
were stormed and taken, and the Kli.iN.i 
&-ldiery were borne back niwin the i"-! 
Rut there was no ])anic, no wil<l iHglit. Tli^. 
Singhs knew disaster was at their rear, In;' 
tliev retreated in aibnirable order. At Ia--t 
tlieir fire slacken* ' for they had beconK' 
huddled into one o se mass as our Xln^--- 
divisions closed in on the objective p"int it 
the bridge. Then it was recognised that V.-x 
possibility of further resistance was o\l : 
and in a few seconds the narrow pontoon \\ ■ 
crowded with guns, horses, and soldier^■ 1 
all arms, swaying it to and fro as tliose uV. ' 
had reached the gap strove to keej) back tic 
pressure at their rear. Su<!denly, with i 
mighty crash, the overladen bridge part', 1 
from its moorings, and the boats that c^"'- 
posed it broke up and foundere<l or wv:'-' 
swejit down-stream. There was no alternali t' 
left for the defeatetl army but to take t<> t,,c 
river. During the baitk the Sutkj had :i: :i": 



-mr- ^'r^- 



^trtfoii / 



'"> f"'m bunk to Irnik -,.,"''"' ""■ «Hcr- 

'' -"i-vic,„rs ti„':'r""'™"-'-^ 

■ ""■i"">. ri,c.„ f„rr„„., ""«''"« '"''ss „/ 
■ '^ sl.,UKl,tcr. TlK- r . ' " '*'""■ "' '•'''"■■"- 
'■"''•"lyi">,'SitI,"w "'.'"'*■' "'•'' 
■■ '"""1 n l,,i,li, ^' """""K '""lies 

— ■■ ">J"X;:r":;: ''n '" -">'^' 

'Parod none." «ri J jT ' '"' "''■>• ''-i 

Snl,n,o„.'' '"""'1 'o tlie cuniaK... of 

■''lie actunl cnntrat it s. . 
','''-a».uW,„n,";'^;''""" "as .,,,,„, 
"^'"'^■- ''"tin,C"''"7'";^''"*ve,, 



«OBRAO.N-,HB. io.h, ,«^ 



-MoJirn 



«■'« kill liol, iij... .. , 

;■'— f-r in"' ,„'!"- '^•■=- -« ,„ 
1"^ «™,c,i to |,,,-e ^ '"''"■ "' ''^ll'l-^ 

''■'''i"-x.u.r.r,( ;™V'^''''™'"'''"'- 

f" '-UK-, lln-s ,v,": ■ ■■' """ '•>■■"'"• 
'r' 'I"-- W:ak W-tcU '■ '""" "•'"• I'--"' 

"' tiK- S,„|,j, ''''''''"tl. "., tl,el,,„,k 

''""■cj„rtitn,le„f, "'"'^■"•'•'t.>vi,l, tl,. 
*"- "f tl.. 1....,] , " ,;';r- '•i""-lK:.ru,| 

'" ""Quct, r^; J" '"'■""'"' *■ l-„,llv 
>;-^'- »as „., .i^"";,, ■ .■^''^■" ■'^"■«h A.dri- 

•'t SoLraon. I„ tZ , "S'' «■'= annil,;!,,,^,, 

•'■^^■'™'«--of.iL':;:;;.;,;™:;,;;--h 




""^"'^"^■■^^^'^^^^z;:^,. 



'O'h, la^e 



5'3 



f^WM 



SECTION l.-MODERN 



SECOND SIKH WAR 



Tin; issue of tlif rirst .Sikli W.ir (1S45- 
41.) had pbced the vast timtor>- c.f 
the Punjab at the mercy of the British 
Government, an.l I/jrd IlardinRC, tlic (kjver- 
nor-Cenerd of the i>criod. mitiht have incui- 
I»rate<l it in the douiuiions of tlie East India 
Coinpanv. But he decideil to avoid the last 
resource of annexation, and the Treaty of 
Lahore accorded a noniinally indei«indcnt 
sovereignty to the boy Prince llhuhp Singh. 
Henry Lawrence was placed in residence at 
Lahore as tlie B.itish Representative in the 
Punjab, and the Sikh army was reornauised 
and limite<l to a certain sjiecific strength. 
Witliin a few months the Prime Minister, 
Lall Singh, was deliosed. and by an arrange- 
ment settled in Decemlier. l84(). a Council of 
Regency comlioscd of eight Sikh cliiefs was 
ai)|K.uited to act uniler the control and guid- 
ance of the Britisli Resident, who was to 
exercise unlimited influence in all matters of 
internal administration and external jiolicy. 
This arrangement was to continue for eight 
years, until the young Maliarajah Dlmlil) 
Singh should reach his majority. The treaty 
conferred on the Resident unprecedented 
IMwers. and Major Henry Lawrence, an 
officer of the Company's artillery, became in 
effect the successor of Runjeet Singh. 

■• Unruffled Peace " of the Punjab 

This settlement had a specious aspect of 
siinie measure of i)ermanency. It might have 
lasted longer if the state of his health had 
permitteil Henry Lawrence to remain at his 
lH)St. but it was unsound at the core ; for a 
vali.mt and turbulent race does not bow the 
knee submissively after a single disastrous 
campaign on its frontier. Wlien in January, 
1848, Henr>' Lawri-.ice sailed on sick furlough 
from Calcutta to England in company with 
the retiring (lovenior-General, he Wt the 
Punjab, to all appearance, in a state of un- 



rnllleil peace. At Lahore, Pcshawur, AttiK-k 
liunnoo. Hazaia, British officers were quietl;. 
drilling Sikli and Pathan regiments, giving 
less<ms in good government to great Sikh 
officials, enforcing a rough-and-ready jnstic- 
among rude tribes accustomed to obey i\-> 
master whom thev could not person.ill. 
revere. Henry Lawrence's successitr u.i- 
Sir I'rcderick Currie. an able official, Inr 
scarcely the man to rule the Punjab. 

Deceptive Quietude 

Tlie deceptive quietude of the Punjab w.T 
soon to be broken. Wlien Currie arrived .1 
Lahore, he fcmnd M'xjlraj. the (iovemor . t 
McK>ltan. who had come to offer the resiga.c 
tion of his ix>sition for reasons which w. re 
chietlyliersonal. Ilisresij^. .•onwasac'.i.it' ' 
a new governor being apix>tnted in his platx. 
who set out for M<K>ltan accompanied by Mr. 
Vans Agnew, of the Bengal Cisil Service, an 1 
his assistant. Lieutenant Anderson, of thi' 
Branbay army, Moolraj travelM with ;Iio 
escort of the new governor, to wh'un. im 
arrival at Mooltan. he formally surrendirol 
the fort. After the ceremony, Agnew ;i;i>l 
Anderstm started for their camp. Mon!i ,j 
riding with the two English gentlemen. .\i 
the gate of the fortress Agnew was suddcil;. 
attacked, speared through the side, .ml 
slashed by sword-cuts. At the same mom lit 
Andersim was cut ilown and desper.i; li- 
woimded. Moolraj galloped oft, leaviii,^ ih. 
Englishmen to their fate. Two days I :>r 
they were brutally slauglitered. their b' its 
cut to pieces, and their heads ccmtumehi' -K 
thrown at the feet of Moolraj. On the iiirn- 
ing after the assiissination, Moolraj pi ei 
liimself at the liead of tlie insurrectioi . In- 
issuing a proclamaticm calling on the ikli 
nation to rise and make common c .use 
against the " Eeringliees." 

Tidings of the outrage and rising at .M "1- 



Section r 



t.m reaclicl Lahore on April -jth i 

tae Lahore b„(.acle „„ .Mo.,ltan «i< ™^ ^ 

prepared for a long „„„,„. .,L, mlr ,es 
;''' 7' ''"^-^ '"^'^n made i„ ,|,e hot^Tim 

"orcls of Marshman. " our empire in In,|ia 

■.;1 been acjuired and rnaint, ined not 1- 

."r-«.atl,er campaigns, but by taking the 

...„ every en-orgenc,. and at'any Jl^^ 

U,rni. to do Inm justice. ,lid order a brigade 

',' """'' ''" '""'tan. in the belief tl.X 

.e would not maintain a defence ^. ,en a 

' '"* '"'« ^•'""M approach i, ; but c, entu- 

•'«>■■ '" srcat measure because of the argu- 

,«,s advanced by Sir Colin Campbell X 

.., not always enter,,rising, the n,„vement 

a" I he Commander-in-Chief, Lnr.l Cou.-h 
imh tiie concurr.-:„v of I.,r,l n •. , ' 

t./.,.- r^ . "^ oi i/ird ]i.i,i,ous|,. [],„ 

e.> Oovernor-Oenrral. intimate,! his res., 'e 
postpone militar>- operations untU the 
c*>^her, When he would take the fiSl 



SECOND SIKH WAR -184»-1849 



Modern 

to ai«,ut ,""'^"'"^<^<^"">v amounting 
■1 i"i hfe were sparcvl. But he regained his 

-"-":^^SSwJr:,rf:;-i: 

" ' "' V "'•""" ^ 'egiments led by a gall.„;t 
"unglr,sl, volunteername,l,,un s^ 

^■.*er in"', ' ^^^'''^^'--V '"■<' 



Edwardes Marches to Mooltan 

-Meanwhile a subaltern, for whom sivift 

:rt:;s :;■;=:,--- 

''rlandt,w.th.,„„oPathansandsi^gus 
««.c,l to join bin, ; and on the .„th Mav 

fc ."Uted force .lefeatd Moolrajs Irm? 
.. M strong. The loyal .v,^,b of Bha" ' 

-c sent a strong force of his warlike an. 
across tl>eSutlej to join hands w,, 

EJ« rdesand Crtlandt ; and the iuncti 

« lu.t been accon,plished on tl.e'fi Id rf 

. - I.IC allies were attackol by Moolnj 
•' da) s hard f.ghtmg the enemy fled in 



Slew of Mooltan. January, ,849 

U"der Shere S n^b "',;""""'"' » «th force 
connnan . and ,f ■ ""' "°'""""^ "'at 

disaf J a'd 7: T f '-■ """""«'■'>■ 

orders to halt llfty ndles sh'.r, , f, fc , 
™l was only a,l.„ved to join KdwardesS 

l"t.K , and active an,l bloodv appr ; , 

-re carried on for a week, when S,!Jre>.g, 
and Ins contingent snddenlv pa.^ed ,n-er t. 
tte enemy. -Vf.er this defection, m,i,l he 
™r.a«ica„le to continue .he sieg^'alide 

t f,'a. '•T'"r '" ""■ ""■■"^- l-"'i"^' 
l.av 'side " ;;'"'"'«""^^"t» from the Bom- 
, ■ ,■ ^'"- '^"•se "-as re-opened late ii. 
'ccember; the city was sto ined after . 
'■■■rdhght; and, linally, on Ja„„ar> '"d! 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



1849. Moolraj surrendered at discretion. It 
must he Siiid of him tli;it he had made a 
stuttbom ami gallant defence. 

By the end of September. 184S, the local 
outbreak was fast swellini; into a national 
revolt. The flame of rebellion was spreading 
over the Land of the Five Rivers ; and by 
the end of October only a few brave English 
olHcers were still holding togetlier the last 
shreds of British influence in the Punjab out- 
side of Lahore and tlie camp of General Whish. 
Moolraj and Shere Singh had quarrelled ; and 
in the beginning of Octol>er the latter sirdar 
left Mooltan and marched northwards in the 
direction of Laliore, his original force of 3,000 
men strengthened at every step by the 
warriors of the old Khalsa army, who flocked 
eagcrlv to his standard. xVfter threatening 
Lahore he moved westwards to effect a junc- 
tion with the Bunnoo insurgents, who had 
muthiied and murdered their officers ; and 
he finally took up a position on both sides 
of the river at Ramnuggur, his main body 
cantoned on the right bank of tlie river. 

Dalhousie Accepts the Challenge 

Lord Dalhousie had realised from the col- 
lapse of the siege of Mo()ltan that he had 
l)efore liini a serious campaign in tlie I'unjab. 
Ke promjitly ordered the assemblage of a 
large force at Ferozeporc, and the movement 
frcnn Bombay of a smaller body to act against 
Miioltan. He accepted without rcser\e the 
challenge flung at him from tiie collective 
I'unjab. " Unwarned by precedent, unin- 
fluenced by example, the Sikh nation has 
called for war ; and on my word, sirs, war 
tliey shall have," were his stirrhig words at 
the farewell diimer given him by the oflicers 
of Barrackpore. By the end of September, 
regiments were advancing from Mecrut. 
L'mballa, Sabatoo. and Jullundur towards 
the Sutlej or the Ravee. Before the end of 
October, the leading brigades of the army of 
the Punjab had marched past Lahore across 
the Ravee towards the rendezvous at Shah- 
dara. Cureton's cavalr\' brigade and Gcdby's 
infantr>' brigade were already there, and on 
November i^th Colm Campbell joined Cure- 
ton with two Native infantry regiments, 
taking command of the advanced force with 
thu tem]xjiary rank of Brigadier-Geueiul. 



Lord tlough himself took the field, cr ^siiig 
t!ie Ravee on the 19th, at the liead ol hi? 
main body. Apart from the division befort 
Mooltan and the garrism ol Lahore, \w had 
available for field service four Britisli and 
ele\cn Native infantry regiments, ile was 
exceptionally Strong in ca\Mlry, with three 
fine European regiments, five of Nati\"e Liiilit 
cavalry, and five cori)S of Irregular horse ; 
and his artillery consisted of 60 horse and 
field-guns, eight howitzers, and 10 eighteen - 
|HJunders. 

A Fightins: Soldier 

Lord Gough was by no means a tactical 
genius, Ijut he was a figliting soldier. He iia.l 
ser\'C(,l under Wellington in the Pei.insula an.! 
at Waterloo with great disthiction, but reek 
lessness was one 01 his leading attributes 
He was always eager for the fray, an<l tin 
sort of fighting he most delighted in was whai 
in his Irish accent, he called the " cmiM 
steel." The enemy, he was informed, werr 
still about Ramnuggur, their outpost on tin- 
left bank of the Chenab ; and Gough becauu- 
at once eager to drive them across the riM r 
Before daybreak of tlie 22nd he was on tla 
march with the whole of Cureton's cavalry 
Campbeir.s infantry division, two li^lil- 
batterics and as many troops of horse artilKTv; 
the fiery old chief ridhig at the head (.:" lln 
force. Some skirmishing occurred about tl;^' 
village and fort of Ramnuggur ; but the Sikli 
detachments were already retreating acr' >s 
the river when the British guns openeil ■';i 
tliema rapid and telling lire. Benton pres-ii:- 
the fugitives, Lane and Warner galIope<l tin ir 
six-pounilers over the ileej) sand which f' inii^ ■ I 
a wi<!e i)order to the now attenuated stro.iin 
As the\ fired at the runaways crowding acr' -:- 
the ford, answering shots began to reacli tin in 
from the heavier Sikh ordnance placed in 
battery on the farther bank. By and by tin' 
Sikh fire became so hot that the withdraw;d if 
tlie British pieces became imperative; but 
when the order to limbe. up was given > 11c 
of Lane's guns aud two ammunition waL:'>ns 
were found to be stuck fast in t'-.c ileep s.ri I 

The order to spike and abandon the ^uii 
was unwillingly obeyed, since there setiiiLil 
no alternative; and Gough disappto\L<' nf 
Colin Caiupbell's sensible suggestion inr., -.Ix 



-SECOND SIKH WAR^,S4S-,S« 



.\I.„ltT, 




Afl, 



rXK STORMING OK MQOLTAN. MNUARv „ , 
■"■" b, H,„„ „,, JANUARY j;„d. „j, 



-.t..ln„v„ n„,lcr „iKl„fa„, ,„. ,,,;,''." 
itsrcir >,,""" ""'"^^ ™>"-li»tolv i„ 

eu.sv c,„ . " , r ' "'" "" '■''"■"'• "■"'"" 
c.«alrv„ '?,,*"'''"« '''^' "I'* "n,is 

"^ m.,re famous H™rv, s,„,,,|,t ,,„, 

; i u'^^f""""'"••'"-■'"^^i"■ 
(|.u„ 'l:7i , *'"™' "i^^nlont troopers 

'> '" ■" f™- „„„utes tiK. Ski, l,orso 



517 



«cro broken ami scattc-rcl In- the he,,!! 
Sikl, 1„ r . ' """'™''' "' •"'""'" l»>'lv o 

»n.l water „I, 7 , ""'"-V^' '"'" ""■• ""M 
were hi,, '.^ *' lloundere,! a,„l ,„e„ 

£=-s.^;-U;;;;^jh : 5^ 
:^^:tt:;:;;'fr-"-'^"--^' 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



to charge vet agiin. Renowned for bnive 
iloetls in many an action against French, Af- 
ghans. Marathas. and Sikhs; belovt-d alike 
by utHcers and men, Cureton fell close to that 
very regiment in which, a wild youth fleeing 
from his cretlitors, lie had begun liis soldier- 
ing by enlisting in it as a private trooper. 
His body, wliicii Holmes, of the Irregulars, 
was badly wounded in trying to rescue, was 
buried at Raiiuiuggnr with all the honours, 
in the Siune grave to whicli tlic corpse of 
Havelock was later consigned. 

OouRh'j Strategy 

I.ord Gf>ugli witlidrew iiis troops beyond 
the reacli of the Sikh batteries, and awaited 
the arrival of liis guns and the remainder of 
iiis forces. He was well i)laced on the left 
bank of tlie Chenal), covering Lahore and 
the siege of Mcoltan, an<l leaving Sliere Singh 
undisturbed, llongh resolved to compel the 
enemy's withdrawal by a wide turning move- 
ment with part of his force under Sir Joseph 
Thackwell, That otiicer's command consisted 
of Campt)eirs divisiim. a cavalry brigade 
and a powerful artillery— about 8,000 men. 
Tlie force started on tlie early m irning of 
December ist, and after marching twenty- 
four miles ui) the left bank of the Chenab, 
crossed that river at noon of the 2nd. The 
following monihig, after niarcliiiig alxmt 
fifteen mik< down the right bank. Thackwell's 
command was close to the enemy in front 
of the village of Sadoolaporc. Thackwell, 
hearing of the approach of a reinforcement, 
rode away in search of it, refusing Campbell's 
request to deploy and tak^- up a i>osition. 
Camplx'll's recoimaissauce convinced him that 
the enemy was near and in fum- ; but in his 
own words, " My command was not in for- 
mation for trooj)S liable to be attacked at 
an\' moment ; but my orders were imperative 
not to deploy." As a measure itf protection, 
he occupied with an infantry company each 
of three villages in his fnmt ; but Thackwell 
on his return or<lered their withdrawal, and 
the columns were deployed. Between the 
Hritish Une and the 20 pieces of camion 
from which the Sikhs were heavily firing from 
the villages, while they were threatening the 
Hritish flanks with cavalry, was a smooth 
open space over which Thackwell desired to 



attack. Campbell suggestetl I hat, "as they 
were coming on so cockily, we should allou 
them to come out into the plain before wr 
moved." The cannonade proceeded, and it 
seemed presently the moment for an advanct- 
but Tliackwell preferred caution, hoping;, 
most likelv, for a decisive victory on tht- 
morrow, liut he was balked, since durin.; 
the night the enemy withdrew toward thk- 
Jhelum. prol)ably without having sustaintl 
serious loss ; that of the British amounteu 
to 70 men. Thackwell's turning operation 
had not been brilliant, and Sadoolapore w.is 
not an alTair to be very proud of ; but ii 
brought at)out the relinquishment by th^- 
Siklis of their ])osition on the riuht bank it 
the Clienab. and this enable 1 L;k- main 
British force to cross the river. By the .itii 
the mass of the army was at Heylah. al-o-.n 
midway between Ranuiuggur and Chili.i;.- 
wala, but the Commander-iu-Chief air I 
head-quarters did not cross the Cheuab uiU;I 
December l8th. 

\othing was tlone until January, iS4i 
On the nth of that month he reviewed iii- 
troops at I.as-.ourie. and next day encampi.! 
at Dingliee, wlience the Sikh army had falkii 
back into the sheltering jungle, its right re-t- 
ing on Mung, its left and centre on the broki n 
ground and strong entrencliments al)out tin.' 
village and Heights of Rassonl. That w.l.- ;i 
very strong defensive ]K)sition, held by !ii<:rc 
than ^V'oou brave men, with a battery "l 
60 guns^a [position which only a daring C":ii- 
mander would have ventured to assail \\itli 
an army under 14.000 strong. Among tliL- 
wiser officers of Cough's Staff were men uh" 
were anxittus that the ground over whicli tik- 
enemy's position was to be approached shii',;Kl 
first t»e properly reconnoitred 

A Council of War 

Here is a significant passage in tI;o 
memoirs of Sir Henry Durand : " Whil-t 
in the conunander-in-chief's camp <ni tin-' 
litli. the projwted attack on the eneim - 
imsition was described to me by (leiur.il 
Campbell. He liad just been with the eiiitf, 
who had spoken of attacking the Sikh 
position on the ijth. Campbell, seeing iliit 
his lordsiiip had no intention of proptrl^' 
reconnoitring the position, was anxiou.- mii 
iS 



Sect ton I 



anv otlit-r rfvrtn» ■ -ittact without 

moment,, ^rofcrr,''"','.^"^'' « ""-■ 
J""K!e. He , w,' , ? ''"■''""'^''■"K from the 

'^i.ee,"?,'"!;"!;::,™''^'"^'-'™- 
'I'e night andtl,,,, '^ ? '"™"'"^ for 

«isl.«l Tr™™ e "e r""""""*''- '''^"'1""^'' 
"> ^ 'imet w" V rr ^ f"'^''"'" ""'' ""''^^"■' 
that .s nee the paslt" ,""'='' ' '"" '^ ^"■l 

was deternte^^rfke:''!'™^'' "■"'-' 
any volunti.er,.,l '''"■ "' '""ok 

c<.mma„,,er-i„.ch£?„;i Vtf; '''" 
sage hin. to put ,> ;„,„/,,, ' '" ™- 

^■ad,,ptsucn IC-'T,"''"'^;''^"™'' 
tJiat anything eanw„f^l,;. ""' """"' 

dl of War, but the ' '™P'-"vise,l Cnn- 

to the aft;„:;:u r.,re"°«:7f ?'"'"'"'• 

of the i4th ""''' "'"'' ""= »°t"i..g 



SECOND SIKH WAR-,84^,8,, 



Model 



MarchiiiK on Ch , ., 

As it was. c-arl,- , „, ,. 

at length „n march t ,_''.""="■»>• was 
'--■y gun, movM'al„ng . rtrr V' 

jMumijjr"j;£t':<;;'^'""'^"^"' 

on tiieir right CnmnK ,r '"" '"-'rchid 

"- cava,:^^^'L^^X Jtl ''""?■.""" 
siwtive n inks rf ™'''r,- on thur re- 

Sreaterpartuf eil^n ' """"■ "'"' "'= 

Ht.o™thr™z^^;r,:!^^,;r"r"^ 

'•■'"'"tandC mil. J"' *"""'""■«'■ 
jointlv against "he smT '" "''^'""^ "'"" 

i."ped would he ,,tf,,t;k' "";'-;" ■' --^ 

'IriveutothewutI J r. I "" *'""« ■■""' 
"-"^'.t in Jl^llX. "'2 ™,"^"''"^ 
was f,.rmi„g hchin.l ,1, •,, '^ ''"''"'J' 

wala. „„ the left „, 1 .V""'^'' "' ^''"""n- 

--.wa.a.:^'ri:;--d;rt,^ 



centre, direetlv n"ront'S r7r^- '? "«'" 
about twomilJs.Hsflnrf ""''^™ala, was 
'ess iron, the n iSh r " "'" """«■ ''"t 
•iep'oye-l air„nt too IV:'''^' "•" ''""« 
Tl«re was a gap -.earl t "I "' ''""'• 
mifewidehct„^ eth/r "'f'" "' ■" 
■letaehment unckr l",a, s ""-' "' "'<' ■''*'' 
-lank „f the m L I T "*='' "'"' "" "^''t 
■"■e liri, , "; ' ' " >■ "'"1" Sl-ere Singh 
"tt'en «,'"'''■■' <'^l*'-™l.co„,d do 

Singh's centre ad^r^^'r 

ever, it overl.,,,^ , ''"''' '"tter, how- 

«*tio„ of „ j ff ■- ™'' "Pl-^ite to a 

risht and r tr ^/' , ' T ■*"'"' •'^''■«'''^ 
I'ostile lines f L f ' '■■■''■ "<^^'ween the 

»'«.on,-n;i„,i,--'-';^-ami.,ure 

--wrr'^V"^"'^^"""' 

7>- arms sine? d'rtrarT%'";''"™ 
tlierefore, had wiseK d , '""' '"'"«''■ 

tera,,eran "t , it T"" "' "^'""^ ™^ ""= 
Thev th il 1 ''" ''"'"""' "" Bri'isl. chief. 

"■cBritis;:-:;;:::::;:,-,^',;:^?;^-'' 
t:;::i£is:^ ''??--- 

gnns to eease- ,!;'"" ."'''«'■<" the lire „f the 
its for,,, V ""= '""^pressed on c.igerlv 

^^t f':;:j:;r'""',™'""-''.ytl:i 

as it pns hed , " '; °l' ""■"' "' ""'' teeth, 
which ,. "''■ ''>■ ""■■ artillery /ire 

winch the c.„™,y ,„ured „„ the advaLeh," 

B...le o, ChilUn.,,,, j.„. ,3,,, , 

told that the couflfct h "*''*'^' ''"'^ 






iS, „ -iSh!".,,., ■-,. 










CHILIAN WALA, JANUARY 13lh. 184g! riODBY'S BRIGADE MAKIS^CALLAMI 

From a picturf ^^B-'ity L. Wi 






''\& 



>^ 



.;\^ v% 













STAND WHEW s 



I-' :0UNDtO av THE 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



order to advance, and was the first to become 
engaged. Pennycuick commanded Campbell's 
right brigade, consisting of the 24th (ist 
vSouth Wales Borderers) and the 25th and 45th 
Native Infantry Regiments ; Hoggan's, his 
left brigade, was formed of the 6ist {2nd 
Gloucestershire) Regiment, and the 36th and 
40th Sipahi Regiments. In the interval 
between the two brigades moved a field- 
battery, and on the left of the division three 
guns of another. At some distance on Camp- 
bell's left were a cavalry brigade and three 
troops ct horse artillery mider Thackwell, 
charged to engage I'tar Singh's detachment, 
and hinder that fo.ce from striking at Camp- 
bell in ilank and in reverse. The nature of 
the ground prevented the divisional com- 
mander from superintending more than one 
brigade, and Campbell had arranged with 
Pennycuick that he himself should remain 
with the left brigade, Fennycuick's l)rigade 
experienced an ad\erse fate. During the 
advance its regiments sntTered cruelly from 
the fire of 18 guns directly in tlieir front. 
The 24th, a fine and exceptionally stntng 
regiment, carried the hostile batteries by 
st<irni, but encounteral a deadly fire from the 
infantry masses on either flank of the Sikli 
guns. Tlie regiment sustained dreadful losies, 
Pennycuick waf kilkd ; his gallant son. a 
mere lad, sprang forward sword in hand, and 
bestrode his father's body until he himself 
fell across it a ajrpsc. Thirteen oliicers of the 
regiment were killed at the guns, nine were 
wounded ; 2oj men were kUle<i and 266 
wounded. The Native regiments of the bri- 
gade failed to support the J4th, and musketry 
volleys from tlie Sikh infantry, foUowetl by 
a rush of cavalry, comjileted the dis<)rder and 
defeat of the ill-fated bod\ . Already broken, 
it now fled, pursuetl with great havoc by the 
Sikli horsemen almt>st to its original pisition 
at the beginning of the action. 

Hosfffan's Brigade 

Hoggan's brigade, tlie left of Campbell's 
division, had better fortune, tlianks to Camp- 
bell's sceauy leaduig. The brigade approached 
the enemy prmte*] nn an open space on a slight 
rise. Fimr Sikh guns played uixjn it during 
the advance ; a large body of cavalry- stood 
directly in front of the bist, and cm the 



cavalry's left a large infantry mass in face ' 
the jbth Native Infantry-. Both the Native 
regiments of the brigade gave way, but the 
61st advanced in Une firing steadily, a man- 
ceuvre constantly practist.-<i by Campbell, 
which put to flight the Sikh cavalry. The 
enemy pushed two gtms to within twenty-five 
paces of the right flank of the 6ist, and 
o])ened with grape. Campbell promptly 
wheeled to the right the two right companies 
of the Gist, and headed their charge on the 
two vSikh guns. These were captured, and 
while the bist was completing its new ahtm- 
ment to the riglit — an evolution by which 
Shere Singh's right Hank was effectually 
turned — the enemy advanced with two more 
guns strongly sni>ported by infantry. Neither 
of the two Native regiments of the brigade 
was up ; but, wrote Campl)ell, " the confident 
bearing of the enemy and the close, steady 
fire of grape from their two guns made it 
necessary to advance, and to charge when 
we got within proper distance. I gave the 
successive commands to advance and to 
charge ; heading the 6ist immediately against 
the gmis, and the successful result gave the 
greatest confidence to the gallant bist." 
After the capture of the second two guns 
and the dispersal of the enemy, Campbell 
proceeded rolling up the enemy's line, and 
continued along the hostile jMsition until 
he had taken 13 guns, all of them won by 
the 6ist at the point of tlic bayonet ; fniiilly 
meeting Mountain's brigade coming from the 
opix)site direction. 

Campbell's Hard Fight 

Campbell had to fight hard for his success ; 
which, indeed, he might not have obtaine<l 
if away on his left Thackwell had not been 
holding Utar Smgh in check and impeding 
his efforts to harass Campbell's t'ank and rear. 
Grind's three troops of horse artiller\' ex- 
I)ende<l some 1, 200 rounds in a hot duel with 
T'tar vSingh's cannon, which, unless thus 
occupied, would have been playing on Camp- 
bell's flank ; and Unett's gallant troopers of 
the 3rd Light Dragoons crashed through Sikli 
infantry etiging away to their left with intent 
to take Campbell in reverse. Thackwell did 
his utmost until he and his command were 
calle<l away to the endangered right, although 




From > picture by Wal Paatt 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



he cnultl not eiitircly hinder I'tur Singh's 
pei)i>lc from molestiiij? CLim]»t>elt. for that 
commander had to endure a brief period when 
he found himself engaged simultaneously in 
front, llank. and rear ; and the brigade was 
extricated fnmi its entanglement only by his 
own alert skill, and by the indomitable 
stanchness of the nobli; 6ist (2nd Gloucester- 
shire) Regiment, 

Meanwhile there had been on the ight a 

great deal of hard 

fighting, acconi- 
panicd with grave 







vicissitudes. Gilliert's 
right attack of in- 
fantry was opened 
by his left brigaile — 
Mountain's. The 
2qth (ist Worceste.- 
sliire) Regiment ad- 
vancing under a 
crushing fire, showed 
its Native comrades 
the way into the 
Sikli entrenchments, 
routing the enemy 
and storming his 
batteries. But one 
of the Native regi- 
ments of the brigade 
—the 36th Xarive 
Infantry — was 
shivered int) frag- 
ments by repeated 
onsets of the Sikh 
cavalr\*. Its leader 
mortally woundetl , 
six officers killed, 
J16 men slain or 
woundetl. both colours lost or captured. 
the wreck of the unfortunate regiment 
gradually rallied in rear of Gilbert's right 
brigade. The 30th Bengal Xatix'c In- 
fantry lost a colour but maintained its 
ground alongside the 2rith (Queen's), 200 of 
whom had gone down undt-r the Sikli fire. 
Godby's brigade on the extreme right had 
been fighting under lieavy odds. The 2nd 
{rst Royal DubHn Fusiliers) Europeo 
swept forward thmueh the jungle, with 
3i5t and 70th Native Regiments on tl. .r 
left. Before the le\'elled bayonets the Sikhs 



it» 



0)liir.s. 



cn[i.i.\Nw.\[..\ 
a. «. 




■,.=k.-..„. 



recoiled ; but, suddenly surrounlcd on all 
sides by ovi;r\vhelniing numbers, the brigade 
was m imminent danger. The Native infantry 
forme<l squares, but the 2nd Europeans 
marched rear rank in front to grapple wi^li 
their new assailants. After three hours' 
steady figliting Godby's soldiers had recovered 
their lost gnmnd, had driven their opjxjnents 
e\ery where off the field, and had taken cver>- 
hostile gun within their reach. And their 

li >sses were Ci mi - 

paratively small . 
but for their steady 
front and the well- 
timed effort of 
Hawes's gunners it 
must have been 
much heavier. 

The cavalry bri 
gade of the rii^lit 
came to sad grief 
Its four fine ret^i 
ments, led by an 
elTete colonel wli' > 
could scarcely mount 
his horse, got en- 
tangled in thet)rurth- 
wood and maskt- 1 
their own gmis. 
While halted to re 
store cohesion, the 
old Brigadier wis 
woundetl by u Sikii 
trooper. On a su'l- 
den some caitiff gave 
the word, " Threes 
about ! " — from 
whose lips came the 
dastard cry w.i s 
never ascertained. As the hue went al)oiit 
the pace quickened into a panic i;allii|', 
the British troopers followed closely tiy :i 
few hundred derisive Sikh horsemen 
Crowded together in their headlong tliiilit, 
the fugitive Dragoons rode right t!iri>u-!i 
and o\er Christie's and Huish's batterii?. 
disabHng gunners, upsetting tumbrels, :iiid 
carrving ruin and dismay far to the ru if 
imong tlie wounded and medical staff. I''i-ir 
gims fell into the hands of the enenn' ; 
Christie was cut (U)wn, with many of his 
gunners ; young Cureton was borne to de ith 



X 



FLAN OF THE BATTLE OF CHILIANWALA, 
JANUARY nth. 1849 



Section I 



'■' 'fl '"Sflo ranks; i;fei„s. „, „,^, g 
Pensl,^! ,„ a fruitless rff„r, ,„ ,, , t 

I«ure<l s..ni^ rounds ..f grape ,,,„, h 
.s.ers,wMea™,,,f,,f,J;- ;, J-.;- 

v«e c„m;„..lk,l ,„ ,,uit ,i,e CM. al, , ' f, 
tliL-y only retired into the «r, „ "'"■" 

''...i|eKass.,ulaei,L'ronr:«Ji:'r 

l"'sof jr, i', , ' 'f™ ''™SgIe was a 
"-proud of his costJy victorv- At f^^stl^ 

--'"^ and the ;ro4;™™':„'r' -,''"■ 

^^:^-^;^^--^^^^ 

fcitJter part of their wounded. 



SECOND SIKH WAR-,84g-,849 



Model 



RamnusKur he hi.l n, i ''" •"•""" "' 

and Boiie, wl" l.adTefn T""' ""''«• 
«"u«h'sea„,pLl'' j^"'""!'aro,einto 

SiW. lea<lers Ihat n«J^ s "' T" '!" 
t-nal surrender would he e« I'T"""" 
Oovernor-General If •'«'r>te(l l>y tlie 

rc.rihut.o"'hr" "" """ '"^"' «'""J «>- 



A Pussive Army 

="<! of ,1 rein r ■'"""■■' "' «"" "'^t. 
"""^ "' 1"5 ovn troops into his 



J25 



Pill of IHcwItan 

-j;;i.. i.ue i"a;::7:"^!:r:z 

a srand salute from t ie 1, vv " n"""""' ■"'" 

order of Int,' I "]"'■' '""^"^ '" 

l.ad departed '•1 .„ '""""« ""= «!«.» 

.--i ...rLXoii^Su '-'rt 

l«res.„n towards the Puran Pass ,„ ,,' 

.-est:;^r:n;^-Ls^,^-;«-: 

nverandsweepdow^yS:^-^-,;^ 
on ht 4 ,:;:?■"• -""-^ '"^ int'entt,"™ 

^*-^..o Within ^Ireh^-ttltlr 

anced to Shadawal, where the Sith 
encampment a.uund the tovra „f ■ ■ 

P.ainto.hesouth^^--.;S 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



camp lay crescent wise in front of tlie towii. 
The rinht flank and ])art of its fnmt extendetl 
from Morarea Tibba. wIicfl- tlie Sikh cavaln* 
was in force, alon}^ an easterly l>end of the 
Binibcr (the western) channel, a deep hut 
dr>' nullah which wound down towards 
Shadawal, thence across the plain behind the 
three villages of Kulra, which were occupie<l 
bv infantry, to its extreme left at the vilhiKc 



Vcv GOOJERAT 














.3*^# 






3 ^Ar/fl. ^ ^ .^'X^I. 

PLAN OF THE BATTLE OF GOOJERAT. FEB. list 

of Malka Wallah, on the kit bank of the 
iMstern channel, a dec'i), narro\\ stream 
flowing into the Chenab. 

Eiattle of Qoojerat, February mt, 1849 

It was a cnnl, brigiit winter ninriiing when 
the Hritish army advanced against this ex- 
tended front in columns of brigades at de- 
ploving distance in'cr a fair expanse of Ie\el 
country ;;reen with yount; corn. Gough was 
now in command of 2j,uoo men with *;o 
i;uns, of which 18 were hea\-\' siege-pieces. 
The old Chief, radiant with the assurance 
of battle and the prospect of \ictory. 



k<l his rij^ht and right centre against the 
centre cif tlie enemy. The heavy guns, fol- 
lowed by two and a lialf brigades, nvi'til 
over tlic plaui in the immetUate right uf 
the IHniber channel. Next on the right 
marched Cilbert's two brigades— Mon-itain'^; 
and Penny's -flanked by thj guns oi I)awt'; 
and F<)rdyce. Karthi'!" to the right moved 
Wliish's division, with field-batterits on 
either flank. The extreme right 
wa - t ' irmed by the cavalry brigades 
of licarsey and LockwcKid. su]>- 
]".rted by Warner's troop of horso 
[irtillery. Lane's and Kindleside'-^ 
batteriLS under Colonel Brind fol- 
lowing in second line. Uetaclud 
on t!ie left, beyond the western 
cliannel, were Campbell's divisimi 
and lUmdas's brigade of tWM 
Britisli regiments, and still fartlur 
on the extreme L-ft was Thaek- 
well'a cavalry. 

The Sikhs, ever ready w. li tliiir 
artillerv, ojieneil the battle with 
that arm. After marching about 
two miles. " with the precision " - 
in tlie words of Gough — "of a 
parade movement." the British 
uifantry halte-<l and deployed iiU" 
line, the skirmishers and hght b.it- 
teries went to the front, and \\v 
heavy pieces answered tlie liu' 
from the Sikh batteries. G'UK-ii 
had at last been taught by har.l 
ex]icrience that an artillery pre- 
paration should precede his favourit.; 
1849. " couid steel." While !iis infanTr\ 

lay domi in line, the batteri^-^ 
dressed to the front and began a magnili- 
ceiit and effective cannonade which I;isi> i 
for two hours, and utterly crushed tl.-.' 
Are of the Sikh guns. The advant;i.i' 
in numbers and wi.'ight of metal lay witii 
Lord (Iftugli, and that c.dvantage he wnui 1 
not l)e temi)ted to forgo with most (.1 ti;e 
day still before him. Tlie infantry line be-.^;i 
its advance, but had more than once to io 
down to avoid the hail of grape and mun I- 
shot -hith full thick among the batteries ia 
froni Tlif gunners suffered heavily: !■'■ r- 
dyce's troop had to fall back twice for rci i- 
forcements of men, horses, and ammuniti' .1. 



Z2h 



""°" ' ^'^^"'^'^ «'Kf, WAR-,s,«_,^, 



.M.|,liT„ 




'"' '' "•"'■■ T. H. I..„i„ s 



f"' '"'r*s „f tl,e enemv wmt 
■KUi-guiis. "^ "■ "' («mgli's 

"'■«tly killed, but t L ,'^""""' "■"= 

■"'"■"•>• a..<I„„"«™"" "'" Kl,als. 

!""nrcil ..neither I!,,,!. ""^ »'Wi cavalrv 

'^'•'••'-"riti., "ear ."r '"!;"- '"""'I 

•'■"•■«-n,ytl.e,Ire„hw-''^^ 
'■'"U"terstr„kes of Hcir^'!",^""^"'"^ ""= 

'"'W 1.V the Cl„efV ^ *-'"'"■ l"" a 

''""I to pieees "'*•« ™t tlie clari„a 



The Victory 

"■■rins the ramionn.Ie !!„■;,„- . 
""< tile sHr,„; I '"^ """I'trv, c.\cer>t- 



stinnal, after i ,l. . 

'-stance; la tlT;""''''^"'''"««' 

■'•'■"^•wasl'^le , 'T"/"'"'''^'-'J.-rat 

'«■"'- c.,a,:;:^';:*';?:^™;^ri„,.„t„., 

.narchea ; but there „ T"-" ■""' ""mlas 
whiel, c, .., ve "■'"-'■ '"■ "'■" *ill 

^•^I^V.!, the <livi,i:„'ai ,, ^™\^ ';-".« 

lire which enlll „Ie,l ""','"■''' ''>' "<i"^'rv 
'■-."nlere,':Lr :"?',""'"'■'' '-■'-' 
"■at t.> A, s„ must" ■ ' ™'K"i*<l 

"f We. and he "In"" ?• ".'^«"^- -"iliee 
formidable d ,e fo I" """" """^ ""^ 

-c,.;;:^,"b!::^t.7---^^ 

m.t been t,te, t "^ Pf«;auti„„ had 

""In-, „,fa„„5, ,„j ^^y,,_^^^ 



''''ll 

r 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



fle.1 from tlic fieM in utter CMnfiisimi. The 
rinit \v.is t.H, oimvltte to allc.w ..t the rally 
of foniiL-il IxMlies in any opier. A IhkIv of 
Sikh horse with a btiRaJe of Aislian cavalrj- 
ailventureil i rash advance on Tliackwell's 
tlank. He sent against them the Seinde 
horse anil the oth Lancers, and a wiH stam- 
pede resulte.1. The rest of tlie Hritisli cavalry 
struck in and ruslie.1 on. ilispersini;. riding 
over, and traniiilini; down the Sikh infantry, 
capturinK Runs and wagons, and converting 
the discomlited enemy into a shapeless mass 
of fugitives. The pursuing trmipers did n<it 
draw rein until they li.id ridden l.i miles 
)«yond Goojerat. liy which time the army 
of Shere Singh was an utter wreck, de- 
privel of its camp, its standards, and 5J of 
its guns. 

On the morning after the battle Sir Walter 
Gill*rt. the " Flying General." started in 
))ursuit of the broken Khalsa host, followe.1 
later by nrigadier-i'.eneral Campbell. On the 
march to Rawulpindee the latter passed the 
greater part of the Sikh army with its chiefs. 



who were Liying downi their arms. Campbell 
w.is niovt^l by the line attitude of the men 
of the Kh.dsj army. ' Tliere was." he wrote 
" nothing cringing in tlie manner of tlu-' 
men in l.iying down their .irms. They ackiiow- 
ledge<l themselves beaten, and tliey wetv 
starving-destitute alike of f.HHl and monev 
Each man as he laid down his arms reeeivui 
ii rupee to en.ible him to snpjtort himsi': oa 
his way to hi~ lionie. The greater number • 
the old men es| leeially, when laying down tlKir 
arms, made a de:p reverence as they i)laced 
their swords on the heap, with the muttered 
ttot.ls. ' Kunjeet Singh is dead to-day ' ' 
'■ This." continued Camp!)ell. " was said with 
<k^p feeling, they were undoubtedly a line 
an«i bra\e Jjeople." 

The last Punjab Campaign cniled with 
the Battle of Goojerat; and now for m.m: 
years since the Sikhs have been the mo^i 
loyal, high -spirited, and valorous of th 
Native s<ildiers who in India have marchel 
and fought under the banner of the British 
Sovereign. 




THE 31^r REGIMENT CHARGING THE SIKHS 



tsll 






T'lIC entire Scn,.i.,|,n,,io„,„,„,| 
'lenniul tl,.. cx->..cuti„n of Chariot I 

'.-r':^:'r.'::::::;::r„-7 

I . *-'""" hail n„ c„ursc K-ft 1,„, 

r I, - '"";■ ;""'"^"' ""• ^>-y -n June 
IK bcc.ts, >vh„ cr„w,K.,l l,i,H at Sen, ', 
Irdaad," and r,i«., '"'■'"" '''ma- ami 
P"ivvr and autlj.iritv ' * 



DUNBAR 



nu„,„„usf,„„„,r"l„ :,""""^>-' •■""' 
castles .vcr.. .tr,„,., , '"""■ ■'""''"<' 

TI.C. >«u.raM,. .■ r rr ""■' «""-"-i. 
-'- -in«^;^;"r, :":;:,;, ;;■" y:^ 



The Policy „, ,h, En«,„h PariU„,.„. 

, ■- ;;^; r '"^" ■' *"■ -'" -^"'^ ^'■'■ 

:.:!::-£•?----::::; 

W ./"'■"" '^""^'^ '" ™,pla„ of ,e 
'*Kn, ,,,,„, ^._^^^_^^..K,r 

I-;, ,."■';'""""■ ^■"■"""^1 "as ap- 

^'^-^uS::f:?lco;i!:;r"™^-"""^" 

l-e coat'' ■ """' '"""^' -"' »reat 



''■111 miles 



on] 



lisliu 



"'" EnRlamI, n-lim 



ly three and a 



his head-quarters 



he estah- dr. 



On the March 

The nx'iriuitt of \r,r, n i ■ . 

raise,li„ ,,' ,Jf" "h.el, ,. „, ho™ 

'4'. no« comiuali. ed In- l,,,,i 

I.orne. was ,„ade the !t„v.l v ,. ' 

^:;^::onLt;£ f;? r^: 
is:s;;:t;::ir;-!^rf™''-- 

••■■■■1 ".her places no,,,- „„t „e t,', " ,' 
>lecre,,it rc.„ai„e,i : „.|,i,, ,,, '^ ■'""' 

-...iantK-deseri„ed„c:o,;:;:e,;r;:::;.- 

- »™r'--'™"-es,elo,he,li„„,,ite lam^r 

toth^tlr". '""■"""'""'"""■»=-« 

The Knfili.l, at Ihn.har recei,-e,l a s„ppK. 

^pn.ns.,„s bro„,„. fr„,„ .heir ships S 

'■When ,u,„- Musselhurgh the ,-.-.n of ,u- 

hts;";;;^r;rfc;r"^""'"^^''-' 

!.,„„ . '^" nP"n our rear of 

horse, who were .^.„ ..... . .. ' ™'" '" 



ere sore jjut to it. 



'n the rmnsioii 



cut and hewed .Uajor.f 



It r. 



'ot Iiiin 



prisoner, and 



leneral r.iim! 



-ongnid- 



S") 



off to Edinburgh; but the 



nibert. 

"ere carryinR him 

'uant 



valiant Lieut. 



.. .V ^'Jir^ ri-^H'ij* 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



Emam. one of (Ciilonctl Hacker's officers, 
pursued with five or six of our soUlieis, 
hewed \\\m out. and brought him hack to 
his own reRimcnt." 

Lambert's horse was shot under him. he 
was run through the body by a lance and 
throuRh the arm by a sword. 

Cromwell, at the head of his whole army, 
made an attack (m the Scottish i)ositi(m. 
Exasperateil by the result of a sortie made 
by Major-C.encral MontBomerie, who. at 
the head of 2,000 select Scottish Dragoons, 
in the night nearly routed his whole force, 
by breaking into the camp, when they killeil 
and wounded six field officers and ,soo men, 
his army came on with ardour, while 12 
English ships opened their broadsides on 
I.eith. As the English advanced, the rising 
sun of the July morning shime fud on the 
long line of helmets that glittered above the 
Scottish trenches, and the regimental stand- 
ards that, waving at inten-als, marked the 
different corps. 



Cromwell Before Edinburgh 

Immediately on their clearuig the lake and 
rocks at Restalrig, and a.lvancing over the 
dead level ground, the field-batteries on the 
Calton and the cannon fnmi I.eith ojicned 
a simultaneous fire uix>n them, while a roll- 
ing fusillade ran along the whole Scottish 
line from flank to flank, jxiured closely and 
securelv, throwing them into confusi<m, and 
comiwlling them to retire in disorder, with 
the loss of two pieces of cannon and many 
killed and wounded, A stnmg column of 
English infantry, with a brigade of horse and 
two pieces of cannon, encircling Arthur's 
Seat, ra.-ide an attempt to turn I.eshe's 
flank, bv forcing an entrance to the city at 
a southern suburb known as the I'leasance, 
On perceiving tliis movement, Colonel 
Campbell brought his regiment of Highland 
musketeers at the double up the ravine 
bv the base of the Craigs. and lining tlie 
walls and liedges about the ruins of St 
Leonard's Chapel, opened from thence a 
fire so deadly that the English infantry fled. 
On this second repulse before tlie city, 
Cromwell stmnded a retreat, and retired to 
Musselburgh, where he made stables of the 
churches and firewood of the pews. 



In a skirmish on August 20th, a Scots 
Dragoon fired at Cromwell with his carbine 
and missed him, on which the Troteetor 
calkHl to him, tauntingly. " If yon had been 
one of my soldiers. I had casliiered you " 
(Whiteloek), 

The situation of Cromwell was now be- 
cimie most critical, Eoiled in his alterapls 
on Edinburgh, he had no provisions save 
such as he could obtain from his fleet with 
difficulty. The autumn became inclement, 
sickness broke out among his troops, and 
it was clearly imlwssible that they could 
remain in their present situation. 

On the evening of Saturday, August .iist 
(old style), they fired their huts and marched 
towards Dunbar, Leslie, under whom old 
Field-Marslial Lord Leven was ser\ing as a 
volunteer, immediately quitted his trenches, 
and, for the purpo e of harassing the retreat 
ing enemy, hung upon their skirts closely with 
his horse- Dragoons and Lancers, March- 
ing along the skirts of the Lammermuir, he 
t(xik up a strong jxisitiira on the Doon lull 
which overhangs the town of Dunbar, thus 
occupying the English line of retreat. 

Regiment after regiment, the Scottish 
army seemed to gather and increase on tli. 
adjacent hills, " thick like a cloud, menacini; 
such a shower to the English as would wash 
them out of their country, if not out of tlie 
world ; and they boasted that they had theia 
in a worse pound than the King had tin' 
Earl of Ivssex in Cornwall," 

Cromwell's army was now reduced t.i 
12,000 men, who were drawn up along tin 
base of the peninsula on which the town .f 
Dunbar stands, in a line extending from 
Bclhaven Day on the west to Broxmouth .11 
the east, about a mile and a half from " st.i 
to sea," 



The Field ot Dunbar 

Directly in their front, on the sunmnt 
and slope of the Doon hill, .'ioo feet ab.ne 
the sea, with the dark barren heaths of I he 
Lanunermuir behind, lay the Scots, 11 » 
23,000 strong, and in the highest spiitls, 
for it was impossible to attack them save ,il 
great risks. On the cast the linglish urc 
hemmed in by an appalling ravine or saN ije 
pass where, according to Cromwell's c nn 

530 



Section II 



DUNBAR-SEPT. 3rd 



.-. "Ji-ntrai Biokfrton and n hitt.., 

"f ■^■■im.on : thus wl,™ Crorawcl " ■ 



1650 



irly 



On .ScptcniljiT 1st' file 



■••■in was iiiiurin); i„ 



to^rc■ntswllL■ntllt'Sl'..tc^ i , ' '^ " 

•n,e artillcrv r^ ' "■" "'^'^ "•««"'■■ 

'"■c f..rua.' ":';r'*■'''■V''"'™"■■ 
:■«ainst.„.,;n«,:L"Lin:■:/^^'■'""^ 
r^;^::;-;— ■^:"«r- 

After tlif rcpnise „f ], 
■n tlic'ir at- 



'■-'■■■pt til 
fcircf t Ii c 
I>ass:i^c „! 
''■f IVatlis 
at C CI I - 
li rands 
I'atli. (,n 
Miinday, 
■'^fptemlif 
2nd. I,,. 
»T(itf thus 
to Sir Ar- 
tliur Hfsil- 
'■KI-. till- 
''"xx'runrof 
■N'l'Wcastle: 
" U-e are 
■■"w nix)n 
■"■ ™KaRi-- 
mwit (e„. 

'■■rprisc. ?) very dillicnlt 
|:l"<M«'.i np „„r „-av 



etliorted tlic s.i!,li,.re . 

ness ni the canse- „f the r '"l<">arm- 

•■^I'um'.K their ' ^"'"""" 

-".fnri„^ha „':.:'";^:;;^«^''--"<-ck 

'l<-^- at Kilsvthe til ;"■■"" ""^>- ''»'' 

,i, . "„u],i „„ I,,,,,- . ,;, ' .''':'■;'■"■'■'« ■ "■•■t ':„d 

'" •"'"■■ -«"-" then, „.„ fn' ',,'"7 '"'-Wiv, 



' was 




Tlie enemy Imtli 

"- <="-; b,„>vs «Ctt,t""' "" '■ 

"" i' .'■■PIK.s,,! retreat '''"'' ''"""« 

"■"■t^at./tJtnatirr"''"'"''"'"'-' 
tllc lanaticol preaehers. Thei- 



cred 
^ ' "y these 
means tlie 
Seiits 1,1.. 
e' a ni e i n - 
'lamed tci 
■he highest 
pitch of 
'■■ryShouts 
tai^g along 
t '■ e Hnes. 
colours 
were waved 
a n d wea- 
ponsbiand- 
■•il^cd. No 
calm rea- 
soning on 
tlie part 
of the (!en- 
e r a I was 
hsteiled to ; 

si*.l™. attacking c^ntwellwheJlXi:- 
ra.i^: rri^r" f'r'n^ ^™ '"^ "™- 

l«"^'ti<"K Leslie sent hi, en- Irv ' 

ri* to occnp^ the far d f ' u ""'• 

al."ut four in il„. J '"'' ''""•^- '""' 

--iown.iihtd" ;:";■: :;ri"""^^ 

■'■ovine t„ 11,,, f,. „, ■,"" "''"'"^ army, 

»"««ive 1,;;^,,,!:"" '"""""- right in 
"■'^- Pi ™r"'''' '''■"■"■"-'■ 

"■arshv an, eo , '" """^' '''■'"'^ 

^' ■"^"' tr^L™:,";;-^. -r 

"'a«cl.ed farm-h.a,se. Shot, 



™^"°"™"-v7^ii~:^^ 



^'litarv 



J ■' irf'^'^ 



^*»5#e 



n-m 



rt* ^ M ^ 






^.■5li^ 



CROMWELL A! DUNB*^fcPTEMBt 
From a picture hy A. C Cr(i« -^^B ''' Naijo 



'■'^. ;« 



a '■ 



if^.4. 










1W1«»PTEM8ER 3„,. ,„„ 



'""' G«ll"y o( Briilsh Art 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



were first exchanged at a small shepherd's 
shealing, wliich stuod nearly ojiposite the 
centre of the Docm hill, at a place where 
the hi<K,k was passable fur carts. Tliercin 
Colonels I*ride and I^amhert had placed 
an outlying picket of twenty-one men. 
whom I^eslie's horse dro\-e out with tlie 
loss of three. About a mile to the east of 
this spot, and a little to the west of Brox- 
m<Hitli I'ark. was the only other jiass across 
the Broxburn (a name which means the 
•' Brook of Badgers '*). where now the road 
to England lies ; and from its southern 
bank the ground gradually slopes up into 
high tableland, out of which the Doon hill 
rises ; and on tliis ground the brunt of the 
battle ensued. 

Cromwell's Plan of Action 

In tlie afternoon of this eventful Monday. 
Cron; 2II was walking with General i^ambert 
in tl'i grounds of Broxmouth House, when, 
to lii': ..stonishment and joy, he jierceived 
these unexpected movements among the 
Scots, and their abandonment of a splendid 
position. A small mound westwards of the 
house, whereon he stood at that time, is 
still called Cromwell's Mount. He closed his 
telescoiie, and exclaimed, with a burst of 
genuine fen-our, " They are coming ! They 
are coming down ! The I/)rd hath delivered 
them into our hands ! " 

He remarked th . it would give them 
great advantage if the English became the 
assailants, by crossing the brook and attack- 
ing the Scottish riglit wing in front and 
flank with such overwhelming force as to 
drive down up<m it the centre, which hence 
hampered in the narrow sloping ground be- 
tween the liill and the brook, could neither 
man<cuvre nor deploy. This defeat of the 
right wing, he assured himself, would result 
in the defeat of the whole. 

Lambert and General Monk, who came up 
at that moment, cordially approved of the 
plan, and it was resolved to put it in execu- 
tion next morning early. 

The night i)roved wet and tempestuous, 
and the Scots, as they lay on the bare earth, 
suffered severely from the storm ; but they 
lay in their rank'-, ofliccrs and troopers beside 
their chargers, the ginmcr? by their cannon. 



534 



At four oclock the English cavalry were 
in their saddles and mo\'ing through the 
wind, the rain, and the darkness towards 
t!ie pa.ss over the bnwk. There were six 
regitnents of horse under Lambert, with 
three and a half of foot as supports. Owing 
t<) some delay on the part of I,aml>ert, the 
attack did not take place till six o'clock, 
or half an hour after tlie sun had risen from 
the German Sea. instead of at daybreak, as 
Cromwell had intended. 

There was so much mist that the light 
as yet only served to give tlie English 
troops a few imjierfect glimjises of the dark 
and long-extended Unes of the Scots, as 
they stretched away in undefined masses 
through the grey vapour. 

Percei\'ing the English moving on their 
flanks by regiments attired alternately in 
scarlet and buff doublets, the Scots were 
nothing loath to meet them. The attack 
was begun by a heavy regiment of Scottish 
Lancers ; and aided by a fire from their 
artillery, these made a furious charge down 
the sloping ground and swept the first 
brigade of English cavalry away. 

A Qallant Resistance 

Though taken thus at disadvantage, the 
Scottish right wing made a gallant resistance, 
as Cromwell saw. Their horse, " with the 
lancers in front," charged, he wrote, desper- 
ately, and drove the English back across the 
hollow of the brook, but ths charge was 
renewed by the latter with great enthusiasni 
as the regiments of Fleetwood, Whallev 
and George Twisleton came up, and then 
ensued a close and bloody contest at the 
point of the sword, neither party giviiii; 
ground for nearly an hour. 

Cromwell— or Agag, as the Scottisli 
preachers termcf! him— directed liis wlm!, 
strength to assailing the right wing, to th ■ 
end tiiat it might be hurled upon the nlremlv , 
hampered centre, and ere long it began t > 
fall back as lie had foreseen. 

From a chiud at that moment there was .1 
burst of sunshine on tlie sea in *he EnfjH h 
rear. Then, wrote Hodgson, " I heard X^ 11 
say, ' Now let God arise, and his enemies 'e 
scattered I ' " 

Monk fought bravi-ly on foot, pike y.: 




THE CAVALRY CONFLICT 



AT DUNBAR, SEPTEMBER 3,d, ,e50 
'" " »"ei"i-e by W. R. s. Siou 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



hand, against Sir John Tuwlt's tL's;iment. 
which nui'U* a steady resistance until one 
of his scri;eants slew Captain Camplicn, a 
favourite officer, on which it gave way. 

Cromwell's Most Complete Victory 

Whalley had two horses shot under him, 
and received a severe sword-wound, by 
which a hand was nearly hewn ufT. yet he 
did not quit the tield. Slinsing their lances 
by leathern thongs, the Scottish Lancers, 
now at close quarters, betook them to their 
swords and jMStols. and fought with incretUble 
resolution ; while two of the regiments of 



all was over ! A tntal and irremediable 
rout ensued ; but the moment it began the 
English trumpets sounded a halt, till th- 
army lang the iijtii Psalm and the cavalry- 
could be gathered for the pursuit of eight 
miles, with a result so bloody that thi. 
Battle of Dunbar was long rcmeml>ered by 
the peoi)le of Scotland with acrimony as 
the " Tuestlay's Chast." the battle having 
taken place on that day. 

Of all the victories won by Cromwell 
Dunbar was the most complete ; metre than 
3,000 killed and wounded covereil the field. 

Oi the wounded no exact lists were ever 



infantry (according to Bunict) stood their made up, but 1,000 of them were sent next 



ground against the IvngUsh horse till they 
were cut to pieces in tlieir ranks. One 
entire brigade of Highlanders, who had no 
share in the \ile fanaticism that inspired 
their comrades, is said to have perished on 
the spot, as not a man would turn his heel 
to save his life ; while the regiment of 
Kirkness lost no less than 30 officers, in- 
cluding its colonel, who was slain, as he 
lay. wounded and helpless, in a thicket 
near Broxniouth House, wheie his grave- 
stone, bearing his name, is still to be 
seen. 

Cnmiwetl states that a charge of " the 
stoutest regiment " the enemy had was re- 
pelled at push of pike by his own. under 
Lieutenant-Colonel Goffe and Major White. 
" The horse in the meantime did, with a 
great deal of courage and spirit, beat back 
all opposition, charging through the bodies 
of tlie enemy's horse and foot, who were, 
after the first repulse given, made by the 
Lord of Hosts as stultble to their swords." 

Formed in five corps or diWsions. the 
Scottisli battalions of tlie main body pre- 
sented a steady front, bordered by fire and 
glittering steel ; but the ruins of tlieir 
right wing were hurled upon their centre in 
such confusion that tluir own horse then 
began to tread them under foot. 

Then, on seeing the right wing routed and 
the centre in confusion, the left gave way 
at once, as did the rescr\-e, for ere the head 
of his column reached tlie scene of operations 
the whole Scottish line had given way, 
after a disastrous and bloody confiict of 
two hours, and, as Cromwell had foreseen, 



day in country carts, a mock present t'l 
the Countess of Winton. There were taken 
upwards of '0,000 prisoners, among whcm 
were 18 > ' .icers, 47 captains, 7 captaiii- 
lieutenai..s. 204 subalterns, and 15 sergeant? 
There were also taken 200 stand of ciflours, 
15,000 stand of arms, 32 pieces of cannon 
and iill the tents, ammunition, and baggage 

The Scottish Retreat 

One body of the Scots retreated to Ikl- 
haven ; another only to the town of Dunbar : 
a third was pursued by Colimel Hacker .is 
far as Haddington, and, in the words of 
Clarendon, " no quarter was given, till flu.- 
pursuers were weary of killing." Peculiar 
severity was exercised upon the cleri^y, 
many of wh(mi were cut down in the act .f 
bawUng out assurances of victory. Othir>, 
were designed':: slashed by the Sectiiri.iti 
Dragoons in the face, with the view of <h<- 
figuring them. Many of tlie prisoners wlio 
were wounded Cromwell dismissed on tlio 
field, the remainder he marched tow;iri!s 
England. 

Had Leslie been pcrmitteil to act on !iis 
original plans, the possiI)ility of figliim^ 
under such disadvantageous circumstaiiiv-; 
as those wliich occurred woidd never 1; ivv 
been afforded ; and Cromwell spoke iIk' 
truth when he denied tliat any sliar. "f 
the merit attaclnng to the achievement 
belonged to him. General Leslie, eiinwl 
by the defeat of tiis army through tli^ in- 
terference of the mad zealots and insileiit 
clergy, resigned his baton ; but being j-'^' 
vailed upon to resume the command, lie 

536 



DUNBAR-SEPT. 3rd. 1650 



Section U 

mad, Stirling ais head-quarters andTh """ ' '"'''' ^^'^ ^''T 

--. . .ae. .-—-""". -x--^ ^rr-^ 



Attired in a bhck 1 "* ■'"'""' "' '^"■'°"- 
a.d,uit„",bu?^..th'^r:>i':'-^tearer. 



wifl. .1. """ Mint, mai 

mth the asouies of hu„™r \, ., V" 
danng ahke tlie swnr;.. ^ W"fpeth. 
Hesilrige's cavaL^ ?'^ '^"'''"« "« 
Wglmay into a L'W I .T '"" ""^ 
they devoured raw E«n ti ' ,"'^''' ""''' 
*-'- "^" "le leaves of the 



.^'^t ^s^ r- '"^^-'"--"^".eX^t::Stf^ 

tliat Major Roltes- 
I'y and a comet 
"tre the only 
commissioned 
officers who fell, 
"illl 40 private 
S'Uiers; an as- 
sertion which, 
i"<m the number 
"t slain among 
'lie defeated, 
carries falsehood 
in its front, for 
Wiitelock says 
there were 4,000 
Scots killed on 
the field and pur- 
suit, and Crom- 
well has it about 
4'") Enghsh. 

Cromwell spent 
the day after the 

b^tle at Iiunb,ar - - -' "^bar sepifm. 

"•nting letters to the House of c =-"™be» a,., ,«, 

™ings"o,''thi:r "T"' "-'^: eXf:r3uT""'"- -" -" -as the 
:•--. and distribut^\-"t£:X°„' ..T'ly^J^T ~ '^ - 

p"~xr t r "' '"' ^'"* ^-— tir ■ ,V~""^edX 




i 'la 



SECTION ll-EARn' 



THE SACK OF DUNDEE 



G 



KN'ERAI, MONK li:ul been left with 
7,000 men. in addition to his own 
reHimtJiit. to ocuiipy t!ie LowI;mds, 
and the suMlhiess of tliis fn, is an indica- 
tion that the vScots. Ukc the Eii^;lish, were 
weary of the war. and that hut for this 
feelinjr and the colhision of the Arg\-ll and 
others with Cri>mwcll. his troops mi^ht have 
been cut off from England. 

Immediately on tlie reduction of Stirling, 
the garrison of which, 300 men, marched out 
with "the honours of war." Monk moved 
on Dun.lee, where he ;irri\ed 011 August 20th. 
Dundee at this time was wuUed, and a 
place of consiJerai)le streiigtli. So impreg- 
nable was it considered, tiiat during Crom- 
well's invasion many citisens of ICdinl-urgli 
and of other towns had sent there valuable 
effects for security, under a special guard 
of the citizens of the capital ; and many 
noblcs Iiad repaired to it for refuge. 

The Governor was Major Sir Robert 
Lunisilen. and his garrison, composed chiefly 
of the burghers, was much more numerous 
than tiic investing force. All nobles and 
gentlemen in Dundee were serving with 
the townsmen ; on the walls there were some 
forty pieces of ordnance. 

On Sunday afternoon, August .list, 1651, 
Monk began to cannonade the town. An 
exchange of sliot and shell continued till 
ten next morning, when terms i>f surrender 
were twije offered and twice refused. 

Tie l)reach tieing declared i)ractical)Ie on 
Sejitember ist. Monk onkretl a general 
assault, promising his stildiers the unre- 
strained pillage of the town for iwenty- 
f )ur hours. 

Tlie Eughsh inf.iutry advanced with great 
ardour. The stormers were comp<iscd of 
Monk's anl Ashfield's regiments- the pikes 
in front, die musketeers in the rear, to lire 
between the liles, the Dragoons closing up 



for se^^■icc■ in the streets the moment an 
entrance was cllectetl. While the breacli 
hi the north wall w..^ attacked by them 
another force assailed the Wellgatc ])ort 
and after it had been broken down by i.y. 
seamen, armctl witli sktlge - hammers ainl 
axes, the town was enterc<l at two points. 
The explosion of a magazine, causing ;i 
panic in rear t)f those defending the breaeh 
assisted the entrance of the stormers, and 
when the cavalry broke in there ensued 
in the narrow streets a dreadful scene oi 
pitiless liutchery. Sir R, I.umsden and 
thirty Royalists, declaring that tliey woul.l 
die rather thin surrender to rebels, retired 
to tlie great chureli of St. Mar>-. U'liei; 
Monk's musketeers stormed tlie chtiixli 
Lunis<len and his friends retired into tliu 
grand old spire, which they defendetl fmni 
, orey to storey, till they were driven to its 
summit. Then the veteran Govenior sur- 
rendered his sword to Colonel Aslifield. <'ii 
the promise "of quarter for himself and 
ten surviving friends, who were all wounded," 
The i)romise was given ; but the moment 
they were disarmed tliey were all munktid 
and decapitated. 

On tinding themselves surrounded, as the 
stormers jxtured in by the breach and Well- 
gatc iK)rt. the two battalions <if kord Duffu- s 
regiment laid dovni their arms, capitulating 
;is prisoners of war ; but a merciless liro 
of musketry was ])Oured uikhi them, .nid 
ever\' nihcer and man was shot down. Ni't 
one was permitted to escape. 

I*i>r three days there was a scene of carn.i^'-' 
and crime. Every house was broken oi'iii 
and pillaged. The plunder ol)tained by ilio 
Ivnglisli in Dundee was great, especiallv t'-r 
tliat age. Sonic Soo pris<iners were takin. 
and strippctl to tlieir shirts. Forty Jii'^t 
guns, a vast store of arms and ammunili'ai. 
witii loo siiii's in the Iiarbuur, were tak.;:. 
5?« 



^FCTION ll.-EARLY 



WORCESTER 



0\ August (>th the Sci.ttish army 
L-ntcml i;nslaiiil by Carlisle ancl ad- 
vanced int.. Lancashire; l.nt the 
King waF disanwinteil in his ex|.ectati..n i>f 
recruits, or assistance of any kind fr..ni Ins 
i;,ighsh subjects. The movement was so un- 
exl».-cte.l livthem that the ni..st zeah.us of 
his partis;,ns were ignorant of his ap,.roach. 
and were ftally unprepared to jom hnn. 
an.l the irrepressible C.nmiittee of Ministers 
issuc.l a proclamation to the effect that no 
Enghshman sh..nld be perniitte.1 t.. j.nn tl..- 
Scottish army who would not first subscribe 
the Covenant ! 



The Scots Lose Heart 

This was a con.lition which the English 
Cavaliers were loath to accept ; and their 
Presbvterian feUow-subjects, though favour- 
able to the Royal cause, were unwilling to 
risk their lives and f..rtuncs in such a des- 
[K-rate enterprise, without si.me security 
that their principles would be maintained. 

The Scots soon began to lose heart. They 
found themselves in a h..stile country, where 
all men's hands were against them, and where 
the iK-asantry barbarously murdered every 
straggler. 

Charles had been on the march some days 
before Cromwell had notice of a m.ivei.ient 
so startling. Though taken by surprise-, his 
measures were character 1 by his usual 
pr..m,.titude and vig..ur. ■ If lie f..llowea 
with his whole army," says l...rd Clarendon 
•• all the advantages he had got in Sco'.and 
would be presently l..st, , , . If he fol- 
loweil but with part, he might be too weak 
when he overtook the King, whose army he 
knew could bear the fatigue of a long march 
better than he could do so," Hence Ins 
ixisiti.m in Scotland was for a thml time 
critical. He dispatched an express to the 
Parliament, to prevent them being alarmed 



by new5..f the Sets' invasi.m, assuring them 
of Ills hopefulness. 

Leaving a garrism in I'erth, he dispateiu : 
Monk with 7,000 men to blockaile tile c.^tl 
of Stirling, and he orilere.l the Knghsli M; 
litia t.i assemble and harass the enemy. I; 
chanced that at this time. Thi.ins..ii, one - 1 
his commanders. ..ccui.ie.1 Newcastle «u,i 
nine battalions of pikemen and musketeei- 
and a few guns. Cromwell, while h.lloiMiU 
himse-lf with all speed, ordered the wh..l.- I 
his cav.ilrv t.. pn.ceed by f<.rccd marches, a 
the same ix.int, and instructed the Oenei,.!>, 
the moment a junction was etTe<:ted, to tlir. w 
themselves boldly in the King's way. As l.c 
had entered England by the western r....!, 
no difficultv was experience.1 in obeying fit 
first of these commands, while the sec .ml 
was aceompUshed just as the Scottish Cav,.- 
Hers were about to cniss tlr 'lersey. 

Carrving ah.ng with th. dl the Mihtu 
thev could muster and a. che two Repal.- 
lican Cenerals had their .. -c brush at \Vi.j..ii 
with the Earl of Derby, wuo, in obechciue t.. 
a letter from Charles, had left the Isle ..t iU". 
where he had hitherto maintained a kiii.l .'I 
petty inilependence, and had levied s. -me 
forces in C'.ieshire and Lancashire. Tl..;*-. 
to the number of only 1.200, were ,leK,.t». 
bv Colonel Lilburn, with ten troops ..t h..r»;, 
afti- an Inmr's c.nflict. Lord Wiilrin.;!"". 
Sir Th.mias Tildesley, and many others nen 
killed, while 400 were taken. 



The King's Weakened Forces 

After this a dash was made by Lambert .iii.l 
Harris..n to destroy the bridge of the iUtv 
at Warrington ; but t<»i late, for the >o.!- 
were already in p.ssession of it, nor weiet... 
Parliamentarians more successful in an etl.'t; 
to arrest the progress of the King by a slK" 
of gixing him battle. Finding the roa.i op'; 
to the southward, he marched steadi; -. 
40 



ScLtion II 



"Siva'"";"; '"» ^-' -" — 1 l,v 

I" spite. „f tl,c s„cn.,sf„l ,„,'""'■''■'*» 

Sc.crl 3 '''■'^-•"•"■. Ur,„iuati„„ 
n^. ,n.t „,„„„„ ,„,,,^^,_„ - 

>1'>-' truti, was that .ffiJsal, ■'■■ '"" 
"■.l«irke,l i„ a .leaner tt ' '""'•■"''■■ 



WORCESTER-SEPT. 3rd. 16S1 



Early 

^-r„,.,tV';c, ::;-;;;■-■■■■'>• .IK. 

"' Mriat f,,r il„. p , , . . " ■'" 'liaiitv 
tl..l'„ri,anV . ,r'-f''^" ''^'-•.•'l I'V 

i-«.«"ti;.n: """■'■'" ^■"^"-'^"■^>-i 

.i..y ill ,:'„;; '^""«"-'v„rk.„„id, 



Cromwell Approaches Worcester 

^£a^-^t;r;,^rt ;;;-:;: 

"l'i""l a co„,„,„„j,.„„.„„ . ,,/"'* 
'""I'T r,an.lK.rt an,l Ihrri ''" 

'"Umimlvri,,.. T I , "^ ' " ""■'"■ «l'"s 

- '"."^s'p:;, ;:;r~^^-"-Mr„„., 
--,;.-..... a„.n4i;;;,„rs:',-:t 

'*w<iirc3 above aadb.Lw;r^^;:::;f«:;^ 



?4I 



Cromwell's Lucky Day 

'>:. Si.ptaiil.,.r ;r.l ,l,.,.,„..l i ,. 
Wsluckv.lav „„if, ■ l.r,„mvdl 

«.s o..,„«t„I witl, tl.. city ,,v „, \i' ; ; 

tliL '•■■"ll.. a tnlmtarv of til., litf.-i- I , 
'""■ ."..1 (K.,K.ral Ma,so>- ""'■"^^" 

UT,il. 0„n„v.n .liv.;„„, „„ ,„„„.„„ 

'■..■fc..iMji,,l™,,.,-,. ,1 ...r '' 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



swimming on each tlank of the crossing m- 
fantr>'. Masst-v felt tli.it he held tlu- kty of 
his Royal iiuisti.r's position, and he held it 
resolutely, liko a jjaUant soldier, till lie re- 
ceived a severe wound and was Ix.nu- from 
the field. A kiii.l of panic seized liis trcKips 
on his fall. and. after having repeateiUy 
hurled the Republicans by pike and musket 
into the river, they retired in confusion, 
leaving the bridge in ix)SSCSsion of the enemy, 
LixmlH.Tt promptly repaired the half-broken 
arch : and before many hours elapsed 10,000 
men were est iblished ah)ng the course of the 
Teme. Charles, alarmed by this imiHirtant 
movement, orderetl the immetUate destruc- 
tion of all the bridges on the latter. He 
was obcye.1 ; but the order had come too 
late to be of value. 

Cnnnwell. whose calculations were accu- 
rately made, nor 'irected Fleetw»M>d, to 
whose guidance tho advanced corps of 10,000 
men was entruaed, to repair these bridges 
at :l!1 I:" d; and. though the Scottish 
muske-Les, by firing on the workers, diil all 
in tlu:'. i«iwer to retard the oiH;rations. 
Cromwell's orders were obeyed, and the Teme 
was crossed at every point. Tinally. the 
pontoon bridge was thn>wn across the Severn, 
about half a mile below Worcester. 

At an eariy hour on the morning of the 
3rd. Fleetwood's division l)egau to advance, 



BATTLE OF 

WORCESTER 

Sept. yd. 1651 




PLAN OF THE BATTLK Of WOKttblbK, 



driving in by a fire of nmsketn.- the Scot 
tish outjxjsts, and gradnidly ascending the 
eminences in front, and Cliarles ordered t" 
the front strong reinforcements of horse aiu! 
f.K)t to protect the retiring pickets. TIk 
hedgerows were lined by the Scottish mus- 
keteers, who stoutly disputed every lenev 
and barrier, while their squadrons ma.lt 
many most brilliant charges through th 
gaps and other openings, and none ga\L 
way till fresh aasses of the English ik>iu 
mg across t:ie Severn, and led by Cromwcli 
in iierstm, came on " at the push of jnke " 
.Hid ihen they were com]>elled to fall baek 
liil ultimately the whole ridge in front "i 
the east side of Worcester was lelt in i>o> 
session of the dead and wounded ahna, 
garden walls and other enclosures about 
the town afforded temi>orary cover for skir- 
mishers who again faced the assailants, aii'l 
again the conllict be-came long and fierc..' 
Meanwhile. Charles ordereil an att.iek u:i 
that iKjrUon of the enemy's forces whie:i 
had been left 01. the eastern bank of tlk 
river. 

To meet this unexpected movement, Cmiii- 
well hastily crossed the river by the bridge 
of boats, at the head of some of liis best troops, 
and then the deadliest iH>rtion of the battle 
began, and there Charles II. gave manv 
proofs of c(turage and braverj-. Fightitu; 
with the nuiit 
d e s ]) e r a t L' 
fury, LeslU'S 
trained Scuts 
swept au.Lv 
the whole nf 
the first li:ie 
of the ene;ii\, 
which w.is 
composed ;il- 
most entirily 
of Militia; I'ut 
the more wtu- 
ranbattali":is, 
many " 1 
which h \'\ 
been ui :tiiHS 
since w:ir be- 
gan, closeili'p, 
and deLi<ilii.T 
grewtheiiirife 



kMBER Jrti. loSl 



Section II 






K.,1,. 




"n olj enBr.TviriH 



"""■'"■■'1 t.. .p,ke ;""''■• «'"^'' "■^■y |,.d 

'"''»■'- «.a\™': ''I™' "" 'IK. Scottish 

'"»"J^-J tl,o mni„ a„r, , ■ ''■ "'"■'^^'' ^""'■ 
I-'".'.' I..t.<.rc.,i b ' ," /" "" ""■ •■"'" 
"•--.rricl In- ,,r°" •'^'"'f-'l.ot.r. 
'""'■J i" rapid succl- '" ''"""' "ere 

="-■ converted into a nlVf '■■'^•^'»"'"' 
'■ ■"■"""''•y could ntako 

■4.1 



"" effectual cIiarKc Tl,,.. ■ 

•i«c„,,i»,,,^,i„,^,^^'-"wn^fc,,. 
;f -va,,v, and ,cd ,t ' "™"^ '-'v 

'"■"-'W. and f , "■ ■ "'"••>" "s store., 

'^™ "-'-••cr™^;:, ::;;;- -t to 
«-u«„t4,c::::t::rj;-«cs„ ,,, 

l-rooi,„. searclnnu for Lin 1, ""' "^'"'"^ 

;'~.*..,,.,L;,tarri;„t> 



"ti 



wi 




■ ^■ 



:^*V>^ 



'i--«^ 











.',.( ai.\VAu-Tp-?^> 


■ * ^-j-"*^ 



THE BATTLE OF THE ALMA, SEPTKMBER ■'^■t«, THE 






^■*.,f,5V 



,^^t 



^"^".r^^^'^"^-^—"-^^^^ 



SECTION I.— MODERN 



THE ALMA 



V ^ PollUcal Situation in 1854.- After the Peace of 1815 ;/„■ Brithh Army am) 
.\a.y foaglil no imporUmt batiks m hmope for luarly forty years, for llie Imnbanlment of 
Algiers iSib and Acre. 1840, jc-ere carried oiU by over-whelming forces ; ami the dclniction 
oftheEgypitan and r„rkish fleets by the combiied English, hrench. anriiZ.TZsZ 
^a■e„rmo iS2j. mis af>tly described by the Duke of IVellinglon. tlun the head of our 'Govern- 
ment, as an untoward event. 

The Army had fought in Asia, always gallantly, but not with invariable success. 

Uur greatest General. Wellington, born in 17(11), had died on Sclttemlier iith !»=,- -tiler 
holding pohHcal offices for many years, he had resumed the Commaml of the Army 'm iHz which 
Command he nominally exercised iinlil his death, lie rode daily to the Horse Guards \Vhitehall 
uilh such imdevuiting regularity, that numy enthusiastic admirers set their walches as lie fussed 
along the Mall after his luncheon, to transact busim-.ss. But the Duke latterh. on reaching his 
hUsle/l" •' """''""■ "■'"'" "" ""^ "■"'"'•'■'' '» ^'^tu'l' him itnlil he a-,eoke to ride back 

The troops in the United Kingdom, as regards arms, clothing, and equipment, reflected 
"arl"7 "' ^""' '■'""""""''" --■'"' >••"' ""•'"' II" -<""y "early half a century 

The artillerv. the musket the stiff aspl,y.xiat,„g leathern stock, and drill movements were 
siKh as -wcrem use during the Peninsular War. Unforliwalely the Staff. Medical. Commissariat 
and Transport eslablislmenls. organised by Lord Welliiiglon in Portugal, had disaffearel 
uhich was the cause two years later of indescribable sufferings and of terrible losses 

.,.J."Tr\'li^''R^'''l!°VV',''', "''".''"','™."": of the feeling of the nation amongst all 
1 May. I8,,i «<• l-irsl International bxhibilion. in Hyde Park, -which brought the 
of he industry of the world to London, was generally regarded as a pledge of perpetml 
n,i It, ^l" Mention of the middle classes -was fixed on commerce, and franeliii questions. 
On the f o,Uim-nt. indeed, bloody re-eoliilions had broken out. but pretenders to thrones and 
deposed monarehs readily found asylum in our island, the peoples of -which for two genera- 
tions hid known, nothing of -war. and -were generally under the impresLn that England -would 
never again lake part m a European contest. E-ven sober-minded, thinking politicians really 
beUeved that mar. being not only foolish, but immoral, -would. «o,. that nations competed .,. 
friendly commercial rivalry, become impossible. 

These pleasant delusions -were soon to be shattered. From t. 
Russian Emperors and Iheir ministers had coveted Constantinople 

was -warmly disposed towards England. .,„d was a great admirer of the Duke of Weilingion 
had. ever since Waterloo, exercised a preponderating influence o„ the Continent. He. on every 
Empire """"'"'■ """"P'"' '" "'" '• P'Olectorate o-eer the Christian peoples in the Turkish 

F«Ji!'' '-'"-'""'.'""'''■ "/;';« >«"•<'• as far back as 1S41, //,.,/ the dissolution of Ihc Turkish 
Empire .,.,s lamimnt. After a -eery friendly reccpium .„ England, he put on paper that 
nemoranduni suggesting that arrangements should be made at once l,d-.eecn England ami 
•s to the steps to be taken on the break-up of the Turkish Empi,. in Europe Tins 
,...„.„„.,„(,,».• :,„s filed in our Eorcign Office, but it ..as not until iSy, -when the Car 
rjpealed Ins proposals, that our Gorernmcnl informed SI. Petersburg that it -was unable to 
discuss any such arrangement of the territories of a friendly Po-.eer 

ior many years France, as the Itrotector of the ;,./,» r/.,,,,;, ,.'..,( d .■ . ..,.■... / .. ,/._ 



classes, 
results 
peace. 



From the time of Peter the Great. 
The Czar \icliolas, u-lto 



year a 
Ritss 



Greek Church, had disputed 0: 



as the protector of the Latin Church, and Russia, acting for the 

.•r rt-...il .-/.ii'iiii- r,... It. 1 .,J.. „/ ■ i> I . . . . . < 



The rival claims in dispute in iH^ 



1/ claims for the custodv of certain Holv places in Palestine. 



Prince Menschikoff. 
Turkey's refusal, 
Diplomatists 



sent to Constantinople by the '( 



were easily adjusted, but earlv 



in fanuary. 185 



ar. advanced further claims. 



sent troops forward to lake possession of the Danubian V 



'palitic: 



and. 



endeavoured to maintain peace, but in October a Turkish fortress had fired 



546 



fit ' 



Section 1 



THE ALMA-SEPT. 20th, 1854 



shelUn,,g ,„ Scn,slo/,o/.~E. W '^ ""''' ^''"'■"""' "/ «.• Bh,ck S,:,. Ike Russian Zf.s 

THE Allied armies having disembarked 
September 1411,-17,!,, i„ Kalamita 
Hay. 25 miles north of Sevastopol 

attaek a Kuss,an ar„,y in ,K,si,ion on the 
south bank of the Alma river 

Tl,e Uritish fo,.e. consisting of 1000 
sabres. 2..,oo„ infantry, and Oo „u„s ™,s 
connnanded by Field-Marshal Lor3 Raglan 
The I.reneh troops. 28,000 infantry and 7000 
rurk^.,h ,„,antry. were under command o 
Marshal St. Aruaud. 



The Russun Position 

Xorth of the Alrna river an m,dulatuig 
grassy plain presents no difficulties to the 
moven,ents of trooi)s to within joo yards 
of the stream. 

On the s,n,tl, bank, on which the Russian 
(.ommander-in-Chicf. Prince >rensel,ikofr had 
drawn up his army, the ground rose- high 
above the nyer, and for a n,ile and a half, entr™ 
om the ....a mlan.1. is ver,- steep, precluding attack 



the poss,l„hty of taking guns up it e.vccpt at 
one or two places. 

I'rom the sea to the easten, slopes of the 
Knurgane hill was some five and a half 
m.Ies .the wh.,le front was covered bv tl,e 
K,ver Alma^ a river in places de^p. at others 
fontaWe. There was a good timber bridge 
a Bourhouk. in the centre of the position. 
»l"ch carne-d the post road fro.n Eupatoria 
» Sevastopol. The western cliffs, nearest 
"■^' sea. were steep, and sunposed to 1« 
naOTss,l,lc: but the hills fell awav as 
J'V trended ,nland. and the approach from 
"» nxer became practicable, although still 
*n,.g a stiff ehmb. The ground about 
«-■ centre and right rose high at two par- 
»;. Ur p,„nts : one was called the Telegraph 
"Kilt. an,l ,t dominated the principal road ■ 
U|J|.tl,er was the Kourgane hill, an elevated 
W leKiek formation in front of which the 
'»ttle ebk-d and nowed 



the se-a, was macce.ssible. Moreover, the 
"hole surface of this plateau was withh! 
range of the guns of the Allied, lee sTbc" 

strengtl,. about 3.5.000 uifantrv. between 
the two hills jnst mentioned, the Tel egra, 
- the Kourgane. on a front of les ^ 'n 
three m,les. His cavalry, about j.(,„o sabres 
na^.. guarded his right flank when the mo" 
I'lx-n downland was fax-<,urable to their 
movement. He did not bring all his troops 
mto actton. but had 20.000 men and », 
guns oppos,te to the Brif.sl, armv, and 
iXooo w„l, ,j(, gu„, „p,,„^.,, ,„ „_^ p^^^^j_ 

n,esc d,spositions indicate want of tacti- 
cal sk,l . If the IMnee had reconnoitred 
the west ehff he would have found that a 
"agon track ascen.led the hill from the 
"I age of Ahnatamack. which could be and 
...dee, was. use,l for artiUer,-. He should 
ha^e broken up this road and thrown up 
entrenchments to check any attempts to 
attack on tins side. ""' - • 



tl,„ ™ •.■ ^ ■ ''"* "'■'''''■'^t to fortify 

the pos,t,on was apparent, although the 
ground lent itself admirably to such defen- 
s,ve works. If the Heights of the Alma had 
been c,,nverted into an entrenched camp, 
the Alhes could not have captured them 
without great loss. 

Menschikoff'a Redoubts 

All Men>chikoff did was to construct two 
works, one named by our men the " Creater " 
the other the '• I.esse-r " Reiloubt. The lirst 
was breast high, without a <litch. some three 
hundred ,ards alx,ve the Ahna on the 
lower slopes of the Kourgane lull. It had 
two short (lanks. and was armed with , • 
heavy guns. More ,0 the rigl,t. on the 
same lull, was another slight entrenchment 
facing north-east, and armed with held 
rrt, lery. This was termed tlie Lesser Re- 
doubt. 

Emulathm is a strong iuL-entive to great 



-'->- Wt;lnr,l:r:^;^\- t-J^-. -=- ^1,™ alheshght .de ], side 
'»«' cliff, that part of the poSbn neLlst tt," <".■''■''''"«""''""''«' "'"*'^. 
I sition nearest the chance of dividd action in the field. The 
547 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



English and rrendi generals did not dis- 
agree but e.'^h in the ensuing battle went 
his own wav. SI. Arnau.l wished to attack 
from the sea to Iwycnd the causeway, leav- 
ing Lord Rafll.in to turn the Russian right. 
This the '.aiglisK Cnieral du:lined to do ; 
he thought a llanking movement would be 
dangerous in tlie pres^-nce of cavalry three 
times as numerous, aiul over ground es|>eci- 
ally suiteil t.> it. It endeil in an agreenieut 
that eacli army sliould go up against what 
was before it. the I'rench attacking tlie west 
cliff from the causeway to tlie sea. the 
English taking the hills from the causeway 
to the extreme Russian right. 



The Brunt of the Battle 

In the result the French f.>uiid no enemy, 
and the brunt of the battle fell noon Lord 
Raglan's triKips. The honour «; - all the 
greater, of ccmrse. But this arrangement 
neutralised all our advantages of superior 
numbers. As. however. MenschikolT held 
the bulk of his forces about his centre and 
right -in other words, just opjuisite the 
English attack— it folli>wed that Rus.sians 
and English fought, as regards numbers. 
up<m equal terms. This was all the more 
emphasisi-d by the French moving a. far 
to their right that a large i)orti<m of their 
army was out of the action, while the rest 
was only partly engaged. 

Although the Allii-d troops " st.nid to 
arms " at davliglit on September ,!otli. the 
battle was not fimglit till the aftermion. 
llehiys that were vexatious yet inevitable 
interposed. Lord Raglan was obliged to 
draw tow.irds him two of his divisiims. with 
which he had been covering his exiKised left 
flank. 

At 1.30 P.M. the Allied fleets shelled the 
Russian position, and Ceneral Bosquet at 
2 r,M. led his extreme right, or seawanl 
French division, up the west clitl.^ One 
brigade, Bcmat's, followed by the Turks, 
cros.scd the River Alma at its mouth, and 
.-ahng the heights without dilKculty, ad- 
v.inced but met no enemy, and never came 
into action. Bosquet's other brigade. D' Aute- 
mare's. with which he rode in person, having 
reacheil the summit, found nobo<ly in front 
of it. but was unsupported ui an isolated 



positiim. Bonat was far away on his right ; 
CanrolKrt, his nearest support, was amon.; 
the rocky, lir.ikcn country-, and could barel;. 
hold his own. N'ext to Canrobert wa. 
Prince Xapoleon : but the latter hung bac'K 
without anv ostensible reason. When lu- 
division came under distant lire he sent ^ ,1 
impassioned appeal to Lord Raglan to a 1 
vaiice and take the pressure of lire oil him 

At this time the Allies were in danger .1 
disaster. If MenschikolT had used his ojip^ r 
tmiitv. he might have dealt a crushing bl"v. 
at the AUies. lie was in lietween his foe* 
one army was amongst a difficult conntr;, , 
and separated in two parts by a wide interv.il 
the other army had not yet engaged. 

All Mc'iischikofI did . liowever. when BosciikI 
scaled the west cliff, was to liurrj- up ei:,'!it 
battalions from his reserve to confront llit' 
French ; then, hesitating to join issue. M 
march tliein back whence they came, aiil 
thus losj their services for more than .la 
hour. Tlie Prince's cavalry remaineil iiiacti . ,■ 
till the golden opportunity was lost, and tli n 
he found himself so liercely assailed by the 
English that he lost all power of the olkii- 



While the French wep in this critical c -a 
dition, the English remained halted, lymi; 
down under a dropping artillery lire. Ha 
Lord Raglan having received urgent requ. -its 
for aid. gave the signal for attack : "i 1 
the 2nd Division, under (ieneral Sir De L.icy 
I'vans on tlie right— western— flank, .ml 
the Light Division under Sir C.eorge Bn.an 
moved on in line two deep without inmu li 
ate supjKirts, ou a frontage of two miles 1 ' 
understand what follows we must re,di-. 
exactly how our forces were arrayed. 

The English Forces 

1. Sir De Lacy ICvaiis, with the :r. 1 
Division, stood next the French, lli-s "-M 
rested oil the village of Bourliouk opp. -it 
the cause-way bridge: his left joille , '-<■ 
to and overlapped the right of- 

2. Tile Light Division under Sir ('.."t^i 
Brown, who faced the Kourgane hill ""I' 
its two redoubts heavily armed, and i.^ '•■>' 
talious. and so had a formidable po-iti": 
to attack. At the same time his left » ■- 
unsupported. 



548 




ADVANCE OF THF i -T^^^^^^^^^^HBHWpiwO 
^"^ '-'°"'' DIVISION AT THEA,„ ~~ ^'^ 

""- . P^cur. .. ,.,. ,_ " , '■"*• SEPTEMBER «,h. „„ 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



3 Immediately behind the Light came 
the Duke of Cambridge with the 1st Dm- 
sion, composed of the Guards and the High- 
land brigades. 

4. The 3rd Dirision supported the 2nd 
Division, hut at a long distance. 

5 The cavalry under Lords Lucan and 
Cardigan, a thousand sabres, were in sup- 
port to the left rear. 

6. The 4th Division of infantry- were m 
rcsen-e, and did not come up tiU after the 
action. 



The md Division 

The first fighting fell to Evans, but at the 
moment of his advance the enemy set fire 
to the village of Bourliouk, which burst into 
flames, and Evans, to avoid it. sent one 
brigade-rennefather's— to the left, and 
sent the other— Adams's— by a long round to 
his right, where it was in touch with the 
French. All I'ennefather's men got across 
the river, but were obliged to advance slowly, 
being under fire of the causeway batteries ; 
and one of his regiments— the 95th (2nd 
Sherwood I'oresters) cramped in by the 
right of the Light Di\-ision, worked with it 
for the rest .if the day. Evans had thus 
only three battalions left, and with so small 
a force he could only gain ground by slow 
degrees, losing neariy one -fourth of his 
effectives. 

Part of the Light Division, the right, or 
Codrington's brigade, was soon hea^ly 
engaged. The left, or BuUcr's brigade, also 
moved forward, but being entrusted with the 
protection of the eximsed Hank of the army, 
two of its regiments were kept back m sup- 
port while the rest became involved in 
Codrington's attack. This gallant soldier 
was no sooner across the river with his regi- 
ments then he endeavourc<l to re-form, but 
finding the loss of Ufe was too great, he 
called the ofiicers to the front, and they 
led the men forward just as they stood. 

The divisional Ceneral, Sir (ieorge Brown, 
was not near him at the mumcnt, and Cod- 
rington felt that his duty was tn go ahead. 
He himself headed the chatRC upim the 
Great Redoubt under a heavy fire of big 
gj„,, CnUmcl Laci- Yea, of the 7th Fusiliers, 
going to the front cried to the men : " Come 



on ; never mind forming ! Come on any- 
how." He re-formed, howcvel, the moment 
he had an opportunity. 

'■ Forward ! forward ! " was the cry ot 
aU : pell-mell, but always straight on, the 
1st' Brigade of the Light Division rushed up 
the slope. 

The Russians were in great strength, 
standing in heavT columns. The redoubt 
was armed with 12 big guns, yet they 
did not resist this irregular onslaught, but 
were soon Umbering up their guns and going 
to the rear, from a cause shown farther on 
Then young Anstruther, a boy fresh from 
school, raced forward with the Queen's 
colour' of the 23rd, and placed it trium- 
phantly on the parapet of the breastwork. 
He was shot dead, the colour faUmg with 
him. Sergeant Luke O'Connor, following 
close, raised the flag erect. 

He, too, was struck down, but although 
severely wounded, carried it for the rest of 
the day. This was the crisis of the fight , 
the flag was the rallying point ; crowds of 
our soldiers came rushing m, and the redoul)t 
was carried-for a rime. All this occurred 
m a much shorter time than it has taken to 
tell Of the five and a half battalions which 
had come into action, one, the 7th Fusiliers, 
with stragglers from other battalions, was 
srill fightmg the (proper) left Kazan column, 
while four and a half British battalions were 
crowded about the breastwork which had 
been given up by the Russians. The battle 
itself would probably have been completely 
won had reinforcements been at hand. 



The l»t Division 

The ist Division, however, which had been 
ordered to support the Light Division, hail 
not yet crossed the ri\-er. Its advance was 
hastened by the Quartermaster -General. 
General Airev. speaking for Lord RaBtm, 
who as we shall see, was at another part nl 
the field. .'!o the Duke of Cambridge m"ve<l 
forward, but slowly ; the Guards brigade tii 
the right, in line— a wefl-dressed two-.l«p 
line. On the left were Sir Colin CampbiUs 
three Highland regiments— the 42nd list 
Black Watch), qyd (2nd Argyll and Suther- 
land), and 7r)th (ist Cameron Highlamk^l^ 
advancing in "direct eehelou from t.;c 



Section I 



"ouU have sufficed to stiff "" '"'™« 

""■ «reat RedoubT ■ b ^1™ °" '■<"" "Pon 

occurred. ^^ '^"oits had ^^^ 



THE ALMA-SEPT. 2o.h. iss. 



i,„ „ Modern 

!» paused, aud the batn„ 

'"'o ■■■ fresh Phase! "' "'^-while passed 



The run,l„^.p„i„j 

Cl"rf, Lord Raglan wL ,'-""'"""><ler-i„. 
''"'^ragoonsi;:;;^™!"- Staff and 
-■-.Kie mto the enem^T - *"'*"■«' ■» all 
S°"e down towards ;? ','"'""'■"■ He had 

■Ul'ra and our r "ention what our l,„.-,.,.. ."' » P<nnt und^r „.,. -„' ' 



«"-a„ S^l,'^ '-"'y led „e„ „, ,, 
'»« of the redoubt T„ .""" '""^ the 
«"«. and they cLL° r "'"""'" <" 'cd- 



»'" tw recover tlm . f "s^ui in 

"-"ate the struggle w^y" T'^:, ^^''"e we 

^"t, it is desiSl !' "'^ "adimirRegi- 

Allios and our CoL? T""™ «'"t o^r 

''™«at this ti^e "f";i''-^''«'-"e 

■•"-■nt, when appr^aehinJ ^''*"'' R'^P- 

a Fteneh eolumn and f ''''" "''^'••"'» '- 

'l>™="memisgu,ded 1 r ^?'= '^"■•^ « -' ; 
"-■■ retire "lb7^^^^''"'ugler^„„j^' 

■■"■" ascertafaedlbuTS "f'^ " was 
"P "«1 repeated, tarat^ ™^ '^^en 

'f'antly. Codringtonl i «"'• '"™' r- 
« tk. redoubt prepTri ToTe "" ?''^'-"'°" 
^tosfor a time to its r ' "■ ^liey 

prea.„tly gave wa, "L '""^ *!'«. l-ut 
the hill. Only the, ■„f'"™'«' "own 

used to withdraw L '"'™' '"- 

^ff; Canrobert hiT.r , "'"" "'^ »« 



'-f.tand»«:,x "s"tr^■'^*«4 

»»«'. to injure lU^i/heY"™^' '"^"-ar 

"oked into Jhe e""~.*'",''''"'^-«'-'''- He 

'^'""S it in reverb a„< ' "' ''"'"•x^. 

"''jantage his dang"; ™^„^7 '"e supren,; 

Ifonly weha,iac™ ,,e "°" S^^" «« 
''<! erred, and two arHM '^^ "P here ! •• 

^^---^ and WeUn 'Z,"'^"' '"•"'""* 
»'«".. while Genera? W "'^ '" ''^''^'r 

s.— •■'-'- ^.:^ir^ri 

--«r:^r"^"S^ '"""■'"• ""^ 
1.-- " tdi:^r j-'^f -*- 



-■■ -robert had er , -- » »« ba^t'ten", " '"'"'^■^"'«' to'^.t e" '""""' 



»* of the river. " The'RT" "" """>orth 
"mmand of the centre wT u" «™"»' « 
""md the Telegranl h m'? ™^ P°^«l 
■=■"""" "gilt of hi^ ',''"'*'"■ •""' P"t i.. 
"* column., ob« a?™';. '"■'"'"*' "f 
'»|.hteau to s,n to cl ',"■'■ ""'' ""«cd 
«k over the el « He , ".'' """' ''^"'«' 
^''-l-a brigade /dm n"^" ""''"""^ at 
.^"f'". Which ^sSt'fff^' "' "oreys 
.°^''»ce«himand,ri'""(-™"i'"»med 
"■ ''""ce himself w'r .'"°'™"' "'"' 
*™Ppor.s w re ,'T '"■'""''■ ""' 
""""'« for attack ii ,"'""■ ™"' "o 

,:r'"'-«''"Kriakr/th:t"'""'^"' 

"". pressed on he »„ i "'^""' ''">- 

r°'P'«'--'.v "rolled „,r°"f P~''aWyl,ave 
"P lire iTcnch. Bm 



''J- this battery ..if ™ ;™^ .«'« cheeked 
e-rn," he cried and 7. "' '" »" English 

'- path was to"'t brer d'"™"'^ '"^^ 
was. Evans swen ftl T""' '^"'' «> it 
™th his three 2' "'■'' "'"rnphontly 

f:\-i" coAt/rc^ei'T'""™' •'■^'^ 

hrs I-usiliers, who Lt .> ^'"'^' "''"' and 
fi"a".v cou^uere, , ,e r" "' ""^ "™^ had 
which thev had t? f "*'"" "''""'n with 
yea's obstinate heroism h?> '"■^••'S«i- 

'-way for , he adv^c^r, """""'■ '">^-^ 
h"t .t had rendered OS, ,'" ""' ""'^"n 

,— -ral a^^e^!:;;' ,i:'^2'ri; 



i ^ iilil 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



and hh quick .yc takins in the nec«sity 
o? tlie Jst Division moving at once and 

;:rrdi,,^v'"Cft,.::ir-v^ 

Xa" s a trvinK task, and it docs not scj t„ 

„.wl i„ t'lose in command of the 

St ™;^"'"'Sio„s to breakup the 

to into the small fractions prcscnbol • 

S™rrt^r':!t^.rrc : 
Sr^«trvS::tCt^ 

ordered to ■ ,>rcak ranks,' and get over 
„11 as lK,t they could; and m a 
very irregular formation they crossed the 
it^r endeayouring to form nP °" '"^ 
S^^thern Bank. Here they ».reshdt„^ 
and if thev had been given but two or three 
mtu es, the Scots fusilier Guards wovjd 
taye gone forward with the mmrense ad- 
v:„Lgeof being in perfect 'ormaUon^ t- 
fortunately, the B-rals ^1^ « were^as 



pe.lantic to young ..Idiers, '•"' t"-*^^;;',,";^ 
^ho remember how slow we we^e m aU ou 
movements forty years ago, wJl reah^ 
Lix-rtance then of having '1" »™ »' 
"der to which they were accustomed , an. 
"i regular formation, i^^f^"^^ 
incalculable advantage. ""«, <• ^, ,1, 
Grenadiers but to the brigade, m the next 
five minutes. 



The Coldstream Ouards 

■■ When the Scots Guards went forward th. 

Coldstreams on their «'■ l-^™« ;™'' ^;-; 

a more precil.itous part of the bank, coo 1 

',„t sucL<l in mounting .t. "^gh • 
attalion had advancd in colnnm of jc - 

from Hanks of companu*. and ex en ll . 
vere ..bliged to move down-stream s.,,.. 
what, and thus the battalion moved or 1 
about tw.. minutes after the centre batuh .n 
^'U was in perfect line. for. sl««ere,.y 
a fold of ground, it had re-formed w.t.. 
'n'ukers'outasif it were paradmg ... 

"''in A? meantime the Light Divisiorj had 

bcH^n driven out of the interior of the redo. l,t 

b tile fie of guns in action on the lugh.r 
1,5 tne iiic 6 , , , 5,,^^. 



"-^- had climbed ..e ban an^o«icer norths. ^^ 



b^frt^oSy^S'^ 

bTyonets till the men themselves asked for 
permission to do so. 
The Qrenadiers 

-r:^iri.rr:^.^rsf 

„„«thtl..riKl.l centre comp.nj »»>»■ Z",,,,.. 

'■'r':rr-r'or=.'ro:"s...- 

„, u,. only »f' hear^JTu. b.t.,«» -« "ot 
bank. 



north side ot tne oreas." .-. ".---" . 
fall back. The Brigadier again rode n.to 
th redoubt, but war not foUowed by a. 

number of soldiers, and the Position of 
confused mass of British "fantry J"^ ^^ 
as to excuse them for desinng either a ^ 

pow or that they might be retired. On he. 

^;,t there was a column of two b.attah..n 

engaged with the 7th Fusilier=: on h.i 

and left front was another column formut .. 

two battalions of the r ""PV, i! 

a little further back were '"'■„„;,. 

of the Sousdal Regiment. ak .". 

ltd%.uth of the field^or., and 1,. 

hoUow. stood four battalions of the \ U* 
mir Regiment. Wnnd thes- agam. st««d 
Tour battalions ,. ^' ^'f^^^ ^ 
and yet further back --'^'^-^XltZ 
soldiers. Thus, immediately to the 1. ." 
Tu, five and a half battalions num. m 
™L 2500 men. there were about i2t« 
^" j,y ta infantry, supported by numei-^ | 
artillery, 
55» 



Section I 



4 



^i the Ouglitz Regiment wL«,^t,„'' 
advancing down the hill but ' L « "' 

' Tfit' Column 
is French ; for 
God's sake, 
nitfii, don't 
fire ! ■ This 
was shouted 
again and 
again, and 
[irescntly a 
I'ugler on the 
Ht, in obe- 
dience to 
orders from 
a mounted 
"fficer. sound- 
ed the 'Cease 
'ife.' This 
"rder was 
partly obe\-ed 
by aU, and 

T wa, re,H.at«l sewral times ,K,,,. ,t 



THE ALMA-SEPT. 20th, J854 



Modem 

""Ik Ught Division, hut mo«.(.i • • 
.'truek the Scots Fusil ierCuarS, ,, ' "l"^'" 
>nR u„sup,K,rted, .J„Z;,':V''''T 
»ere knocked down ,„. .j™ re .,.,""" "'"' 
on cither si.le of the r»,st rnnd "'''"""i™ 
oneonth.u,„«rsl„i ./XV-"" '™' "'= 
-Vevertheles.' thought n,e,^V,""«""' '>^'- 
'rft hung back the LT '""''^ "" ""^ 

colours flvi,r„. .?' '""""''""■ ^' ^"cl.. with 
»n<l i, was with^ al'" '"r"" ""8"lar line, 
"--.work :h™"it ",",'"'■ '""^ "' "■^■ 
men o( the Light Iiivil", "'^'""'' ^"" 
work. ' " ^^'reatmg from the 




■ The dis.,rdere<l ranks of the Fusilier 

^rirh:rz:e::rTi-S 

" pursuit of the Light Livis.on. and were 

rZ'TTf- ""'r"""^"'^ l> i"K ™ «l>c ground 
s^„ ''""'"'™ 'h™ halted and ,ire,l their first 
not onr"!"!"" "^""■"""'•ing was soon told, 
re re iTu '^P'-''"<^<'ly, ■ The Fusiliers wil 
retire, and the.v did so. This onler. no doubt 
was mtended for the Welsh Fusiliers 

hill L ?T •'""'""» "™' *™-" the 
h ". some of them, no doubt, faster than 
«hcrs, the Grenadiers and CoMstreams «re 
seen advancins'. nn^l tu^ „«; .t .. 



in t^.^ *''''^'' """^ "^ retired leivinJ T' , *"^"'- "" ^""»'t. faster than 

I :;i-;-^< - --' whicH ha'rs r'ad'J-r i- "t^^:rrof i 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



succniU-.! in cluiiis k"" »'•'' ""^ C.reim.liers 
and Cc.Ulstreams passc-d on as they mounted 
tlic hill, for the officer coraraanihnR the 
former battalion, which was a little in front 
of the Coldstreams. halted a minute or two 
to Kive the Scots I' ilier C.uards an opi""- 
tunitv oi ri-torniing, and in five minutes all 
three hattalious went forward in one line. 

•It is probable that tlie l.isht 1 livision 
carried back with them in .Usorder some of 
the Guards. This olV.eers of the I.itjht 
Divisicm deny ; but 1 am assured by two 
Oeneral-Officers who were present tliat Mr. 
Kin>;lake's account of the p.irt played by the 
Scots Guards is inaccurate. No one who has 
endeavoured to collate accounts of a con- 
fuse<l strusule can fail to admire the patienc'^ 
and research which Mr. Kinnlake brouKlit 
to bear on his work, but I believe that his 
description does not in this case give .m 
accurate idea of what occurred.' 

•■ The right wing of the batt.dion, when 
halted, was attacked by a rush of meti from 
the \nadimir Regiment, who. descending 
from the breastwork, ran bodily forward at 
the colours. One of the officers wlio carnid 
a colour assures me th.it the men on either 
siile of him never lliuched. even when a 
bodv of men some twenty or thirty deep 
rushed at the two-deep line. 

The Left Brigade 

■ I stated that the right battalion of the 
left brigade. Light Division, joined in with 
Codriugtons battalions, but the two other 
battalions remained hall.d under TOVcr of 
a shoulder of ground. The Hrigadier pro- 
posed to advance, and sent an order to that 
effect, but the colonel of one battalion nrgeil 
that the left should not be left unprotected 
in the presence of cavalry, and eventually 
the Brigadier, who, lieing short-sighted, 
perhaps mistrusted his own judgment, 
acquiesced, and both battalions remauied 
practicallv out of action, even when the 
suplJorting brigade of Highlanders, conung 
up, passed them. This will be understo.)d 

■ The " StaS OffK-cr,' whose Rood fuilh m 
desi-rihinp »bat h= saw lias never bcea .mpuRneJ. 
and «ho was a .peetat.it of tlie -scene, wrote at the 
time ii,fe P '7'> ■' Letters from Head yuattera 
(Fa-silier CmnU) : ■ .\fttr a moment or two lliey 
talUed. and soon regained their comrade 



from the fact that these two battalions cnni 
bincil had liut forty casualties of all rank 

The Highland Brigade 

•' .\s the Highland brigade crosseil ti 
Alma valley, its right battalion, the 4.:ii . 
came to an easier place than the centre b.i; 
talion. the d.ird. and the i).ird had less di: 
etdtv in getting across than the 70th 11 ■ 
Cameron Ilighl.uiders) or left batt.di. : 
thus the brigade, on luoving forwanl ..i-. ; 
crossing, practically advanced in eelKi . 
from the right. 

Sir Colin Caral>l)ell. after vaiidy att. m: ; 
iiig to push on the l>attalions of the i.;' 
brigaile. Light IllviMon. fiassed them, .li.u 
directed his left battaliim to get into coluiir' 
but. as he got a little further up the sin!,, 
of the Kourg.inO hill, realising, at a gl.ui . 
that little was to be iipprehellded from I . 
Russian cavalry, he cotmternian<ied V..;< 
order to the 79tll Highhmders, and ll, , 
went forward in Uuc. The IHlke of {:.,:::■ 
briilge's di\ision was now much exten.l ; 
having a frontage of nearly a mile an.i .i 
half. 

'■ .\s the Hi.ghland brigade advanced, s.i 
Colin Campbell perceived that, by m",i:ii 
the 42nd Iliglilaiulers forwanl at once, .in.l 
without waiting for the fj.ird and /Otl- '" 
come up into line, thev wouM strike on > 
flank of the two Russian columns t.sa 
cngaguig the Cuards. ami wouM thus r.li. \e 
the pressure on the Coldstreams; and ihis 
iudeeil happened. As the 42nd appro.u heil 
the eastern Hank of the redoubt, tlie <Kht 
Vladimir column, driven obliquely 1 't- 
wards bv the lire of the C.renadiers. v.,,i 
modng in a south-eastcrU direction tn j «■■ 
the right Kazan column, and as the W itk 
W.iteh advanced, firing, the two h .' > 
columns joined. 

•■ \t this moment the left of the 4211 ' " '- 
threatenetl by the left Sousdal column ml 
Sir Colm halted them for a minute, uiit 
03rd, coming up, had also halte.l 
re-formed, 

"As the njrd advanced, firuig n;l 
right Hank of the left .Sousdal cohim 
inoWng to attack the 42nd, the flank M 
the 9jrd was in turn threatened liy tlu iK"l 
SuU3d.d column, hut the 70th came ir, jiiK 

5;4 



,inl 



tlic 



I the 



Vet ion i 

''I time, ant] .1,.; 

Ku^ian c,I„,„„ .,t , ^-■■<^. iTuke the 

ll.rom.by,,,e,,;;"i;''"^""™»a. over- 

-'-try r^ivo^;^^;,^- «-«-*„ 
"I.I cavalry c.,« ,t ("i;;;;;" ''■"" «- .!.«. 



THE ALMA-SEPT. 2o.h. i854 



The Victory 



^^'Iifu Lord Kn„i,„ 
P-t r„a,l. ]„. kul „',','"" >"'■'"' tl.c 
»''«^li cr„s.„| ,„.,„ ' • '"' ' .'^- '»" l>attali„„, 

'™'"1 and c,„n,,l,u,| ,',""-\"'™carae 

""'to .ttack.' ^ ""'"^-J the cavalry 

' ^VIicn Lord R.,„i 

""■^i"". Prince Jrcnljk i '%f"' '•'«'" 

°"lTinccr„,,sdnk,r"r '"""'"■■ ^^'■■- 
-mmandof :''tf,"'.''™'r''^'''M'''' 
•* KinKlake Wr h 1 " "' ""^ •^""V- 

"'«'i"K ■ I 1 7 """' S'-^'Pl.icallv tho 

»-wnc.d, ™;;'' '""'■'''-•■"- ■"yi.-sc. 

f«°^'"y-'Il' i...llca • c, 1 "" ',""""■"" 

:«^"f...cha,f-,„„;,t ™-i^™.i.o 

"■T^ Lit. Tli c,l r''' ""■" '" -"^l' 
'-«'ti^. be veo„ ?, 1'""^ "■"' "■">■ nS 



Modern 
«l"Ic m,r ,„,, divi ? ™"' "■'■■'Pon. 

f7- ^"-.i );!;;; r^i,;:'"";;"-' ^'- 

«•■■"" "P in an irr k ifr 'f "'" "'''" '" 
"" '■">.r. Ii«„ti„s t,v„ 1 '"' ■'^■^'"'- ''••"' 
«""C' l,4'.(. <.r , ,on „"■'""'"'"'■ nnmherinR 

>v-ama„;„'^^^, --'"-'"f .he 7,,, 

:""■"■«" "...c'Sitrr;:^ ""— " 

'■"mc scTvice, cverf.,? i- , "'™ "" 

'".■^>vf"r„,,i;n\ ,""'"/"' «-»- 

"'■"• "i<.ntl,s later „ , ' 1 , ^" "'" ""'••"•. 
'• Iv m„„nK,,f',r I"',"' "•■'"""- sin. 
■"-'-fnl spirit „'• '"' '"''''■"■'■ "is 

7"' K"val,.-, |I!;'"""',""""'lWm. The 

"'™v dr-;;;;;^:V'"?^''- ■''-"- 

"'<= nght flanks „f Z T ' '"'"« 
--s,andt„eMt.,lt.,:;::^--^j;;^ 



The French Troops 

statuiR that his ,„ • , "'^""' ilichncd 

;^M"wit':;;,:v":rf^'-;'''™ 
-■'•^";te;"r::;:r-,''-.K.:r 

l>«'n fulloived ,,„ ''"'"">■ ilad 

'•"nni; ,l,i,r , .,' , R"*'<lans .lissulved 

mob, ere ,,;'•.?'"'•" \ P-ic-s.rick™ 
reached after „/„ 7,, ™' "i^ '^'""''- ">«■ 
;'.«.-hey,„S'^^^^-^^^^._ river. 



•jFrriON l.-MODERN 



BALACLAVA 



Tm; memory of BalAchiva will always 
\k- chi-rish"! I.y Britons vvitl. lK.-culiar 
,m.k.. It fa true that tl.c Rrcat cvvnt 
„f tho <lav-tl,o «rtat central c.,,«<Kk-- was 
a Llnndcr; ami that throuRh .t many l.ravv 
„K-n lost tlKir Hncs. »"' "«• U"''™"'- 
courage of tho* «ho were sacnl.ced, ami 
their mihesitaiiiiB. imswervms < evot.on to 
dutv. will always rank among the Imest of 
our warlike achievements. 

Why the Battle was Fought 

Vvervone has heard of the Light Cavalry- 
Brigade: how a handful of horsemen, only 



ten ,lavs later to l«omc famous T,;. 
i;nglish' <lrew all suvpHes from Balaclava^ . 
«mall IH.rt seven n.iles fr.nn the sK«e »"rk- 
Tlie line of comnumicatlous with nuj- 
clava l.iv within reach of the Rnssun^ 
Thev were not actually exposed, for s.>iv. 
slight attempt had Iwe-n made to lornr 
them ; but the .lefences were weak, and u:' 
equal to resisting a serious attack, riu.e 
were two lines of works; the inner. c1.>^. 
around Balaclava, where the ground »,,« 
steep and these were manned by tngtoli 
M.irincs. and armed with naval guns. l-.c 
outer was a line of weak rclouhts encrcl.,.K 



Brigade: how a nanu.u. "■■■•■■-■■■-■•.■ ^^^^[^ Balaclava valley ; the first of them on the 
a few hundreils of them, ^""^f ,,'■> '^ ,; ,„ j^st opposite Karaara. was on .he- 
leader, •■ the last of the Brudene Is, , gallop t -t ) Jl^^^ ^^,^.^^^ ^^ ., ,, , t s. 
straight into the '■jaws of death. t was m. ^,^^,^ ^,^^^ „, .^^ o,|,„s, 

as he said, an order : that was enough. To ^" ' ^^^J ^^^j ,„„ ^ ^ 6. crowned the 
hea.w.s to obey, even although the cl,an«s "'^h^.^;-" _, ,„„ ,.nge of hilU 

.,f success or eve. survival were ^-alL The C a -wj g^ ^^ ^^._^^_ ^^^ ^^^ ^^.^^„„,„g 
hrig.ide went into action as 6ne a body <^ oss^^^ ^ ^^^ ^^ ,,, , 

Light cavalry as the world has ever seen „„s,„ction that " a donkey miRht 

-precisely and beautifully arrayed the ™/j^^ through them "; their armament 
remnant rode back by tw<« T', '" S eonsis"ed of two iron twelve - pounder ..ns 
stricken and shattered. But they had car,r« ^™»'''^ ° ^„^ rf^^rf by Turks- 

out the order, although they had all but each^and thj^^^^ ,^ ^^^ ^^__^ ^^^ 
perished in the .^""npt ^^ Canroberfs HUl Xo. I Redoubt, a. 

Before describing the ba tie t »■" ^ "^ ^^^ ;„ ,,eh of the other redonhl. 

to consider why it was fought ■ "l'^* the na^l „,emselves stout sol.hei. 

Russians had in view : what would have Ihey nav p ^^rt,,„„,us when pro- 

hap,.ned had they won it, I-^^S" - J-"^^ ^„, „ .,, ,„„i,v. M 

"""-red'tlnt "ur mrK^gliran^I 'thV were overpowered, and suffered n,„* 
'Z:t:L bSUug Sevastopol, and that in reputation, 
thev were encamped on a broad upland in ^^ ^^^^^ p^,^ 
front of the south side "' ">e Jottress The .^ ^^^ ^.^„^^, ^„„^^ , 

■• left attack "-western flank-was m the ™ "n . ^^^ ^y, 

hands of the French, whose f a^ -^ ^ ' Jrs sorl^e 'aoo^convalescents. and ..« 
Kamie«h, on their left rear. The n^M land ^^^^^^ ^^^^^ , 

attack" from the «="'«■ "'^""'VlXh was S command of the latter: ••.en«;t 
with the French, wascntrusted to heEnglA was m ^^^^,^^^ ^_^^^_^_.^^.,, 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



S„cli «M the sitiuiti..il about HJadava. 
For iKtcci .U.VS the. R«ssi.i,.s tail bm, cm- 
„,,rati,,s.n..rs of unarms near TchorBonn^ 
a village north-cast of Ijalaclava. a, ^ b to e 
davl^ht. IKtober 2=ith. 23""" "ifantrv. 
tsiadron. of hor*.,an.l7« «""«■-";; 
matuUHl bv r,cneral I.iprau.h. adva,><x-d on 
the British liae "f connimmcatlons. 



A ContemplBted Attack 

.\ spv *nt bv Iiri:.adier-(-.c„eral Rustcm 
ra«ha.'«h" commanded tlic T"'!;''- '"'' 
™ited the Russian lines and brorwht back 
news of the contcn.plal.-d attack. ."rd 
fc" an was duly iuf...mcd, but he t"„k no 
!.,« to n.c-ct it. for he had been nnsmformed 
bv spies before. At daybreak. ..etober 25th 
our cavalry had paraded in the valley a^^ 
hour before da.vn. and re,K,rte.l that the 
e„emv was advancing. I.-' '^"f" " 
once ro.le to a conunand.UK pomt called the 
Col. where he saw the approaehins c"hmms. 
^ud was able to measure the probable 
scope of the impen.liuB attack, and sent 
orders t,. the 1st and 4th Uiv.sions, under 
the Duke of CauibridKC and Sir CeorKe Lath- 
cart t" move down int.. the plant and de- 
fend Balaclava. lie forbade the cavalry ... 
advance until the infantry arrived, for he 
hoped to llnht a Reneral act...u. 

Meanwhile the Russians had come on m 
tw., great mas.ses : one on their left, caunlB 
from Katnara. was directcl on Caurobert s 
hill the sc-c<.nd. in the centre, was t" 
n„,ve up asainst the redoubts.,., the Lause- 

wav heights; the .l.ird, under ..eneTal 
Jabrokit.ky, wast,, hold the rtsht upon he 
Fedionkine heights. The s.ngle battah". 
of Tnrkr, which held Caurobert s h.ll showed 
it first a llrni fro..., but it was shatterclby 
artillery (ire, which disabled its t'.ree twelve- 
pouuder gu..s and deci,.,ate.d the furk.s 
ranks. I'ive Russian battalions went up to 
the ass;iult, while six more were ... support. 
The attack was overwlielming ; l?" ^"'^^ 
wore killed out .,t S"". .'."1 «!•'■■ <",f' -"J 
were masters "f the re,l,.ubt bv half-past 

seven A.M. 

llv this time the middle columns were 
close u,..,. the C.uisew.,y heights, threaten- 
iug (hen. wi.h another attack so ...ci.ac...g 
Ii^d irresistible that the rest of the Turks 



begin to w:.-ver. They had seen the over 
throw of thur comra.les; there were .■■ 
sul.lK.rts at ha,id. a.ul without any pretei.e, 
at standing thai they streamed away m f': 
flight across the plan, to the rear even beln: 

the redoubts were stormed. Nothing st,.>. 
them, A Seoteh soldier's wile^ wh" ... 
them as tliev ran. l.el.d...ure.l all she eoui ; 
reach with a broomstick. Still they ran . , 
u,ltll, bv voice and ge^sture. Captain lath..... 
of the ■R..yal N..VV, collecte.1 s...lie .. .; 
fugitives, a.id f..rmed them up behnid I... 
Q.ird. 



The "Thin, Red Line" 

\-ow the Russia.i cay..lry, numbering ,^".>^ 

were appr....chi.ig the Causeway heights. .::. 

uhie squadr....s had already ilebouchcd ... 

the s.mth valley. The roa.l seemed ..pc . > 

Balachiva, s..ve f-r ....e ...bstacle-the fan. -:.s 

■• thi.1 l"l li.ie " "f l.'S""5'- '^'"^ "•" '■'- 
.„irdlIighIaiuUrs,s.,.,..!lrank.staiidu.g...u 

deep Sir Ciilin Campbell, the Brigadier, .... 
with the reginient. There was ..Iso .. b... .- 
U.,u o' ■■•■rks on each Dank wh.. lia.l he, 
(j„.„ re^loubts; but 1....B be(..r, Hi- 

Russians K.,t near, they turned tail ,.i..l 
ran straight f..r the iK.rt, crymg m luiuL^a. 
" Ship! ship! " „ 

Sir Colin sii.l, " Remember, men, .1- ". 
rode ;.lo..g the Une, " re.neinber th.-re .. .'" 
retreat fr..ni lu're, Vou luust die wliep >"ii 
smmJ " The Ilighhinders, cheern.g, t>i '" 
■• \ye ive. Sir Clin, well .U. just tli.t 
While' the Russian cavalry were st.ll ....1 >. 
e(lective ra..ge the ilighlau.lers (.red a ^.>l^., 
and the Russi.ms lialte.l ....d retircb 

Me.u.while the main bo<ly ..f the Ki.-i'' 
c.valrv ha.l pressi-d .... t.i the Caij^r...!;, 
heights, UUSi-en by the lleavv C- i ■:; 
liris...le. whicll lia.l .... " Br..u.i.l se. ... 
out .m its exp..se-d tla.lk; and now ca...e l.i. 
first cav..lrv encimter. This galla... a..- 
suecesst.,1 exploit ..f .Scarletfs Br... I;' . 
Heavy Cuv.ihv h.is ..ever been sullua..". 
appreciated, because' it h..s be.... .•;.!" 
bv the brilliancy of the feat that < '- 
it, anil the f.iu.e of which owe.1 vvKh 
Teuiivs..u's poem. , • , in 

At this time Scarl.-tts b.ig.i.le ■. 
s.inadrons was moving towanls K ,.i.k. ■ 
when he became aware ol ih^ i" - 
;5S 



SL-ction I 

"■'^■ys; on the „„i,.r aiioti,,./ , " 

■u-.is. I.-ar„,.r i„ ,,„ " r,"' .'7"",' 



BALACLAVA-OCT. 25th, 1854 



.Mod, 



Charge of the Heavy Brigade 

c.iu,.„. :::;'■„ t^'^^'-i"^-^.'". first 

s^"''''! c„Iu„„, ais,, ,„„„^., ^ ''"™- "';■ 
, , ^"^"Wl't and sat strrmg i„ i,;, .„,,„ 

tie , "■ "Sainst Mvonl. «lK,t 

k ™ , "' "™™' '"■« ""'""l^ a," 

«ri..K fr , th t ;;;■ """^- !""" """■"' «""'■ 
Hr- u„«i,.U,. ( ''■■" ^'lua.irons ,.f 

^*t:";::!::;;'.;"":,j;;"f""-"~ 

'"^"<ls On ,',-1 , f '*' """""'^s and 

K u I tl„ ,„, ,,„^,„„__ (,^^^ 
'■"I hv tile 1st i.r ki,' ,1 11^, 



it-TIl 

-::-":r:,t;'r^^"-' = 

tl.. ,v i l'''rintl\ attL'nii.tnu' fn ,I-..j . 

confuse ii,i,„ ri, ' '^ *" "'™m''cr and 

quoted' hv etl, r r' "'""^""1 c,.n- 

-"•.;'.„ ;:r'f""':^' «•■•--? 

".orntons"^^''";"^-"-'" '■■-"" all. The 
"' the attaek tl e ; "■■l'-'"a..n« j.r.nnptitnde 

="""•.. in ,c:::,s;:;:^[i™"«o,u^.,e 

aiKl all ,\r„„ ,„ ,., „ '""' ""-' spectators 
-•toneets ,«?'"'"■ ^'^ ^•"'"' "* 

Scatlett, coueh ^ nt, , ";"K'^»'"'ali"n to 
done," '"■"'" "'^' '•""I'lc words, ■■ Well 

Th. Ugh. Bruaues Ins.ruc.ions 

-\<iKn.i.stakis lK,.,m Tl, ,■ . 
■lenlect nl I „nl ,■„, """■ "■'■" '" Hie- 

''-UKhtM^d^rSe'!!''-',^"'""-"-' 

•"-i"..i>diisi,^*""t:'^;^;;'-«"r, 

-vain-, tetreatinR, ,.asse tl o^'..'^^'^:" 



S:5^?^SiSS ?"§51~£BS 



II" order. 



rode 



.As the 



at a|ie!.! 



einicnt h,id rm'i\ed 
■i'lKin of their 



"■^■"f..nn^ n ', "-^ ''"'■ "75 horse- 

•'-tl"seo„n„a„d];Xer ;:;'T'''?""? 
--n r ,V";T'''"''^'''-"-<'u>re- 

' iriliRan to defe,,,! .1 '■^I'oeteJ Lord 

l'"M.ed«,, .'' ;■'""''""'''■ '"™'''-'- 

"■"attaekt'',"'"™'''' "*""■» 

..newi t'"::,^' ■;;'"" "-nhi„„" that 



ca 



withiit reach x.f hj 



S'lnadroiis raced forward 



inipro\.e the 



comniandinK 



.'59 



the ,;i|, I 



M.ljor M, 



anciis, he 



dnty 
irris, 



•K.i;ed hin, 



•VAS LEl-T OK TH, 



EM-LEFT OF i 






^. 




;j*«*^L 



^'^^< 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



to ;itt:ick, ami "ii lu^ TLfubiil, .iskcd th;it 
the Ijtli I.imctTS might il" si. but m v:iin. 
The Russian cavaln-, which hud bmi shat- 
tcml I'v Scaiktt. should have; b«.-n utttrly 
routol b>- CaldiBan. But with narrow- 
miuckd miscouttptiou of his duty, ht rc- 
mamwl supun: aud the enemy was suliered 
to escajie. 

The FatJd Oriler 

Lord Raglan, wh" from the lieiRhts above 
saw the whole i>erforniance. was nmcli 
chagrined bv the inactivity of the Light 
cavalrv, and songht by dispatching repeatcil 
orders to correct it. He lirst ilirected Lord 
Luean to use Cardigan s brigade in recover- 
ing the Causi'way heights, of which the 
Russians bv their retreat %verc losing hold. 
Lord Lncan did notlnng. He thought that 
the operation was one for uifantry, or for 
combined action, the cavalry in support of 
infantry, and till that could be eflected he 
would not move. The uifantry. however, 
had not arrived, anil so for half an hour the 
still intact Liglit cavalry remained nation- 
less, and a great opportunity was lost of 
harassing the retre.iting enemy. 

Tlie next step taken by the Russians in- 
duced Lord Raglan to issue another order. 
It seemed as though the enemy, by bringing 
up horse teams, uitcmled to carry off the 
guns captured in the redoubts abandoned 
by the Turks, so lu- si-nt Captain Nolan to 
Lord Lncan with an onkr in writing. 
" directing the cavalry to advance rapidly 
to the front, and pre\cnt the enenn fiom 
carrving oil the guns." 

Tliesi' gnus were on higher grounil than 
where Lord Luean was sitting when he 
receiveil the order and he could not see 
them, or what the Russians were doing, and 
he did not unilerstand the order. Lord 
Luean did r.ot ride u|i tii the higher ground, 
thinking that Lord Raglan nnant the Russian 
guns in action in the v.dley, and that the 
'■ advance " ordered was to be made against 
those guns. He jtrotested ; such an attack 
woidd be nsiless, and wliile he still hesitated 
to oliey Cipt.dn Nolan, the aide-de-cami), 
chafing at the delay, broke in with the 
wordj, ■■ Loll! Raglan r.rd?r?tliat the cavalry 
should attack immediately," Nettled by 



this, as he thought, implieii impertinent 
rehnke from a junior oiiicer. the Lieuten- 
ant C.eneral hotly retorted. "Attack, sar ! 
Attack wh.it = " Nolan, with a wave of the 
hand. made, accorduig to Lord Luean. in 
the direellon "f the liatter>' at the end of 
tile valley, said : " There, my lord is vonr 
enemy ; there are your guns." 

It is clear from Captain Nolan's subse- 
quent action that lie understood Lord 
Raglan's intentions, for starting from the 
left of the regiment in front line of the at- 
tack— i.e. J7tli Lancers he rode diagonally 
across I/ird Cardigan's front as the peer in 
the centre of the brigade led str.iight down 
the vallev. shouting and waving his sword. 
As he crosseil before the l.ltli Light lira- 
goons, the right-hand regiment, he was 
riding towards the re-doubts whence the 
Russians were trying to remove the gnns 
abandoned by the Turks, and when some 
short distance to Lord Canligan's right front 
a shell spHnter carried away part of his chest, 
though his body remained hi the saddle and 
the sword high in the air. 

The Charge of the Llicht BriEade 

Lord Luean, having miseonstrned his 
orders, and decUning to exetcise his own 
jndginent in correcting them, rode over to 
where Lord Cardigan sat at the head of the 
Light Brigade, and told him to aiKane. 
down the valley, " Certainly.' Lord Cardi- 
gan said ; ■■ but allow ine to point out tli;it 
there is a batteri- in front of us and guii- 
anil rilhinen on either fiank." " I know it, 
replied Lord Luean ; " but Lord Raglan 
will have it, U'e have no choice but t ■ 
obey," Tlien Lord Cardigan, turning round 
gave the order. "The brigade will advance 

Lord Cardigan, wh,dever may have bi :) 
his tactical skill, was undinibtedly briue 
and he at once ])laced liimsell alone well i i 
advance of Ills Stall' and of the first li'a 
ijth Hussars and the J7th Lancers. sii| - 
ported bv the 4th and nth Hnssirs ; an I 
in a third hue, the .^th Hussars, Loi 1 
Cardigan s:it tall and erect in his saddle. . a 
a thoronghbrcd chestnut horse; a couple . t 
horses' i-ngths behind him rode his aide-d - 
camps. M[i\se. and Sit I'.eorge WombwrV 
" Led bv Lord Cardigan " s.i\ s Sir IMn ' 



BALACLAVA-OCT. 25th, 1854 



Soctini, 1 



Hamley, wl,o was an cyc-wit,i«s „f the 
Charge l|,e lines continued to advance at 
a steady trot, and in a niinute .,r two entere.1 
the .„„e ,„ fite, where the air was tilled witit 

the , nun of l,„llets, while amidst the infenml 
Ji" the work of destruction went on, and 
men and horsis were incess.antlv dashed to 
In- Kro,nul." This hre came frotn the gim, 
'"> til- ll.uiks ; presenth-, the hri^ade was 



Modern 

Then all that was left of the Usht Brigade 

emerged from the smote of the battle. 'a'ld 
the survivors canie .Iropph.g hack l,v twos 

and hrees across the plain. c,nered In- the 
4th ehasseurs d'Afnque on the eastern 
1 ank. Two small hodie-s „,dv of the 1 ,ri.. ,de 
show-ed any signs of eoherenee, x^.ut 
seventy men of the i;th l.aneers 
Hussars kept together in f.,rmatio„ 
their wa>- home through tlirev s,,u. 



tith 
I cut 
drons of 




'.^vY CAVALRY CHARGE 

r5.\LACI.A\-A 



FEDIOUKfNE 
HEIGHTS 



;--*'^,ftBdo-ul.t'' 







-•l....'"-" 



^''ElOH-l 




C...HOK or r„E „..v, „.o.o. „ ,„.c.«*. oc«B., »„, ™ 



-reo,,,!,,,,,^, ,,„,,, „mt,e„l,v,he 

'I l.ltc-r,esm front. l,n,, nothing a,nu„e,i, 

liYurv,vors„,ere.,,,,HI,v„,,,Kvsoii,uehas 

II- 1 he !<us,si.„, gunners were cut ,l„w„ as 
"" *"'^^' 'h'"' Small knots of l-ngUsh- 
*.char«„l,„aig|,t at great inasse;?;;'^ 
ou,, s e^ivdrv and forceil then, lo retre.-il 
_■.-■ I „,sa„, in, hi„|,i,a, reversed Ihel, 
"11 1111,1 el„„gi„g a ttussi.in Ca;-alrv regi- 
«™-"Ve,M,„wl, •rhe.,r„gB|evv.,„-,„|!;;. 
■;' ■ "a- ni.iny aiv.l the .still „,„!,,u,,t(,,i (,.„, 
'" nil iiilii liad .almost melted awav-. 



Kn-*m Lancers : .mother partv of about 
the ..one streuglh, of 4th and mh Hus.sars 
«eiel,rought out l,vl.or,li;eorge Paget, aiul 
overcame an nUeuepting force of Russians, 
Hut after the charge no I.ight e.„,,|rv regi- 
ment existed as such ; all ha.l heen sh.ittered 
Out of some 07.1 uieu. 247 were killed or 
"'""rd,d and ahnost .,11 the hor.ses were 
1-i"Y' . f '"s " "^ 'lie result of tw-entv miiuites' 
luirfc, uicliiding the advance, the encounter 
'Old the retreat- 

i.-ad Cardig.oi „i,o had iKeii the first 
'■ I' I'-h l/,<-g„i„ ,li,| „„( ^„ i.oli.rthau 




;■■ .0'> 



Sect ton I 



BALACLAVA-OCT. 25th, 



1854 



M.,dc 



lisiity yards hcvotid tin. v, ^ ■ t_ 

n.ilacl.u.i (kfcncc; ivf Ic.st tile 



'^•■■.\ 




Lnrd Cnri1t£-nn 



m*.^ 

ft » • nolan 









««. .■■ 



■; • .. 



'■^*%^' 




_iiiivr/;. c A u 8 ^•.,_,,'.'». ' ■• 1 ' „ 

* - A'/firf. "J***?^' ■■ '"X.-«iK:.rs 

, '"^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^"^^^^^^^ 

Willi Mw thi: charm- «,,;,| ■■,■■ . 

n-L- Russians earn,,!. .ff,i,.,,c.va,cn„tur.,l °'"«'l"™«' ^estrictol to tracts XI 

"... an, they remain^ in the , "C ^T]"^^^^-^^-^^n^ 
'' l"=,^''u*«-a>- heights. o„ he oT , '"'" "'"' privations of the nL 



•krcTio:\i /.-MODERN 



INKERMAN 



INKl-RMAN has Ik-ct. nKlitU cuiwa the- 

S.Mkt,' lia.tk." It » .s fr.>m "''•""•"' 

fr,.m iK uncx,vvK ' >'\^nmf, at .a.^ 

.lawn. tluouRh all its ,a.,gmg ^l"*;'^';- " 

1,r....Kl.t th.- ..!«.<. tl.to..Rh atta.;k a„.l 

sla,.<l.t a,..l K.c.il-"..- "f •!•- »...■■>•« »-■•'» 
„i ar„.. acc.....,>Hsl,c..l by Hr.,..l. tr-,ov^ 
.„K. „f the chk.f.s-. gl..rks ui cut tag a.td 
lAxi.tfill military ...inals. 



A Strange Spectacle 

Ma„v HtO.sl. bat.ks have t,eo.. wo.. 
aK..i„st «tcal ..dds : hM ......0 have sl...w.. 

„t,r. i...k.il.k-. u..o....,t.vtal.k. lonacty tha.. 

T,.U.t...a... our K..tewvtvt.> the wall, had 

^,,. iH-e.. .kl. i at lukerma,. our ar...> 

nught ha^e Uv.. s^vpt u.t.. the sea. 

The stra>.ge siHVtacle «as s.-e.. of a ha...l- 
,„1 resis,i,.g l.....dre.ls. ..f a weak c.m.,.a..y 

cl...rgi„< .l.r..URh a battaho.. C"h.n... f 
st.l«..rl s..UUers e..gagu.g a cr..«.l of the 
«,e^.^ si.,gle-ha...led. Wheu a.n...u,.. ..... 

r„ sl«t.as.t..fte.. .lidh. the.lea.lhes 

e,..-.Mvs. ,.ur ,..e,. t..re uv great st,...es a..d 
hurk.l the,., at the t„e ; a few R.„...ers, whe.. 
ta-,1 ..resse.l. h.ught ".. «ith ra„....ers a.i.l 

^..uge., eve., with fts.s. Me.. *. eager for 
the c....lliei l..,.l "l.ieers as wdh.ig '" kad 

tl.e.u ; there was .... l.esi...li..... .." wa.t...g 

,,; re-i.,r„.;a.,v broke.. l,...l>g...here.r..u..d 

a„v c..n....a...ler. all were rea.ly t.. .h. a.,y- 
thing but retire. ■ \Vhat sh.,11 I .lo 
aske.l a.l....el i:ger.o... at the head of h.» 
'.,.. ...el. wl.e.. l.itte.l ag..u.st u.ik.L.w.. 
.mn.bers.' ■ I'ire a v..llev a„d charge ' at 
o..ev a..swere,l the brigad.er ; a...l h.sa..k-, e- 
camp. v....ng ILigh Cliff..r.l sprang to the 
fto..t to' be i.. with the hrs. ..i .i.e.... . ;cneru. 
rcn..efather, at the e..<l "1 hve hours hght- 



i„g wh... he had V^st more than half h- 
J:.M (..rev, .l.d ..ot al„.te his c,...l,dence ..... 
i„t 11 l.or.l Raglan now woulil o.dv g.y 
;,i,„ I t.w ....re men. he said, he woull 
finish liv b t.k out of hand and •• Uck the 
el.e.l.^ t- .he devil." 

The B..itle ..f I.ikenuan was brought 
.,l,.,„t bv the restored c....lide..ce which gre... 
a..,l overwhehnu.g rei..f..rcen.ents gave tl.. 
Russian gcerals. Since the successlul la.,.l- 
ing. the victory of the Alma, the un....l.e.K;; 
flank march to the s.mtl. s..le ..f the s...l 
{..complete fortress, the Allicl hnghsh a.... 
French had achieved n., fresh tr.u,.., .- 
The Allies wen- i.. a con.crof the Lri...cvi, .k 
rplainl ..f the i:i.ers....cse., as .t was called - 
gr.,.md tl.at ..o ,...e w..ul.l have selectcl h.i.l 
choice been unfettered. t..r it was rugged. .)•■ 
l,.,spit..l.k. a.,,1 ;.b.,ve aH exi...si-d .... "'- 
fla..k right rim...l. ahnost to the vep r, .. 
llalaclav... the Uritisl. base of supply, ... a 
.l.stancc of seven ...iks fro... tl.e fr.int. li; 
..pen to attack by an e..terpr.-...g e...n.v 
ami almost tlk' wh..le le..g.h ..t r. .1 w.u... 
c..n..ecte,l it with the lit... h e,. ,p. n ' 
f,.llv 11.0 Russi.u.s realise-.l th.s. !."W ...; "- 
,l,ev overb.,re the w.ak resistance oil. K. 
bvthe T..rks at this vuh.er.,ble p.....t, 1, « 
„;,l,lv a h....ilful ..f lltitish cavalry sv.nt 
..s^lf in ehecki..g the Russian a.lva..ce ]...» 
heel, tokl i.. the st.irv ..I H..laclava. ,1.^' 
K,.ssi.u.s, altl...ug\. I..;:ed i.. tl.e.r hrs. ||^ 
ten.pt, wen. encurage.! t.. f.esh e.ale... ■ ,.r, 
n..t "..Iv 1 V their ..V... increasi-d nu.ii'..- 
l,„t bv the km.»le.lgo that their .....''■ 
were growi..g .h.ily ...ore a..d ..lore u.i. ;. ' 
!,, tl..- t..-.k b..f.ire them. 



MenschikolTs Heport 

Prince Mensch.K..lT. who co.nro;..ide.' .l.> 
Russia., forces m an.l ab,.ut Sev,.s. V 
,..„,^^.. t,. <t p,.tersbi,r.; that the ei.m- 
never ve.itur«l out of Ins U.ies. hi^- 



Section I 



"-ore silent, his i„fa„trv , 

c..valr>- ,li,l not exist (i„ .r"'"-*''' l"» 

"'^- eve of the B..atle of I„k ' •*'''■ 

';■"-- was ,1.,„,„. Zt TtCZ- "" 
^'-'■"S the. T„rk,,, availal.lo L , 

I'"*s. including tlie 4,^,. „, ' ''" '""■" 

Ja-nscl,ik„fr uas ^ (^\f ' «'"' f""«'^- 
li>^^ counted ,,„„„ ':'>nl..lcncc. tlj.it 

"i>l...ut e.v,x,si„,, l,in,i • '"' '■"'■^■■" 

■l--ter F „ e , „ ' ", '™"' ■■' "'"""'■"-• 

^i*-...ii<i ,Ti,;:!,;a,^ """>« ™'' ««"- the.r 



INKERMAN-NOV. 5th. 1854 



Modern 



Impending- Disaster 

l»'^- torriUe news i, tU v '■"'""" 

«;"Ts:-r^-----=^i:: 

« "d or'r^'','''"^ ".culinsof ,„';,„. 
pr,,,;;,! ■ '"' """"■'" "-'.^- «-. but l„dlv 

--...csen::^^-;:;,t._':tr: 

, ^"-y Jo," were actn.illv .^„,„,.j 



It must, morwnvr k- l,nm • ■ . 
able iu t:.e c- riv s. ,1 , ""''■■ ■■•'■^-•■ 

>-.rs t„e .,™:'orr,:; .:^';"«"'' '^^ 

2".l Division, jooomen ', ,f "'.""' ""■■ 

■-'-a„e,o.,en.™d;';;L;^':,r™- 

^i-n?,vtrjd:;.™"''':"-'>- ""-city 

-'.-mitarde .::■;; ^'■St"''^;'^"' 

'"« od<is li,at sucli L-rc-,, M '"""'"^^'m- 

-nununications'tii '"'•"""«■'■« tl,ar 

rillit ; l)ntC...n,.r,l,- / I-l'^lish on tlie 
f..rtle ",,"''"''"•■ •■''"■aysanxi.ms 

-^^.. "rt,!,";!,:;?" LSl:^ ''^ 

-;"-. .,e called ,al.,,ou^.^;^'.-' 

'r'l«™™:^^'r';;;r'"^--'c.:;ti:^ 

^•Ji-*.i"S. but™ the fa's,, elf"-' ""f 
"Ugh r.„-i„e ; |,el,i„d Z I m "■"'^' 

"'ann,eo,,\.a, ci::;,,^":rr"r 

«bc 411, and Td li;, ; , '^ niv.sion ; 

■-"'and:',;; ,;■;::•-■'•"■« Scvasto- 

'■«rcme right Hank. .\ FrZ I ™ ""•" 
""■''■^ ""squ.-t. was h,*! ,,;"'' '"T"' 

;;;,-;-: whic, ,„. .tS c l,™"^™ 

lllIlL' I Cinict'ni 'PI, , 'I'l so 

Cdl ,„ i, '""■ "■"'^' "" r«>-T>-CS to 

^""-h-h™ rs-,o?;;;)ry7- '«'''■ 
i:;'t:t';;^-.use.„cre;-i^r:;o;:;;: 



S'l 



Weakness of the ,nd Division 

an™o,:;:;;'':::'i"''r""''"^'"""--h 

b-n a u;^:',^":::" '"-""■> bad lo„g 
commander. .«ir „e !,,„• "..t, 'i "f 
l".s lorce-weakcned. nrorcover h! °'' 

»t".„u,po.ra„dfat,gned:r,„;'-.;™: 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



omlv small. Sir <-.oorKe Br,>«n. wl,o cora- 
man.led the Uuht I'iviston, was tquall) 
"licitous. l.ora Raslau i.aliscl the .langci , 
h ,er<,ne<l home that the .ml D.v,«un ,verc 
„cll ,>.,ste,l. •• b.,t there »ere not i-nouR. 
of them." But hew... ever buoyant. thov«h 
..live to his perils and prepare,! to ,lo all that 
«s ,U-.irto meet them. l."r.l Ra«lan 
„.oul,l have Rla.lly entrenclK-l the posrt.on 
Imt everv availal.le man was then at work 
„n the approaches to the city, auJ cm 
Octol«r 2^th the I.iKht lhv.s.on ha,l not 
enough men to relieve the outlymg pickets. 



IVleinchlkojrs Scheme 

The Rus.sian General had <letccted the 
inherent delects in the british p..smon. He 
„.eant to envelop and crush the exposed 
right flank hv sul».-rior numbers, whlc 
demonstrations that might, if desuahle. be 
develo,KKl into attacks, should occupy 1^« 
Allied forces at other parts of the field. Th.s 
scheme was to be worked out as folh.ws , 

, Two columns, making up a cmibmed 
strength of 35.o«. »'-■■'■ "'<" '34 8™^' ^ 
to constitute the main attack, and were 
drawn from the newly arrived 4th, or l.annen- 
berg's .\rmv Corps. One, commanded by 
General SoimonofI, was to take one flank, the 
left of the Enghsh lx.sltion at Inkerman 
the other, under General Pauloff, the llth 
Division, still outside the fortress and ying 
north of the Tchemaya river, was to attack 
the l-^nglish right, 

„ Soim<moifs force was to issue from 
the Carenage ravine, and to come oi.t on 
the northern s1o,k,s of Mount Inkerman. 
„here he was to join hands with- 

(, Vauloff. marching irvn the Heights of 
Inkerman on the far si.'e of the Tchemaya. 
ws to cross that river and the l,.w, swampy 
ground tliat margined its course by the 
bridge near its month. His orders were to 
ascend the n..rthern slopes of Mount Inker- 
man and push on vigorously till he con- 
nected with SoimonofI. 

Wien thus combined, the whole force, 
under the direction of the army corps com 



as Liprandi's in the valley of the Tchemay,,. 
.,„d had un,ler him a force of 20,000, with 
S« guns, was to occupy B..squets attenti. .. 
so that he should he- unable to remforce til. 
English right. Later, when the main attack 
had suceee.U.I an.l I.annenbergs tro..]- 
were seen well to the s..uth of Wmdrn,!, 
hill <;ortschak.,ff s ,lemonstrati..ns were 1.. 
he converted into a real attack. He w.i^ 
to ascen,! the heiglits. drive back Bosque, 
join hands with ll.mnenl.erg, and t .. 
Russians would then be in ,,.ss>ssion ol tl,> 
greater part of the Vpland, 

, A t:,ird conditional oiwr.aion was n, 
trust.-.l to the troops remaining mgarris..i, 
under the comman<l of Genera M.Jler, 11>; 
was to ■• watch the progress of the battle 
cover the riglit of the attacking tr,.ops «».. 
his artillerv- without attempting to reply m 
the fire of the Allied siege-gmis. If confuM. ., 
sliowe.1 itself in the trenches, he was to att... . 
and seize the siege-batteries. 

There was not sufficient room, howev.r 

upon the Inkerman battle-field f<.r h..ll 

the Russian forces engaged. Moreover. ll..s 

ground was cut in two by ravines, "hah 

divided the two columns and prevented taor 

combined action. General Hannenberg -v 

pears to have realised this difficulty a.u 

wished his two Gener..ls. Soimonoff and 

Pauloff to act in.lependently. the for.iKi 

direcring his efforts against the V,ct,„u 

ridge altogether to the westwanl ol Mount 

Inkerman, and leaving the latter ample 

space to manteuvre. But Soimon.fl .'l>^- 

ing Menschikoff, the G«neral-m-Chief .icW 

cm to the original plan, 

•■ General Gortschakoff's advance was lilt 
to del>eml upon a ccmtingency th.at luvti 
occurred "—the success of SoimonofI s at 
—and while he waited lor it his 22,000 
were not engaged. 



l.,ck 



The Battle-Oround ol Inkerman 

•\ brief descripticm of the battle-grouiKl 
necessary, and details will be best underflc 
bv referring to the plan, 
'The battle was mainly fought on ■ '" 



r;;;;c;:^;;^rDanneu,,erg was ,0 press ^^^^^^i!:^ Z:^'^. j,,..,. 
forward and carry aM efore Inrn^ ^^^-^^cU side of it, the intervals bct.e.. 

„„:, :r;:::tl t:-^m;;:tr.o known them bang ravines. The mam nc,.. ul 

568 



Section I 



INKERMAN NOV. Seh. I8s, 



tl.rust f„nvar,l .,11 >,;! " '''*"»"^' 'Mttl... I.e 



::'i::it-i;^'''-'"i" 

'■"•'« *y si.i. ,.f ,. ;,,'T -'°'' -"'''^ 

■l--<K... an,l l.nvcT „„ ,] ■"■"'--<^"> 
"■>- 'va. a„„.,,„ ,;::;, i;,^"'-" 'l-re. 

'""'">• «,„„i„„",,f;"«|';'"^'rv. Tins 

»-a„.„|„,, 4,\ .^J-"- ""rtl,.,,-.., 

"■•■ «i...i. surfac' :, 'zi:^;' ;'t*«'^- 

«■•■' tlii.klv c,.i ml „.i, , "' ''•"<'^' 



tlirust fonvnnl .11 l,i "'"^' "'"' 



™; """"""S^ •" ">e Russians 

>'im.,ii„ii niarcliul -it - , 
""I '»«t an,l l,o i- ; ,' "■ '" <'arfaK-.s, 

'''''■'■-,to if ,;r«''"^ '"'"«•-" 
'^'» Some n ""'™ ''>■ <"" 

««-s.,^a,';:::l^:;/';-;'-n 

"■"^'"1'- hut to .,ila,' ' ""^ ""'■ ""' for 

'••■■ "i.l ui tlio ,,,,1 ril, • ■ '™l'"rary- 

50Q 



t'ennefather-s Small Force 

''■■"iirf.iil.^.ri,,,,, I , 
and onlv ,00 „„.„ "<"' m™ all toM 

'if had ,|o,v„ ,■„,„ ,. '*'" ''f ■*•"' all 

•"'■'-s,r, ,;;^-'-;".linfro,„ 

«i..l. So,-,„„„„T alvan" '*;""" ■■*'^■^"- 

'"■■ ».t ,hr.v ,0, pit' "■, •"" """ 7 ■* ^l- 
position on the i " """'■" ■«"'"" 'I"' 

"-,ont,,ott"r;i;a-t'a'7'''^'''' 

round, when it „,e, „ „.i,f ".';'," " '""« ™ay 
T'Tdvo.. and a (•„„,''- '•^•ll under 

i:''ward„fs:.;:;-tarYV'"''"''""- 
retreated : ,1,^. sec ,. . " "'""» '' 

fortune on,,,," '';;:''"'>" l'--"'l"..l.et,er 

'""owing u,uhec:i'',n,i ■','"•'"'-'■ 
encountered a «ine , f , -^''"alcorf filen. 

Who at once L^a" ,"1 ' ' ? ■*''"' "'"'" """' 
and charge '• j,;! "''" '" ' ''"-■ a voll.v 
'-"«' «'.l. s, ";""'"-«-k was .le- 
-"ri„l all before i,r."'"'"'"."' "-' it 
™' fairly |,r„|,,„ ,;,, '.„,f"7:'" <^"'nnm 
''•'^■"'i the gun. „„ 'IL,,'-; '"",.„ „,,, 

''^'^''.ur::--r-r''"^>- ' 

-"tre of onr hn"' „"';.. "■''■«"-^' "as .1,. 
g"o,l progress n„^ ,7 ' ,■' '' '""^' ''^ niade 
from ,1,' ilt" '''^■"^«S"l'P"rts-,ho,,e. 

father at „„*'!' ':;:""""■'"•'■ '■^■""- 
, used them against SoimonolT. 



MICROCOPY RCSOIUTION TEST CHART 

■ ANSI and ISO TEST CHART No 2\ 



10 iri^ 1^ 

|_y_ L"^ ™- 

im III U. I L6 



APPLIED IN/MGE Inc 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



He sent on 400 of the 8Sth (Connaught 
Rangers), who. under the whole weight of 
the attaek, were driven liack. and left the 
tliree guns of Townsheiiil's battery m the 
eneniv's han.ls. The 77tli (i™l Mi*"';*'') 
Regiment, under ]-gert..n, acc.ml.amed hy 
Brigailier Huller. eanie uj. and cauglit 
Soimonolfs oi.rsi.le cohinm, and smote it so 
heavily tliat it lied and was no more si-en 
on the liehl The colunm of Russians was 
1 :;oo strong. Kgertoii had no more than 
230, hut lie never faltere<l. and Ins men 
answering like hounds to his cry, charged 
with irresistible dash. There was a struggle 
in which the bayonet made fearful havoc ; 
then the Russians turned. Egertou pursumg 
at the charge to the foot of Shell Hill. Abmit 
this time General .SoimonoU was killed, his 
second in command and nearly all the 
senior officers were shot dowii, and thus 
the Russian supports and reserves were not 
brought forward. I'gertou's action had 
wide-reaching consequences. Through it 
the abandoned three guns were recovered, 
the 88th rallie.1, the 77th themselves or 
their remnant held fast for hours the ground 
it had secured. These combats disposed of 
about half the forces Soimonoff had put 
forward in this attack. The remainder had 
advanced courageously against our centre 
on both sides of the post road ; but they 
also were beaten back, partly by the fire of 
our field-guns, partly by tlie spirited charge 
of a couple of hundred men of the 4<)th 
(1st Berkshire Regiment) under Captain 
Uellairs, 

Thus in less than an hour Soimonoff s 
great effort was repulsed, and his men driven 
down the slope. And this jKirtion of the loth 
Russian Division never regained cohesion as 
a military force. It was no mer^ defeat, but 
an absolute overthrow, in whiih regiments 
melted away and the whole force was 
demoralised. 



forward in extended order with a wide fro 
of fire, and the Russians soon fell aw;r 
those in the battery evaeuat.-d it ; the v„ 
pi.rting columns broke anil dropped b. 
into the v.illey. In this affair 500 men 
posed of 4,000, 



At the Sandbag Battery 

.Meanwhile a portion of P.uilon's division 
had taken the Sandbag 'i.ittery from the 
sergeant's party that held it. Three great 
columns supported this attack, and Peime- 
father sent Ceneral Adams against them 
with the 41st (ist Welsh) Regiment. He went 



End of the First Russian Assault 

.\gaiii. at the Harrier, wliieh the re^t '. 
I'aulofl's men approached with great - 
tenninalion, a small body, the wmg i 
the joth (ist Kast Lancashire) Regim-.!.- 
under Colonel Mauleverer, achieved an e.] ! 
triumph-that of 200 over 2,000, Her, n 
was that the British deterimnation wna 
the bavonet told, for the men's lirelo.'K> 
were soaking wet and the caps would not 
explode, so Mauleverer trusted to the eul.l 
steel. Officers leapt down among tlie 
Russians : men followed at the charge ; the 
head of the leading column was struck wuli 
such force that it turned in hasty retre.il, 
causing hopeless confusion in the coluiims 
blhhid, and all fled, a broken throng .1 
fugitives— hundreds chased by seven or ei-lil 

score. 

This ended, at 7.J0 A.M.. the first Russlui 
onslaught ; 6,000 men were kist to Taulort. 
At least l.i.ooo out of 2,5,000 were " exter- 
minated." as the Russians state in tlieir 
official accounts, and this by the dogited 
val.iur of 3..'ioo Englishmen. But iim»w 
fresh Russians were now at hand. It wcis a 
good omen for the issue of the day's fightini;, 
but a further stress was to be imposed u|«iii 
our over-match«l troops. Supports, sucli 
as they were, had now begun to arrive. The 
alarm' spread across the Tpland ; in ev.rv 
camp the men rushed to arms, fastiiis 
but eager to hurry into the fight, Snme 
of the Eight Division, as we have seen, ha„ 
been already engaged. General Codrln^it.ii 
with the rest was in position, holdnig ta 
Victoria ridge with scanty forces. I Ik 
Guards Brigade, 1,200 men, under the Pitc 
of Cambridge, was approaching, 700 ah, .ih 
close to the Home ridge ; the 4th Divim,»i 
un.ler Sir George Catlicart. 2,000 strong, ":|- 
als.i near at hand. These, with the lieU 
batteries, raised the reinforcements t,, 1 
total of 4,700 men. Two Trench batt,.li,«i- 
had been dispatched to support PeiinefaihLt, 



570 




*!.(( 



INKERMAN; THE 55IH (2ND BORDER) REGIMENT CHARGING THE RUSSIANS 

From a picluf* by Slanley L. Wood 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



alllinimli from sciiiv misuii.l^.Tstamlmg 
tlKV wuro uiit utilised, ami liusnuot, who 
bail cniiie up with them, returned to the 
E '.sti.ru heights. « iKre lit was still menaced 
liv Gortschakuff, It was uot until much 
later iu the day that (Jeneral Busiiutt rcihsiil 
that the Russians in trout of him were only 
deraoustraling. and tlien he hurrieil with 
substantial forces to Mount Inkermau. 

The Ebb and Flow ol Battle 

General Uauueuherg now assumed the 



chief command, and organised a fresh at 
tack, covered by artillery on Shell hill, 
which, at ordinary intervals, covered 1,700 
yards. He h.a at his disposal 10,000 fresh 
tr„i,ps — Soimonoff's reserves, and some of 
Pauloffi, regiments which had come up by 
a lower road. The latter were sent against 
the English centre and right, their first task 
being the recapture of the Saiidbag battery. 
General Adams was still there with 700 men 
of the 41st (ist Welsh) Regiment, and he 
made a firm stand ; 4.000 men attacked him 
again and again, with far more courage and 
persistence than any Russian troops had yet 
shown ; and at last, still fighting inch by 
inch, Adams fell back, leaving the battery 
in the enemy's han.ls. Now the Guards 
came up under the Duke of Cambridge, and, 
replacing .\dams, went forward with a rush 
and recovered it, only to find there was 
better ground belnud it. It was presently 
vacated by one lot, re-entered by the 
Russians, recaptured by another lot, and 
then again the Russians, imagining it to 
lie an essential feature in our defence, con- 
centrated their forc-s to again attack it. 
Once more they took it, <mce more the 
Guards returned, and, under the same mis- 
taken idea, with irresistible enercy drove 
them out. Thus the tide of battle ebl>ed 
and flowed around this .somewhat useless 
work, and to neither side did its pos.session 
mean materi;d loss or gtun. 

The 4th Ui\i.siiin, tmder Sir George Cath- 
cart, now arrived upon the ground with 
2,000 men, and of these four-liftlis were 
speedily distributed in fragments to stilTen 
and supix)rt I'enuefather's lighting line just 
where he thought they were most requirctl. 
Two b, ttalions of liosipict's division which 



.',tli 



had come up were begged by the Duke 
Cambridge and General Penuefather to 
our pressed men ; but they decline.! 
a<lvauce in the absence of their Mip. ' 
oliicers. Tliere was a gap iu our line Leti- . 
Pennefather's right and the Guards struei;! 
around the .Sanilbag battery, and ti> thi> . 
Cathcart was directed by Lord Ragl.ni, v 
was near at hand ; but Cathcart tlion 
that there was an opening for a deei- 
flank attack. He meant to strike at 
left of the Russians, and leaving his vant 
ground alKive. he descended the steep si. 
with 400 men. The offensive moveu) 
was taken up by the troops nearest liii 
Guards, 20th (Lancashire Eusiliers), ' 
(iud Sherwood Foresters). All our im 
who had gathered about the Sandl ; 
battery rushed headlong like a torrent il v. 
the liill-side, following up this imagin.ir 
advantage. The gap which Cathcart h . 
been ordered to occupy became filled b\ 
heavy column of Russians, who took ■.! 
people in reverse and cut them coniplel. 
off. "I fear we are iu a mess," said C.it 
cart, taking in the situation ; and ahii' 
directly afterwards he, was shot tlirougli ti 
heart. Only by a desjierate elfort. a sO' 
of persi>nal hand to hand combats fmi, 
by small units cimrageimsly led by jui.i 
otficers, even by non-combatant doctors .1 
our men regain touch witli their <nvn ,10 >; 
Tlioy were ' 'ed, too, by the ojipoit : 
advance o. lench regiment, wliieli t. 

the interposuig Russians in flank and ili 
them off. But if this unfortunate advemi 
of Cathcart's escaped the most disastr 
consequences, its effect. ne\-ertlieless, w.- 
still furtlier disseminate our alreaily weaki 
and e-\hausted forces. 



Repulse of the Russians 

All this time Ilannenberg h.ad ' 
pres.sing his onslaught u|ion (uir e. ■ 
Here his attacking colunni met llrsl M 
verer, with his victorious men of the 
(Ist East Lancashire), and forced tlieni si 
and reluctantly back, but presently 
itself repulsed by a f resll detachment < 'i 
Rifle Brigade .mil driven down hito a qii 
Thence it again emerged, rehiforce.l. 
moved against the Home ridge. It « 



Bmmim 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SKA 



these advances that tliey penetrated the sap 
just mentioned anil pit upon the rear uf 
Ceneral Calhcatt anil the (liiards. Hut the 
Russian columns iin the simlh side nf the 
ridRe were charged liy a purtii.n of tlie 
4tli Divisiim— the 2ist (Royal Scots I*usilici», 
and fiitil (ist Maiicllesterl Reniraents— owr- 
tlirown and pursued ; wliile the Russian 
attack on the rii;ht of the Home riilRe Mas 
met liv Ceneral I'.oldie with the 2i.tli (Lanca- 
shire inisiliersl and 57th (Ist Miildlesex), also 
of the 4th Ilivisiiin. Ii"th these reijiments 
were notable fighters, with very slorious 
traditions : the " Minilen yell " "f the 20th 
had stricken fear into its enemies for more 
tlian a centurv, and the 57th " Die Hards " 
had gained that imperishable title of honour 
:.t Albuera, " Fifty-seventh, remember Al- 
buera ! " was a battle-cry that sent them 
heaalong into the Russian ranks, and these 
two gallant regiments pushed their foes 
down into a quarry. 



Dannenberg's Rtsolution 

Once more the strenuous efforts of the 
enemv had failed, with wliat a cost of heroic 
lives history still tells. Kannenberg. how- 
ever, did not yet despair. He knew that the 
Allies were hard pressed ; if he himself had 
suffered, so had they, and more severely. 
He had 10.000 men in liand. and his reserves 
—9,000 more— were still intac-. and a hun- 
dred guns were in action on Shell hill. Of 
the English forces, never more than ,5.000 
strong, half had been destroyed. However, 
the French had come upon the grimnd with 
two battalions. I.boo men. though they still 
awaited orders ; but Hosquet. with the main 
part of his command, was yet a long way 
behind. Dannenberg resolved to make An- 
other attack upon the centre of the Knglish 
position. 

The Russians came on. formeii. as liefure, 
in a dense column of 6.000 atsulants. The 
main trunk, flanked by others, coming up 
out of the Quarry ravine. I'ennefather liad 
some ,soo or (no to hold the ridge, remnanl: 
of the 55th (2nd Ilorder Regiment), oith 
(2nd Sher%vood Foresters), and 77th (2nd 
Middlesex) Regiments, and i French battalion 
of the yth Leger. with a small detachment 
of Zouaves. These were inadequate forces. 



and the Russians, pusliing home with nv '•■ 
heart than they had hillierto shown, crow.; 
the crest and i>rokc over the inner slopes . ; 
tlie ridge. The 7th l.iger recoiled, but «. ' 
rallied bv the Zouaves, and the men of t 
77th (2nd Middlesex) still led by the mtr. ■ 
F;gertiin. By tliis time the main cluniii 
the enemy had swept over the Harrier al. . 
the Quarry, ami the small force of defend. ;■ 
retireil slowly behind the Home ridge. 

The position was critical. Hut the aiUaii 
of the Russians, although in overwhehm. .; 
strength, was cheekeil by another d.ir;:., 
charge of the 5.5th (and .lorder) ReginK:;- 
(delivered by 30, no more), under Colii,'. 
Daubenuv. who la . headlong into the ceiiti. 
of one of the rearmost Russian battali"i> 
This small body of heroes broke throi;^.. 
the mass by sheer audacity, as if it \mii 
a football Scrooge, using their bayoial' 
and the butt-ends of rifles, and even tlnn 
Bsts, fighting desperately till they " elilt 
a path through the battalion from 11 ink 
to flank, and came out at last in v\;r. 
air on the east of the great main column 
The noise of tumult in the rear and tlk 
vague sense of defeat shook the leadin; 
assailants, and the Russians first hahu, 
irresolutelv, then turned, and retired. At 
this time, too, one of the flanking columns 
moN-ing up on the Russian right, enonni- 
teted the 2lst (Scots Fusiliers) and i.;iJ 
(1st Manchester) Regiments, and « 1* 
promptly charged and driven back by tln^ 
regiments, which repossessed themselv.- .t 
the Barrier and held it. Then the Ru-i.in 
left column, shattered by our artillery .mJ 
the French 7th I.eger, also retired. 



At the Barrier 

It was nov.- Q A.M.. and as yet the b. 
althiragh gouig against the Russians, 
still neither lost nor won. They still 
Shell hill, and had intact resi-rvcs. 
Raglan, on the other hand, could not 
upon a single man. and Bosquet's 
force was still a long way off. Now. 1 
French batt.alion got into sinne ilWi 
Ulwn our right near the Sandbag battcr^ 
fell back. Moreover, tlie Russians m 
fresh effort against the Barrier, comii 
once again out of tlie Quarr>'. Th.- 1' 



li.iw 
inLiin 
10, a 
ailtv 
and 
.<le a 
■■4 up 



Ik-M 1,j- ,|„ 



INKt:KMA.\--,\ 



f)V. Sth, 1854 



M-,k.,l r„l," "'''"■'■ "1"' fed i„ ,, ,. I , ■• ' '" "■""^•' ^'i'tHrv „,|,„„. 



4*!: J'nisK.n, u-.|^ kiili 



'"" '"'^■"- "kt altaili,, ,1,,.^. 




o,..l "^ suns Here ijlaw.? i,. 

575 



-■■^rli^t on the fill,] "^W"'^'"**. tl,. 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



till- Fmicli M.lme wiTi; in this Imppy sitiia- 
ti.m Tho Knulish vvtTf all l.ut exliausna. 
I,„r<l Raiilan. as has l.w.i sai.l, ha.l .i..t a 
s,,arc luan. A. t.ir the Russians. f...rtscl.a- 
k..ff's supiiiL-ncss had r..l,hL-.l his cdiiira.li's 
„t thf 'ssistanc- ..f 2....>c», im-n. and the 
Ciiieral-iu-Chief, Menscllilioli, altliourfl close 
at hand on the held, .lid not see lit t,> l.rnis 
up reinforcements from the Rarnson of the 
tcmu. Hut now Marslial Caurohert, uever 
aTi entcrprisins; leader, was moved to des.st 
fn.m the llKht. When he learnt that the 
I.;nKlish were all l.ut exhauste.1. he would 
do'n..thini; more, altlunisli he liail a very 
iTL.e force of all arms now in hand. No 
arguments, no appeals ,.f I.or.l Raglans 
would move him. "\Miat can I-wliat 
can 1 do ? " he asked querulously ; " the 
Russ.ans are everywlrere." 

Withdrawal of the Russians 

It was left to Colonel Haines's 2lst Regi- 
ment wh.. still lield the Harrier, to advance 
on Shell hill. Lord West se'Conded lum m 
this hold endeaNour ; a >omiH lieutenant of 
the 7,-tli l-;nd .Mi.ldlesex). AcUm by name 
al.o well! on with a mere liaiidlul. and 
Colonel Ilorstord came on in suplxir* watli 
the reimiant of tlie Rille Brigade. All tins 



time, P«'. Lord Raglan's oightecr pianid 
were ilealinK death ami (lestructiim ane 
the Russian liatteries. and at last Dana, 
herg. under severe loss from this " murder^ 
lire " -tlicv are his own words— decide 1 
retire his wliole force, and about I P M ' 
Russians withdrew all tlieir troops. 

The Losses in the Battle 

•file Allies were greatly outnumbered 

the Russians, whose losses were four ti.;. 

as great as tliose of the victors. They h 

I2 000 killed and wounded, a large pr..;- 

tiou of them left dead upon the field, am : 

Iheru 25(1 officers. Tlic English lost = 

killed, w officers, and 3 general othe. • 

I 7(10 men and <)t officers wounded. T 

French lost Ij officers and 130 men ku: 

and Jii officers and 7.10 men w.mnded. T!.. 

llgures show plahdy on whom the brum 

the lighting fell, and tlie enormous los«,~ 

the Russians was mainly <liie to tlie 1. :i-i 

of their c. ilunms of attack and tlic supers 1 

of our musketry and artillery lire. 1 

Knglish infantry at Inkerraan were ar; 

witli the new Minie rille. and the po«.^ 

aid tliat was afforded liy the two eigUlu 

IKHinder guns has been already sliowu 

the course of the narrative 



S-i 



SrCTION I. Mnnc^M 



■'>-» ^ 




" "*^ "'■ Siii.pson 



SEVASTOPOL 



trac,.,! sK^Ko so ,,r„di<;.l of c-fcrt ,o 

1 ""'' " ^■'■-■"•"' I'.v all liritons with „ri,I,. 
c,™i, regret. Tl. prl.lo i. ,„ ,„. ,i 

..nnice of our troops; the repn>.cI,i„tI,o 
'^;^' S.ine,l „„ s„ch .snecesses in the sie^e 

c„ r ;. :1 7 '" .•^■'' *W''' i"'l™nital.le 
"'■V .„ facng the aecumulate,! horror, 
a>f .-vcr-menioral.le winter , f •= , The 
.mv^-vith whieh the .„.Hers h.^^,;^ 

'«P.tc,hem„steru Ihar.lships. 
H..d or month, and ,„„„ths thn^h 
"■""""• stan-ation. ^-ant tvI „,.^ 
^-.n^anduni^r^a,:!;::!:^-^-- 

»"Y'.;™«am to stand thus ,lr„,c„nti„ua;i; 



?77 



'f . ... great record „, forget the ncgleet nd 
™-.™^e,,,ent that se,,t the ,Wr,f;' 

"?::.^r,:;:;;-;; ;;:■:-"■"■• •'-- 
^£^^-?^:^s-;rs:^^tr 

. .Icx-d, the sahent features „f the iir.t hS 

:::;d:S:::;"--^---^i.c":: 

.re r e,tro,, «... com„u,„„.a,i,„, w.th the l.ase 
«as stopped, on the open sea the s.„™ 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 




THE LOSS OF -THK PRINC: ' IN THE BLACK SEA 
Alter a ru.oliriipl. by D.tkinsori 



ivorkfd liaviK •iiij; tin- crowds of sliipp :•-• 
on 11 k-e sliorc : .uimbL-rs of tmnsports with 
precious curj;ocs wrc wrecked, and went 
down with all on boat 1. One of these. Tin: 
I'rimc. a la'j^e steamer, u.'s laden with every- 
thing that was nlo.st wanted— warlike stores, 
warm clothiiR. guernseys, greatcoats, long- 
l)oots. medicines, surgical in.itruments. The 
chii ' annnunition slii]} was also lost ; so 
was another catrjing hay sifficient to last 
for twenty days. 

Then, indeed, the troubles coimnenced. 
The winds and the rain which fell in torrents 
converted the soft soil into a quagmire, and 
the loss of the Woronzoff road, by the resu't 
of the Battle of Balaclava, left us only a track 
to the base, and it soon became 'i.-arly im- 
passable for m'-n or beasts ; as th ;er were 
far too few and only imi)erfecti> fed, the 
soldiers had mostly to do their ow-n carrying 



skin, they were obliged to si)end their \\i:i- 
earned rest-day in drawing rations iww. 
Balaclava, seven miles distant, and, in t!k 
absence of fuel, to eat them raw unk— tin; 
could dig up some chance roots aruuu'l tiic 
camp ground. They had never a warm drink 
the coffee was issued in the green bena a::! 
to nnist it was nearly imiK)Ssible. Tlicir 
clothing— in which they had landed m.mt!;! 
bc-fore— was in rags : iuck> was lliv an:; 
who could find straw or hay -bands i > sw,it;i. 
his naked legs : many were bareli»t "t 
fearing th: if they drew off their wot h-'f 
tliey might not get thei i on :igaiii. «»:■. 
them so' continuously th-t circul.iti.nl n-t 
impelled ; frostbites superveneil, fnllom-: 
too often by gangrene or ine\itable aiuimti- 
tion. With their rags, their dirt, tii 
kempt hair, they lost all tlie ou'':r e: 
of soldiers ; only *he spirit, puie 



■ir u::- 
l)laiic'. 



( iff.ct:- 



After nearlv incessant trench (lutv live nights quencbable. burnt bnghtly withm. 
out of si.M. constantly exposed t" the enemy's ^ve^e nearly as dirtv. / General Or.l r int.,- 
shot knee-deep in water, and soaked to the depths of the winter c. rected them to «eJl | 

578 



'cction I 



SEVASTOPOL -OCT. ,8S4-SEPT. ,855 



:«.sa„. . sl«.,„ki„ cat with an em„r„ 
^'l»t of marmalade." of tl,i< ,,"'""■"" 
St, rving anil niarlv mL-,.,l r *- "'"-■ 

^.ina..„,„,ri::;,;cf---^ 

liy suTOpini; vjltur,., ,, ii. , . "• '"™"'tw 
."•r unks „t an.^Miisl,, u„k,„1c,1 „, ,l, 

•"""■"• «™'""^' "- -k .h.t ;,;m':; 



Uiia. nvti. I,.|r,.l,. ,, ' "' J-''Hiarv 

' '"^ nt liearini' ariiw \» .1 ■ .■ 
"vn tl,e I-Vcncl, „itl ■ """' 

s"I..ri„r f„rc; J „,,",' '■"; "■'"U-ns..lv 

^-'-.enln-.lar , ^ .'T" '"■'" 

"-■-; win,- "e .'■■"'"'" "■"^' 

"i.id, ,1,0 „,,„,,. „( ,,„",; ■-'••»»■'».» „„ 

.i-irs,o,ow„rts„4tf:" ';.'^""';"'« 

J-— .1.. I. .„.,,;:. [V:^^?' -;;';■:: 

'■"aZr „;!";::„;;;;;' "'-■■"■i..,. 
""""^" ••" •'"- .i...e „f „e.p ;;^,, i:i 




SENIIKEI. Ot 



™f. 20U,7,:s BHroRE SEVASrOPOL 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



FevruT," upm wli.,ra the L/.ir s. 

,cli«l little thiukins tlu.t me ol tl . 

'*„t,„ would btinK l,i.u ms own <l..th- 

blow. 



A HiRh Encomium ol -ne Army 

{)t KTS l)OSUlt-'^ til*- i I""^ ' 

:jrrc,iuirXatcue..t^ 

England to invctigate the ">■*■»',, 
Crinuin collapse declared ,t «as d, ml tful 
^, „.r the whole ranse of mihtary lu.tor> 
bad fumUhed theexample of an a"ny exh b - 
fl snch high qualifcs throughout a long 
el aign. 'The arm>- neve, descended f^.,m 

its actaowledged pre-ennncnce. . . 13 tn 
„>eu and ollicers were so reduced that tl> 
"ere hardlv lit for the lighter dntres o le 
Tamp, vet they scorned to be excused the 



t„ the b.W"ni..g an.l sec why it was umkr 
t ken a-1 »l-at the enterpr.se meant U 
.1 . Vhi.s Tl -s great fortress. >si ix'i 
the Anics. 11 K ifiiuwn V. 

,tre.-. -th was b..t impc eth !">«"'. 
!len; the most im,«..iant an. yet t.. 
deemul llie ,l„mnuo' ■ 

most vulnerable spit ol Il'e ^ 
Us vast harbour was a secure ha ... 

' werf,.l Russian ""' -,""7\,":f' „ ,! 
;„,. it was a dockyard a.,d ar^..alli 
wh great guns a,.a valuable war nvd.n 

rlv^f a.g.-i ti-' «- -i";-: '":.:: 

...idable place of -"■«"■""'''„,■,■,;„, 
.,l„w and wouLl 1"" "''''>,;■"',. '^j,,, , 
Sevasto,».l beca,..e. then, - i:^' '- 
,,,,i,e,ive;' the great a.n.a..dobt^^ 
:„, ■• ■!•'■ ■ was in> pro^-p^ct 

campaign. •■ •■ ,,j„te the lui4 

.iife and honimi.'. 'e l«-acc. 

M War M..iister at that time, ■■imtil".^ 

';:;;,,'; is red.,ce.l a..d the l<nss.a.. .1..1 

't::tth:::;::s:n'.asen.er.in,ni..g.nb 

dilhculty of the t.isic. 

the Russian Crinieananuywn . n 

i„„un.ber,to^o.U.em^^d,at^^^^^ 
the invas.on a battle o. v 
open ca.,.paign ; that the fortress would >1, 
to an assault without a protracted srege. .^ 
earliest operatio.is were s.. completely sncce„- 
f,d that this hoi,e was fairly inst.Ued. UK 
AUied armies landed without opjHis.t.on t.ie 
Heights ..f the .\lma were won trmmpha.itli 
the toad lav ..pen as it seemed, and .Se._.-- 
t.,p„l was apparently an '="*>■ I";>-, ^^ 
Fre..ch and B.glish. advancng after t. ., - 
victors- were actuany withm s.ght ..f t.i 
':X.^ fortifications, and "rod.^en. ^; 
fan...us Russian engineer, who was after" ■■ * 
the life a..d s.,ul ..f the .letence ah a 
asserted that we .night have captured it m 
ease. The northern forts «ere,_ how-e,a. 



^::;:^y scomed to be ^c^ t.« ^^ gr ;:.:=;i.;. in—rable guns . 
severe an.l periWs -v-rk of he tr k ns Ust «. ^ .g^_^ ^^^ ^^^^^.^^ , 



Thev should throw extra duty u,k... t... 
comrades. They maintained every f.,ot of 
ground against all the etT..rts of the enemy 
S with numbers s., sntall that perhaps no 
other troops would have ...ade the attcipt^ 
There is n., exaggeration m tins language . 
all the high encomiums passed were nchl> 

'T:^,. to better understand what the ^'--,ri--;u;;iSe:So..n ^^i.^. 
siege of Sevastopol really was. let ns go back ^ jvas. it 



^riS;;;':;^ ;;;;m number to their po-.i.i. 

assailants, and the Russ.an fleet . 
wmiin the harb,mr would have lent powerful 

aid to the defence. 

The Plan o« Attack 

But the Allied generals made up ««• 
minds to operate against the s.,uth. n t^tl^ 
north sule. Here, agai... an >mine...iau ...- 



Section I 



"■nrea,kv„u,r„us spirits, „.;„,,„,, „ , 
-"e str„ngly i„ ,^,„„^ „ it Tho .'r V 
tnRlncer ,,/Kcct Sir r„l,n i, '"'""' 

rarricl tl,c ,1a,- ir, '■'""' '■^PCTK'ncf, 

'" any .-.ss.,,!!' „i„„ '.."-" '","''^^'>- "W-^'J 

«ill incmplot,!^ ^.r'fLn ""-"■ "'"■■" 
its *,utl, si,i. s.. : , f«.™'"P"l on 

It <vas i-ncirclcl wi,l , ""P'^WiaMe. 

-•■« a.t,:;:i;:;':;;,rrrr;r:r'^ 

^.'"x. ^■a^;Is " ""-■ """ "ave cros«d 
encmvs fi Tir f"""" '"•"' '"• "- 

devoted CO ragTtiin^'a" '"" "™ 'll'^ "™' 
™un,l-s,K,t. ill m' ""' ="8=""^' ^hdl and 
ssault was fi ™( , "" unprtparcd 

m^'l, ,","■' "'"■"''''Md. and the 

up their siege-trains ami •^^"'■''""S'" 



SEVASTOPOL-OCT. 18S4-SEPT. 



1855 



MhU- 



yuaranlinc forts ■ farti,,., ,-„ 
^■'■'-v-retlK.Artiler "'■ ™'\'-.'''""' 
a".l I'anl the hi,,? , '■"'"-^'*''a» 

-.-..f-wartr^Tw^'; •'-/"- -r 

'" 'l'^- main harl„nal ','*•''" ^"'«''' 
nfy "f .Si-vast,,,.,! f . '*f''"a""R the 

snhurhs. o„'t' "",'" '^"al.elnaia 

att'l there r ..Z" ""*;,"' ™«l'»-'^. 
at.hewaterVe,«rol'' "•■"•'■""'''^ 

wasasv,tli,,|,. ',", ' ''«"W'I. there 

manvw„rLZ,„T, r "' ','"' """'"^- "' "■" 
-s-mJ were prtlv '"'"'"'V™""^' ■'"'■""Sh 
circle „f he c . ;■"""•"'■ ■""' "X' »h,Je 
'V';h.„4:,i:;;^,--P'-^1V enclosed 

Jhese, heginni.iK with th,. ,, 
bast.„„ near ,h, se-a fr, , " 'farantine 

••'d.Ied .;,r,ien hatt".B ',"",'""'"■'"=- 
ravine wi.ich here ra ' I ■ "" «"="' 

the inner hlr Z T , ' ""•' ™'''<1 '" 

Planned totS\rLt:hf-''^''!*'" 
-vi^- the Redan, th Mahfc f,™' '"'■""' 
•■ttleRedan. andBasi„n:^^;,"•«'- 
closlng the defences at the ed^e' l',l '" 
harbour. "'5'- "' the mam 



The Russian Defences 

S,)rae Imef account mi,=t l„ • 
»' the Russian defacer rr *'■'". "°" 
permanent fort, .„„l „ , ^ ""eluded 

'*"i. and earttn ntf"'" """'' '""P- 
»"them side I w 11 ! ,? ""'•'^''"8 'he 
'°""«in.det:i,s„; ',;;;"'" -"P"^ the 
«»"•! the ground an. , hetnifc':^ '" "","."■ 

-iLrr ''"," ™ '■°'" -•-• "" th 

»'«asharLIl!^^:;-;^'".e™u.h 
P'-..a. stone forts: CoXX'^utt 



M.nsch.k.„., Return ,ro™ .He A.™. 

-^rar's:t^-"f"-wS 
-n.n.u.,ttirs'riaT„!::^'''T'"^ 

--the front of /h-etLrrt^^ 



in 




THE ASSAULT OF SEVASTOPOL. 1855 
■.■,.m . Pic.r. b. ». C...n W.o^.iU.. " '■ 



SEVASTOPOL-OCT. 18.S4-SEPT. I8S5 

e soolk'd " fl,„i. . „ -_ 



Section I 

The Qarrison of Sevastopol 

Sevastop,,! «-as ,!,„, left with a garris,,,, 
01 joooo moil, iiiaile „„ „,„.,i t *••""»>" 
and sailors fn,i„ , e ,oe " , ^ "' '""'•"■' 

^7 S™» ••"ready ii.ou„,ed ^ „ ,i 
■v-rks, and countless store, of , ',n „. 

^.k-a fact patent to all Kimland now. fol 
mm, towns have a Russian " trool v " 

SU" paraded in public «ar.,ei,s or in fr, -of 
■<- town hall. InerfiaustiUe supplie 
ammunifon. powder, and proje,; ,„ ,e " 
-.red s.,l,,i,gastheplace„Ln, CO, 
^v^pr^S- "■'^" ''"-'"--^ "-' 

e-sinecr. ColoLl Todlef^^^^e^rr' 

-.;;^,^>;.-;so™-::ndr in'r;^™™? 

on,'"-' '"""-■" ""^-'"S-Ce and 
. ' ' ''■""">■'« I'lKTgy, he j„i,,e,| ..j, t.|,j^f 

-....^nust before Sevasto,.,l was tl^;" 

ifo L''™;^rr''"''''"''™«•''- 
'"■"-ly day an.l night „;: t eZ^ ;;": 

lilies , iT' """ "'""' • '1"^ 'l>--f™ce 

itr ; ^'■'■'" '"""^ f-'m^l^'We i within a 

' ' "" ,"";'. ■'■'B^'^'f ''.-.'tions were heish ! 
*. and liiclce„«,. a new battery was pic, 

-t...l,*ej tu command the great rav-ine 



Modern 
and the waters of the harbour. .Sevisto i^l 

-iM&irtii:::^,:^,^^::::!:-'"*" 

The Siege Works 



file Allit'S wvre nmli-iM,. 

;-.nganimn.,!;:r::i.cr.ut\r 

October oth he " "" "»^""*- '>" 

parallel, r ,r , f '"■*=■'" "'"' ««' 
•irallcls. or trenches of aiiproach It l,.„l 

--.arranged that the KriL,,i„;„,'\;^^ 

t.t kft front of att,iek ; and. as their base 
•f »..pi.ly, the bay of Kamiescl, v^ eh!^ 
f ""' •"-■ M^ "i their position v ., 

«.mce,l no dirticulty i„ feeding the r ar^^: 
;;' «.d...g up stores. In takiiigtl, e 

tt^m" ,'""'■■'■'•.• '^^"'-' •'•l.^' "iamoiid, 
sh'p VI ",'""" '■'''" "•"'■^'■" '•^■^•l- 
wh le that known as the \ictoria or Lan 
•aster battery was as much as .,o„o\ard" 

atitr ™'"' ■''I.'-' "hole front 

lo,,! 1 f "■■-■ ""■■'"*'^>^^' i..cludingi;„r. 
'l™ s an,l Chapman's batteries. 

A lruitf,ils,urce of trouble, not vet apinr 
-t „ the Hritish force before .Sevls;;^, 

-ted, us his .•right "attack and the small 
ttel-'rlet '';"■"• "' •"" '"'*■ ««''"'" 
we the left , hut out of courtesy, and acki.ow- 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 






-'^TjfeiA-'' 



■ JbrMl. . 





■"^E'^LL'oK'sEVA^TOPOrANDTHE SETREAT OK THE RUSSIANS. SEPTEMBER .,.,. . 
AEur a drawiHK by W I i..n, Simpson, skelched at tlie lime 



IcilBiuR tliiit we hail the first claim to Bala- 
clava as its first occupiers, General CaiUdhcrt 
accepted the change of imsition. With the 
honour of holiling the right we gained the 
distinct disailvantage of greatly drawn-out 
communications. It was seven miles from 
the siege works to Balaclava, and with no 
metalled road but the \Voron/,otI. which fell 
into the enemy's hands October 25th. Then 
to the loss of a good highway was super- 
added the inconvenience and danger of a 
flank constantly threatened in its " line 
of communication," that by which wo drew 
up our rations, sent back our sick, and held 
on to the sea. This entailed very serious 
consequences later. 

All, however, promised well on the morn- 
ing of October 17th, when the Allied bat- 
teries, admirably senx-d, began their first 
bombardment. By this time izb siege-guns 
were in position, 72 of ours. 5J of the Krench, 
and ample stores of ammunition were at 
band in the trench magazines. To these 
126 the Russians directly opposed 118 guns, 
but liu more were ready l" o[)en upon the 



columns that might pre- 
sently be expected to 
move out for the assault. 
The bombardment, which 
the Russians aptly termed 
a"/i'»t/'(:'tA7," andwhich 
at that date was un- 
paralleled in modem war- 
fare, began at O.30 .\.M. 
and lasted without in- 
termission for four hours. 
Very \isible impression 
was made ; the Malakoff 
Tower was ruined, other 
works were seriously 
damaged, and all pro- 
mised well. Then came 
the first of a series of 
misfortunes that signal- 
ised this memorable 
siege. An explosion oc- 
curred in the French 
hues ; a shell had blown 
up the principal maga- 
zine, creating havoc and 



584 



Section I 



SEVASTOPOL-OCT. 18S4-SEPT. 1855 



Alodei 







silencing the French fire. 
Tlius at the critical mo- 
ment for tleliverinK a 
general attack the French 
were put out of action. 
With us it was just the 
reverse ; our fire had 
gradually silenced that of 
the Russians, and earlv 
in the afternoon we had 
hlown up the magazine 
of the Redan, o])ening 
therein a yawning breach 
inviting immediate 
assault. The defence, as 
Todleben hears witness, 
was parahsed on this 
.side ; tlie Russian troops 
massed behuid tlie Redan 
to resist attack were de- 
niorah.sod. 

Hut we could not go 
in alone. It was to have 
been a johit and cm- 
biiied attack, which tile 



French disaster now rendered inii„ssible 
.\t tlie same time the Ixmibardmcnt exe- 
cuted l,y the .\Uied lleets had faileii of 
eilect : their broadsi.les had fallen compara- 
tively harmless against the casemated 
gramte forts, and all the warships had drawn 
off, bearing more injurit-s than thcv had in- 
flicted. Fortunately, the Allie,l losses had 
not iKcn severe ; too French had been killed 
or womded, 47 Fnglish, while the Russian 
casual.u-s liad reached i,io„. There sc'emed 
no reason why, if ,he French recovered 
suHiciently to reopen fire, llie attack should 
not he made the following day. 

Next day all such hoix-s vanished into tliin 
air. .\ few hours were enough for the inde- 
fatigable and indomitable Todleben. During 
the short sjiace of darkness the great engineer 
gave us the first touch of his striking ability, 
and built up his ruined fortre.ss anew. Se- 
\astopol arose from its ashes reconstructed— 
built, like Alaildin's palace, in a single night. 
" Works reduced to shapeless heaps, ruined 
batteries, and disaliled guns " were replaced 
before moriiiug by fresh parapets, the bat- 




N^LO, SEVASTOPOL AND RETREAT OK THE RUSSIANS, SEPTEMBEr'J,;'!'^ 
'■• - > pl„„„ b, 0.«.ild W. Bri„l,, ik.ithta from ii„ ... ., ,„. ii„. 

:8; 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



terios were repaired, new guns from the in- 
eriiaustihle supplies of the sh.ps and the 
arsenal had occupied the embrasures The 
work of the bombardment was all to be 
done over again. It was now evident that 
we had entered upon a prodigious undci- 
takins ; our opponent was full of recu,>era- 
tive v>n^■.^■ possessing seemingly b..un,lle»s 
resources directed by a seientilie soldier of 
great knowledge and luloraituble spirit 
The situation was. moreover, complicate. 
bv the existence of an enterprising field 
army dailv recruited by reinforcements, s) 
that the relative strength., Allies an. 
Russians was fast altering m favour of he 
latter. This led t.. many other efforts 
calculated greatly to impe.le the siege. 

The Second Bombardment 

rndaunted by their first failure the 
Allies prepared for a second ''<-» >"'l"ff 
on a still more extensive scale, when their 
position up.m the plateau was threatened 
Ll the Battte of Balaclava an. I.ikermai 
were f.mght in the open held. In the lir.t 
the British cavalry was destroyed, and our 
line ..f supply dangenmsly threatene.1 ; m 
the second, though w.m against tremendous 
.vl.ls we vet suffered so severely that it was 
imp.)ssible for us to prosecute the siege with 
^•igour. Then, Wo, came the great storm 
ami the increasing horrors of the dread 
winter so that the siege works were std 
further impcled. But, as has been sai.l 
already, however clossM our troubles, how- 
ever remote l.wme.1 Itimate success, the 
actual m.irul ascendancy of the Alies was 
never in .loul.t after Balaclava and Inker- 
m m The Russians never again ventured to 
attack us vigor.>usly, and n..t even seriously, 
until the cLising scenes. Even m the very 
height .,f the winter troubles, when suffering 
ami sickness had s:, diminished our ranks hat 
the guards of the trenches were re.luce.l t.. 
mere skeletons in numbers and physique, the 
Russian garris,m failed to use their immense 
superi.>ritv against our weakened force, b. 
«e ever felt that, although the siege might 
be pr.,Ionged wearis.,mely, yet with patience 
we sh,mld win in the end. The Russian 
commanders might continually levictual and 
replenish the fortress ; tlic Allies, based on 



the sea and able to draw across it unlimited 
supplies from li.>me, could also p'.ay the wait- 
ing game, and with a still stronger hand. W e 
may admire the heroic resistance, but we 
must take a deeper pride in the unyieLling 
pluck and perseverance of the besiegers that 
never despaired in the darkest hour. 

England Aroused 

Not the least memorable part of that dread 
episode was the spirit it evoked at l...nie, 
Vlmiration f.ir the c.mstancy .lisplayed 1>S 
our countrvnien was mingled with an eager 
desire to relieve them at all costs. An 
I.;nglan.l was aroused fr.mi end t.. end by 
the graphic letters of Mr, W Howard 
Russell ; fierce in.lignation at the mala, 1- 
ministrati,m which left brave men to perish 
stirred up p.ivate effort, and vast sums were 
subscribed, vast enterprises un.lertaken. t.> 
supplement the shortcomings of the Govern- 
ment. While the public y..ice loud y de- 
manded the punisliment of those to blanae 
private lieople co-oixTated to create hospital 
serx-ices. lirovide hu.. an.l fo..d and warm 

el.)tliing. 

Slowlv supplies were delivered. Matters 
bc-gan to meml as the dreadful winter passc'd 
away. Gangs .,f ■' nax-xies " constructcl a 
railroad between Balaclava and ' the tront, 
by which the much-nee.le,l stores were 
sent forwiird ; the uncompromising energs 
of Colonel Mac-Murdo, who came out arnie. 
with full powers, created a land transjiort 
serx-ice with tli.msands of animals, f.,r wli.,.n 
at last sufficient fodder was f.mnd : Mi>^ 
Nightingale and her la.ly nurses arrive. 1 
at Scutari, and with unstintnig .lev,j U".. 
revolutionised the pest-l,..mses, miscalled h..>- 
pitals. At ■• the front " ,mr ardu.,u- shan- 
in the siege operations was hghtened l, 
the friendly co-operation of our allies , al- 
though the French had also suffered se-verely 
their armv ha.l been so constantly reinforce.! 
that by this time it was nearly four times a- 
numerous as the British troops, llien I."rl 
Raglan suggested that they should reheve- ,- 
in our trench duty one night in every thre. 
General Canrobert preterre.1, however to take 
charge of our extreme right attack, t h.it 
wliich faced the Malakoffi and embraced tl;. 
battle-ground of Inkerman. rins iim.... 
;86 



Section I 



SEVASTOPOL-OCT. I854-SEPT. 1855 



iisslstance had the effect ,.< settini; free some 
liltecii hundred liritish troops, and concen- 
trated the efforts of the whole upm a more 
himted area. From tliat time f..r«,,rd matters 
Kenan gradually to impri>ve. With the spring 
new hope revived, and. althourfi the fortresj 
was still mtact. the task now before us was 
1' fight men. and not, as liitherto, also the 
Ilic season. 



.Mod., 



n.ghlanders-the jrd and 411, Divisions- 
were close at hajid. yet nothing was done 
The day ended i., deep despondence and 
disgust ; the guards in the trenches were not 
relieved. 

What next ? Grave anxiety pre\'ailid at 
least amongst the junior ranks, lor the com- 
pleteness of the French success in the capture 
of the true key of the f,)rtress was scarcely 




'ORD EAOLANS HEAD-OUARTERS AT KHUTOR-KARAOATCH 

From ---awinE hv WiUiam Simpson 



Tile final as.saults were made on . mber 

•:h iS.s.,, The I'rencii. attacking witii great 

'^ll and in overwhelming numbers, captured 

■X Halakoff. The British, using but meagre 

rns had failed at the Kedan. Our 

•>n went forward, a mere handful, and 

'ter a struggle were driven back, livery 

X alio watched was stronglv affected, not 

niach indeed by the failure but because 

-' adequate effort was made to retrieve it, 

;« that time the British trenches were swarm- 

=g with troops ; whole divisions lined them ; 

".i lluards had been brought up, and the 



appreciated, nor was the utter discourage 
ment of tlie Russians known, (Jii tlie con- 
trary, a general sortie upon our lines was 
expected, anil strict orders were gi\en to 
maintain the utmost vigilance, to jiost our 
sentries well to the front, and by constant 
vi.sits make sure that Ihey were always on 
the alert. Soon, however, the Russian fire 
ceased entirely, and in the growing stillness 
a distant rambling of wheels, the hum 01 
voices, the trampling of feet reached us. but 
with no impression of their meaning. 
Morning prescntlv broke— the dawn of a 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 

1, tur. streets from the arsenal avA 

,p,e„.ia aut„». Oa,-a„<l i^ ^^^ ^^t t ^'Z^- ^otHng c^^-.^ 

Ught everything '--^ f^ JJ^^ IT,. Anet, more worthy of admrratron, than t!.. 

tion had commenced , "f R^'"*^" ^„,„t„d resolute defence. 

full retreat by a bridge of boats constructed res ^.^ ^^^^ however, so 

we4 beforehand. No« our battcnes on J ;,»7;,,, „^f defence ; but in this he 

the higher ground got the range of the ^^ ^ „i,, untiring, uny.eldmg nl 

retirhig columns, and oi>ened a hot fire. A w ^ j,^^, resource. rodkl,.n 

Terrible canrage ensued u^n the overcrowded ;' "B-'jXg to his purpose, turned c..rv 

bridge ; whole sections of men "^"f'^^P^ '^ng to account, made the most of e^.r, 

awav, numbers were blown mto t'-^ air, and ™"» ;„ jj^e, he got to know by 



ruin that soou si»h;-"j "•^- — . 

Ttere under our eyes, it crumbled away into 
foml-ss and chaotic elements; the great 
Irs blew up one after the other with hun- 

derous explosion, vomiting clouds of black 
smoke into the blue vault, to hang there or 
all again, brooding thick and low upon the 
shapeiss wreckage, wnile darting flame 



the winter monuw, *....— ■ . , . 
sore^traits, he was continually increa.n.s 
Se obstacl s to an assault. With consaa,. 
mLskiUhentiUsedmanyhara-igpo- 
cesses in military engineering. Such ^^^re 
trifle-pits pushed forward within eisy 
range of L tJenches. Each o these vv.,s a 
hde containing a .• marksman, «ho, 



laii agui... "."" n (Hmes hole containing ^ - — . , , « 

shapeless wreckage, w .ule d^^" "f "™^= ^eing safely screened by sandbags, pickcl oS 
quickly shot up and gradually '-l'-"^^ *= our guimers and inflicted losses. When mining 
whole town in one general conflagration. ™'8 j,„ ^„„^,„ Todleben counter- 
.„d Pire mined, and so effectually that he had the Lest 
Scene ol CamaEe and Fire TtSs underground warfare. He was con- 
So ended the Siege of Sevastopol in a °' ^^™„f d, too, wherever te 
horror of carnage and fire. Credit l^du^ to tmually g ^J%^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ 
those engaged upon either side. Bn the more ^ ^^^ earthworks appe.n d 
strenuous the attack, t^ie more "o'' ^J^ *^ '^^ j^e lopes facing the Inkorman battle- 
defence; and as the Allies, nsmg f « >' "j' "^^.' ji.,„\i,e Mamelon was seized and 
full appreci,ition of the magnitude of the. Md , «■ ^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ji„, t„ff, and 
task, gathered together men and matenal fortlhed ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^j^.^^ 
i„oveLhelmingproportions,sotheRu^ans^ '„i^d the importance of this comman.taB 
undismayed, developed such indomitable m^d t , ^^ ^^^^^ ,j ,j^, 
tenacity, mixed with such enterprising stall knoll and w _, ^^_ 



and boldness in engineering, that at times he 
besiegers became the besieged. Through the 
terrillle winter the defende.s were certainly 
stronger and more numerous than their assail- 
ants, better fed and better found, Menschl- 
koff's field army had been practically broken 
UP • a large contingent had been drawn m 
to 'reinforce the garrison ; the vast store- 



knoll and were auuuv w -- — r^ 

o • u^ fnrestaUine US and crn^niiii; 

Russians, by torestauing ^ 

the hUl with strong earthworks, s r ck 

seriou, blow at the besiegers, -!;«'; 

the English right attack, for tlie M.."k1 .. 

to some extent enfiladed these trenches, a 

forbade any further advance against 

Redan, Another obstac e P"'hed ~ 

to bar our progress was the work est,tbh 



Z Vei;^^ ^e g^rison ; the vast s^ to - - P-^^^,;;^ ^^ «,dan, er. .. 
house of the arsenals and the ««ships seemed in tlie^|.^^^,^_^ __^ ^^^^.^^^^ ^.^,_ ^^^^^ ^, ,„„.,, 



house Ol ine uitrt-ii-i'^ """*•*— ■— ■ 
inexhaustible, supplies of all sorts reached the 
(orti < unimpeded along its always-open 
communications. Thus all losses were speech y 
made good ; there were troops enough to 
man all the works and yet leave from 6,000 
to lu .TOO free to labour continually upon the 
fortifications. Every battery was armed 
anew ; hundreds of heavy guns were moved 



in the uuarries ijci,^i^ "— 

to be carried in daylight with great couta-,. 

by tlie English troojis. 

Balance Between Attack and Defence 

As time passed, however, the balance 
became more even between attaik .n.. 
dSnc:. Fresh complications aros. call., 
by the interference of Napoleon HI., ^^ 



588 



'cction I 



SEVASTOPOL-OCT. 1854-SEPT. 1855 



!..mk.rcl for military k1„„-, a„,I c.,„t.„, 

I au.dak,„g „,,„„,.,,,, ,,t. I.. l.>,„„,„ 

"' ""■■ ^""'"'- ">-■ ».. at ll.is ,i,„, „„",■ 



.MiiJr 



"t" (icilLTill N'icI, 

•lisjlipruvcd i,i 



uuilt-T tlic inlUiL-ncL. 
tiigincLT DliiciT ivli, 
malBJ<ls liitlnTti. i-ii, 
I'Idyfd against Scvas- 
t"IHil, and had bivii 
so"t out to the Stat 
oi war in ordtr to ini- 
ITlss his \ie,n „|„„ 
tlif (kiieral Ccim- 
nuiidiitg, 

A rciiTOcd ?,om- 
Iian!iin.'nt was o]K.-iie< 
on Aiiril Sth. Tlit- can 
noiiadi: was conthiuf<l 
fur ten days ahiiost 
"itliout intermission. 
TIktc was a terrilie 
Sturm of projectiles, 
nliidi inflicted iur- 
mense damage. Tlie 
Russians, wlio were 
sIliTt of powder, re- 
plii'il slowly ami in- 
effectively. i;re long 
many of their hatlcrit^ 
"ere put out of action. 
Til- i'rcnch breached 
the salient of the Cen- 
tral bastion, and 
greatly injured the 
fl.i,i:stafr batterv ; our 
guns silenced one face 
»' tl.c Redan; the 
French and English 
guns o\-eri)owered the 
Manielon; the Jlala- 
'^"ff was .silenced so 
wre the H-hite Works, 
"le Kussians suffered 
ireally. lielieving 
"■" '!■>-■ l..nnbard- 
"lent would be fol- 

.to re|H.l ,t, and .so were fullv exposed to 

ireatl, n ' '""""^ ''' ''"""liks ; all its 
PM .utldrngs were con,-erted into I os^ , 

"■'" an mch deep m coagulated blood ■ 



the 



K'eat piles of ^,.ered limbs filled tubs around 

e u, , tat„,g .ables in the churcl^ 

Umerd hrgts were chante,! all dav l„n,. It 

-es.m,ate.,,hatinthis.Xpril,',Iar: 

"" ""■ "■"'"'" K^"-™.., lost in killed and 




SEVASTOPOL 



.= 89 



THE RKTREAT OVER THE BE.DOE OK BOATS 

From a picture by Wiil P;iirct 

If ever an as.sault had been dnlv prepare.l 
..twa.snow. Vet none was .lelivered .Vf^ 
■ng that the bomb.ard.nent was a wasted 
^ "". "7''""l -'«1> <lisnp,K,intraent .and 
clragrm throughont the Allied camps C „ 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



n.bert the French Ceneial-in-Cnef wn. pnn- 
cipallv blame,l. The constant interference of 
Xlnperial master, either by .hreet com- 
run.cati.,a or thruugh his c..n„.lent,al asent. 
SeTeral Xiel. inerease.1 that natural , reso 
rmi„n which was a weak ,«m.t ,n ^an'.; « 
ch aeter It is now well known that tlu^ 
amia^^e and, accor.iinR to h,s means, most 
^cJknt soMier was muleculed in aet.on- 
S!^lu,h.opr.,mi.hefore^„d,s.^jo 

execute when the cnt.cal m"™':"'/"";^'^ 

™'-"';"<:ri^^."tr;Sr:;be::^: 

^;::t.; e^::i't-dnna when.W^l«l 
Snctions reache.1 him f.,r givn.s effect to 
the Em,,er„rs ,,la„. This l>lan as has ,.een 
la'l meant the snb.livisi.m of the whole 
Xllied forces-one to maintain the srege the 
' eVtl ,:,ke the liekl-a scheme that dul no 
Cmmend itself to anyone, least of a 1 to ^he 

Allied commanders a the se-at of > ar. But 
torobert did not feel strong enough t 
criticise and resist the Emperor, he ,mW 
to resign his command. With true n..biht; 
'„ ;::i. he strongly urged H. „ I'eh-^. - 
General junior to him, shov 1 replace h.m, 
° more competerrt .o deal wrth the errs s 
Canroberfs magnanimity dal not end her , 
i„M,e begged to be allowed to return o 

old division, and continue to serve under the 
new Commander-in-Chief. 

The New Stage ol the Siege 

With Pehssier's appointment the siege 
entered upon a new stage , it '»»y" ''! 
prosecuted henceforth with vigour. He was 
a man of unbounded ,resolution and sell- 
rehauce. thinking only of the end .n ™w 
notliing of the cost by which ,t was to be 
obtained. An old Algerian comrade, compar- 
ingluself with Pelissier. said if I'aris was m 
insurrection he woald not mind bummg down 
1 quarter ,! the city to repress it. It 
" paissier would not shrink from burning the 
whole." Although of humble ""8i....l"™K 
he had studied the 



who had raised him to the h.gliest P-t , 
the Prench Army, an,l who might dl~>.- 
„f „im by a stroke of "-■, I"^"-^';"';' ;"t 
him from taking his own hue. and that w ■- 
not Napole-m's. Pelissler. aft.^^ matu 
thought, rejected the Eml«ror s scheme^ an, 
•■without regret." He was determined .^ 
only to hold on to the siege m preferene- . 
all other "unknown adventures, but .y 
push it forward resolutely, ^f- "' - 
elbow, still sought to recommend the ..t.K, 
course, but was at once put down with ,. 
high hand, paissier plainly told him , 
„„'e conference to hold li.s tongue, , 
another he warne.l Niei that it he .hired . 
bevon.l reading aloud a formal memo, n 
,,„„ he would resort to "S""'"' ">"';: 
Kven the p-sitive orders, issued "' peru. ■ 
tore terms bv the EmiK.ror h.mseh. c. ,, I 
not divert Paissier fnnn his purlKise, 1 ... 
Sovereign might suggest schemes fr.im .. - 
flashing them by wire but the reslxms.,. 
of conducting operations rested w tli .... 
General C..nimandmg m the tiel.l. .■■■ 
paissier, with the rare courage ..f a.i .... 
usually strong but wisely determmed n... 
persisted in having his own way. 



Two Oreat Events 

Within a week two important e^v•lti 
showed the direeti.ni of the new currv... 
One was the French attack upim u n-.. 1> 
constructed earthwork, planted by ...^^ 
enterprising Todleben between the Ce.it ,.1 
Bastion a.ul the sea. The ..tlier w..-. t . 
.hspatch of an expedition to Kertch t' 
strike at the Russian communicati.m> ■ 
the Sea of Azof. Both were enunent y >...- 
cessful. The first, after victory had cli...i'.e. 
sides more than once, ended m the ganan. 
and inchuliug this new work m the I .. c. 
line of trenches; the second ■ struck -; 
hito the Russian res,mrees. Othe le^ 
,ive steps f..ll.>wed. an.l the ■«.'«'■> 
end of Mav had extended their p-i ' ■■ 
bv pushing back I.iprandi's army, wh.; 
had long hung r.mn.'. .mr "f^^^^^'J;; 

\n« 
,f liai..dav.. 






risen from the ranks . 

.i.„ceofwar. ^-''-'S *«t T.^™^ ^Z^. 'vSy ^ aid the river 
purpose when he had "-^^^^^^^X^ -me once more became our outposts 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



Mav, to„k up thdr position on the Idt bank 

„e„ now di,c.t„l to clo-« •■■ ^ «^ '- 
.lefc-nces ot the- town, and as a fir.t .tq, t 
was ncc«sarv to Rain ,>osses.s.. .n .f tin. 
various outworks an,l advanced ,»>sts .t.l 
r:Sn.n,yT,HlW.»ninf™t.. .s.-r 

line. These^tLe White '^Vorks. the Maun. 
,„ and the ()uarties--have alread> l^en 
mentioned "iti. the im,«.ttant -ntluence 
Ty ""ercised in delaying the P-Btess of 
the besiegers 



A SubJtantial Triumph 

On June l.th a fresh bon>bardment was 
Jeiken in order to re-U- 'hern, 544 
English and Freneh guns •» "« "^^jj"^ 
?l,e Mamehm was so.,n silenced I e \\ 1 te 
works grea.ly damaged, and only the Ida 

t^'a^,:;:ugh next day and — 
dusk Hosquet sent ftmvard two brigades, 
anftook possession of the White Works wrh^ 
out serious opp-situm. wluch f^^"'ij^ 
rright were incorporated w,th *"="'="'-' 
trenches On that same evenmg, June 7th 
.!? \%o three French columns moved 
"^ to rtiack the Mamelon. headed by 
cl„':iBrI:^n,w.io was shot iust ash. 

men triumphantly crowned ««= l'^'"''':'. 
Wher CO unm of Turcos took the wc'tks 
"bv the rear, and this combined attack was 
far a time successful; then the Russians^ 
: nf^rc™, made a counter-attack, ret«,k 

the Mamelou, held it '»-""-;';' J.^^f 
in their turn again expelleil. The cntrj 
'tUe French into this work was the s^al to 

our attack uixm the Quarries -"^ "»^ 'f 
e^utaskwasentru^edtodeachme^^^ 



This substantial triumph K'J'^;;';j';'_j;; 
the Ulies. All wh.. were engaged 1.1 it ho,K 1 
th°,t a turn was appro.iching m this wea - 
June siege, and impatiently --^ ^^ 
.• 1 ,.t.,.k Thi* indeeil. was the liMO 
;«l^n'- the Allie.! generals, and 10 the 

avs following the last-named capti mea- 
^::"»ere^ncerted to as^ult the inner 

and chief works <.f the town. I. 
the lMU,»;ror Nai»ileon l»:rslste-,l in .lImsu... 
" ,,,rati.ms, and continued to elcgrapl 

rs to I'elissier to that effe-ct. The stur.>> 
l.,.nch Oeneral protested, pleadmg how un- 
;^:^:;e it was for him to exercise hujc,.... 
nvuid " at the en.l. sinnetinies paraKsing. 



p^lissier and Napoleon 

Ccneral Vilissier. writing to the lll.ustw 
of \"r June 17th, complahied. an.l ^t 

that neither ' e nor the tr<».l>s h.id 
reason, tha -^"^^ ,^„ ,„, ,vent a 

r^ci lli!!; from the Em,«or for the 
^-Ihant 'operation and -Jaslnug c«r. e 
evinced in the capture of the Mamcl.n, 
^•^^^tperorwaspressuigtheComma.,.. 
in-Chief to take the held, and at last l.e 
telSr phed that while he admired the c. ■ - 
Ig of the troops shown *■> "ptunng 
v.melon vet a victory in the held, wh-i 
l™t t- finished the war, might have 

"reS're^ed in elect, "Remove me 

,rSconLar.,<>rinow^.n.--S 
my own judgment. -W- '''"S 



::U t rr e.:^;;^^ - detachments o, my own lu^.^^^ ^; -^ „, ,,„.„„ 
*i;--andf.ight„iv^<n.^ewWe.m^ T^^,J!^_.r^^;;;^ZsZ 



*" ■ 1- ■ . »n ttii^ s^de now to that. In poinrs, ou i^,,ault. w uch c. 

now luchnms vo this s.<ie. n arrangements toi the as.s.ami. 

the end, however, when dajn J^"**^' \X terrible losses not only m the French .>rr . 

whole of the works we had attae re- '^^^^ ,^,^ ;„ j.^rf Raglan's forces, 
mained in our hands. 



History. sugges.= .»v^ continuous aeri- 

r.rr^naic:'^-:^^- 
-rit'ma^^--"f"^:v:: 

rSnte and level-headed o comman-rs 
Z only vacillated in d-tog^ mi. 



SEVASTOPOL-OCT. 1854-SEPT. 



Sc'crion I 

KliKk-r a„,l Ge„er..l Bnsq.et ha,l ,lif(„„,l 
l-r assiult l>„s<,uct, „.l,„ know tho -n.imd 

he Jlalakor as 1„ ^ive the R„.sia„s but 

.- rlu., cr„ssi-,l ,i,„ i,„„ve„i„„ „,„„ 
letaorc,.uM,,„t,,r,,,k.,,„„,,,i4,,''«, 
»liea some few days later 



1855 



M'Hlern 



Raglan .|,„nid ^..j , 

;*;.;;« the Redan, and hat.eri«-,:!^r: 

I'elissior sent over hi, riV; i ^ • ' ■ 

nis Llnef EiiKineer . illu-cr 



■; ■ — '" "ays later a nlan of tl,= • '"''''■ "" Chief Ellri 

..MakolT was found „n .he l,o,lv kI' '" ''""= '""' >"= ''-' changed iT 

iillicer killeil in one of the ' **"*•'"" meant t„ .,„,..i. _. . .. 'j ' 



:he 
•he 



iff was 
•I,- the 



*- "•*'» munt'ei 

meant ,„ assault at daylight. Thi, 
>vas framed so as to leave I. K 
alternative, forcing him to agr^ v 

C"Ueaguo'spla„. ,,r to refuse t, co- 
re n'™,- "" """''■ C"n,n,and.V. 
reluetantly assented, although 
reah^i -he losses which would l,e n. 
b; assaultmg over a quarter of a ■ 
"pen gromid the fornudaMe I,att ri>. 
Redan ; and having sent his troop . 
t ene,es, , before daylight, wL ,„ 

e«ht-Rm. b.ttery i„ the third ,«, „..l ,f 
the nnfsh right atu,ck. whereat! 
aS '° *"™ "" '*""' '"' '^"■•'^ 

SUff Arrangements of the Alii,. 

The Allied troop, were r,li: .^o , „ 
trenches at 2 a.m „.i,»n , „ 

bugles sounded the •..Wm\,; ^^^r 
„f,,„ ,,,■■•%.-•";. ^"™P". fey hoped, nnd^^^l'" IT'""'"'" "'''"'" ''"'''-"^■' 

«f "^ - ---. ~s of att^r.^i'.:^:.-:!^^-— 

M ,;:'" "■" ^"'"' ""n»?e„.en,s the Allied £ ."^^T "', '" f" "" "«^ ■"'"p''. " 1 ou 

ir rLr;'""f ""^"-■"-e'obomba d fidd b t^'' "' "" ''"'••"""' ™««nchments 

.. ''""" 'he Russian defences, mountins 7- , " """^ '"'° ''etion in the open 

,'" 8''''\^"'1 then when tlie e„„nv s bat tl ^Jf" '''"''''■■'■ '''■'""«' ^^■"oo me 'for 

U.ncs had been silenced, and their arth- ' "e f"'' ."" •■^"'""'' -'™- fofwhich 

™Hl.?t '"""'' '^'"^'' 'he Russians tteextremr M?,, ^''""''' ■"""•■■" "^^ ™ 



-;««.er,;^.ich-;:;rpi:e'n:g,ra™::: 

...^.thers<,,ttheplan,ohisthief nor'li- 
he even reiK,rt the occurrence, Wien e 
-"> eame to P^lissiers knowk-ge L 
'..nsferred Bo«,„et to ,l,e command of ! 
"•«.on on the Teheriiaya ri,-er, re, lac „g 
h-a hy a general who had „nlv iustT ri? ^ 

;;;::™r- "'■"'•■"■ '■"^■•'■•^'^''* 

lower dow" """' *"™' """■ '■'' ^hall show 
A Combined Attacl< 

The Russian guns in the .Valakoff Redan 

, ■'"■'"'' had been silenced at sunset of 
u.,e,,,,ha,idr;th. anditw-as^rnU 
' "'= """""« "i the 17th, in a ,«rso„a^ 

..urview between Pilissier and RaglanTl" 

'"the joint triumph, they hoped, 
the still liiifrnr;.,^ ____ . ' 






n'A„t . "'""*->■ in tne centre, and 

D Autemare whose troops were to capture 

g ea^lTed"' ''""".v. h"me,hate,y next .!, the 
great Kedan on the Itft. 

FrII"i ^T" """Sements were faultv. The 

t™ ' t?"' u""" ""^ '° "— 'e the 



r-h..e;f:d;;:;r:f';f;^-j''^ --hes to-^k;--:! 

^^ -™ Com.,nders..c.ei -^ ^f:^=-rb™ i^r^^l^nd^i!! 



•t ^!l| 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



,i;,htfl.u.kl.y :,...« stvumi 



rsiu llitil"<:t- 



.mil «1k-ii 
tlic thirJ time VV.1S 



its iwh' •"'""> '"' . 1 .,,,,1 

tho c.limm lu-sil.iti-il. M..>rm 

tr,«.l« «■" ■'*'■" "'"""'"■'' 
U-ailiiiR tliem "H 

1 1, . „i<killc.l ami unm.-1't m* ""'T* 

"'T't a u; "-'...« "i'l-"'''- ^'^''"'':'"- 

"tn^KV .,.e,„:>rc advance,! .W,,t-m. 
, V ..ftrt nroi.ofs attack was launcho.1. 

^ X«,.. hattalinn ..ut "f the Ocrva.s 

himscs bcliiu'l it. rumam.iw tlu-rt ui.iw i" 
^rua.. tetired. Ti. m- c^™ '^ 
D'Autemarc's cmman. . '-" ' ^k^,,,,, 



unfortunate arr;ui. 

.1. . ^tt icktTs t.> start firs* ^^ - 
meat, since tlK- att.i<.K».i» , ,- , 

r i UK "» tlu- m.,st ,law>-T..us l-arts ... 

k The ..r.W« catcmplatc-.! I.w sk : 
m.' l.etH ,.r.c.-li..« H,« men wta. w«. " 



pre 



^.,lc.l by nn- 



.■11 carrying hcai-y la.l' 



sm..kc lii.l til 
h..ist til.-- siaaai 



. apparent, alth<>ni;li the 
,il3 and induce.1 him t.i 
tlic llritish a.lvancc. 



The «»ult ol « Q««t R'""" 

The Staff arrangements, apparently ma.le 
un.ler the directi..n ..f Sir Oeorge Brown, 
:;:fanltv. lt-n,.en,ledtha.assanumg 
c.lnnns sh..nld march res;K-ct.vel> aga.nst 
le t ur n,.nher,i face ,.f the Redan, an.l 
tte ght ..r s..uther„ face, an.l that the s,.,,- 
oTrt unlet C..l..nel I.. I.ys..ns should maren 
Tth salient ,.f the work; hut each corn- 

ma, der did as seemed g..od t.> hnn and tU 
result was n..t .inly c 'Stly m hve. but un 
,nc essful. f..r nothing that conl.l be justly 
calle.l an assault with a pn.spect of succe-s 
t.iok place. 

The Editor of these " Battles . 

carrv the only scaling ladder which reached 

the U^'ti» •■' "- '^'■■''»" ""' '''■■ " "1 
titimo.y therefore may be fairly accepted 
Tfa" as the right column of attack is con- 
cerned. It is clear from the orders the ru- 
tention was that Colonel Yea's column on the 
north si.le. and Major General Campbells 
column on the s..uth. should advance agamst 
"le respective faces of the Redan, bemg 
followed by a third colum.. marchmg on the 



l8 feet in length. 
The LBdder-Parties 

XVhen the nght column left the tre,,. - 

-^--rtrH^r'araii:!'-::; 

1 ich lK.ured forth a stream of ■mssile. ■ . 

the intensity of which ..- .htheh 
Wrrbe. I„.r,l Ragkui. who tol w«^ • ■; 
,lie cnduct ..f the storming parties,.! u . .. • 
Ro.lrigo and Badajos. in his dispatcL . 
nne iSth. :83S. wrote. " I ricver b. -■ 
iitncsse.1 such a continued and heavy . 
grape an.l musketry"; adding, in a pn... 
fe-tter. " I never had u conception bel..re l 
such a sh.iwer of grape." 

.\s the ladder-parties ran forward. <.wW; 
ki,;.,,, of pn.iectiles cut up the grouii.i .... 
..nn.l thJm. but yet not contmuousl . . 
their fullest force, for whde there w....' 
ce»ation of mi.«les, which pattered on 
stonv groun.l like hail stones yet e^«, 
thirtv secnds or so gusts of iticr..,.^ 
nolence came sweeping d.«vn the h.U -..1. 
remin.ling o'le of the recurring blasts " .. 
storm sinmlated beliind the scene-, .f 

""Thria,l.ler-party. consisting of saiL.r^ n. 
f,,rwar.l at a steady double, fo low, . '■ 
skirmishers, who started 50 yards ui fr ; 
them,a,id^meoftlie=kirm.sher c^r ; 

never st..pl>ed until they reaclieo he ..I...1 
f„r „,e writer sp, ke to t, , there 



there 1i- 



tor tne wneei o,/- ~- - ^ , , u ..i.Ti 

tl,elad.ler-partyha.l=dyanced I... >- 

several .ailovs were k,Uc,l, and f.he^ 

officers only <me renamed erec _ « 
near the abatis there were only four U 

,H11 being moved on, all carried b^ ^J." ^ 

but so,uc of the soldiers carrymg^^ - 

were still struggling forward. 




r \M' 



From a picture by Wal Pa«| 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



WTien the partv was thirty yards irom the 
abatis only one ladder was being st.ll carno<\ 
to the front, and its carriers were reduced to 
tw.> Tliere were a few scattered British 
s .Idiers crouching under tlie apparent slielter 
of tlie abatis, some firing, a great many 
shcuth.R. and above them on the parapet 
the Russians, four and hi some places sK 
deep, were calling sarcastically to our men 
to come in. 



At the Abatis 

There was very little chance of doing so. 
The abatis about too yards from the ditch 
of the salient, was in itself f.nir feet thick 
and five feet high, the stoutest portion of the 
woodwork being from six to eight inches m 
diameter; beyond it the ditch was II 
feet deep and z'-, broad, and .'<> feet from 
the bottom was the huge earthen tamiiart 
on which the Russians awaited us. The 
whole number of the storming party, 
500. were now rcd-iced to somethmg over a 
hundred, , , ^■ 

■Vn officer, seizing a branch from the abatis 
w^^■ed it over his head, and cheerily called 
on the men to follow, but while doing so was 
riddled bv bullets, A young sergeant who 
was trving to induce tlie men to follow him. 
but in vaui. losing his temper, said ■1" 
tell mv right hand man to follow, and if he 
fails I'll shoot him," liringing his nlle to 
t^ie ready, he said, "l-rivate--^ wall y.ai 
follow me?" The soldier looked deliber- 
ately up at the hunilreds of Rus.sians standing 
above us, and then at his wmrades, as if 
reckouuig the numbers, and replied quietly, 
■■ X„ I won't." As the sergeant threw his 
rille into the shoulder, with the apparent 
inteiiti.m of shoolnig the man, he was 
struck bv a grape-shot an<l fell dead. 

Colonel 7.>s<.ns took his 400 men up to the 
abatis, and was approaching Col.mel Yea t<i 
ask for orders, when a blast of grape-sliot 
knocked down several men aromul them, and 
L'olonel Yea amongst the number, '....oiis 
was womided. but after ordering Ills men to 
retire, was amongst the last of the effectives 
who got back to the Ouarries, which we had 
8e«ed on June 7th, \\'l'en he re,,orte,l 
his faUurc in the eight-gun battery, he 
leaint that tlie detachment "f his own regi- 



ment, 23rd Welsh Fusiliers, had never g.nu 
out, having lieen stopiK-d by Sir (.eori;. 
Brown, who, believing that the assault im.>' 
fail had decided to spare one battalion, t ;■ 
loss of which he saw was inevitable ai, 
useless. 

Major-Ceiieral Campbell, m comma,.: 
led to the immediate vicinity of the Red,,::, 
but his skirmishers halted when they had ^n t 
to alKiut liftv vards outside the trench, fli. 
colonel of the battalion was killed as :, 
was crossing the pampet, and the Comm.ui . 
ing Roval Engineer, Colonel Tyldey, v, , 
s„on knocked down. Colonel I.<.rd W.- 
on hearing that Campbell was dead, trieO : 
form a fresh party of skinnishers, but ::. 
one except the sailors was willnlg to foil x 
him. and Lieutenant C.raham. R": 
Engineers, after showing heroic cour,:^v 
ordered the s;iilors back into the trenela- 

Colonel Lord West sent a note to > 
Ceergo lirowii asking for leinforcenui,'. 
but was told to re-form his own troops, wha 
was elearlv imp..ssible. The la<lder-p:m., 
suffered most of all iu proiH.rtion to tli, 
strength, and while the sailors of the k' 
column had only live men hurt out of • 
out of a similar number carrying ladller^ 1 
the right column, I<) were killed and 
wounded. 

It must be admitted th:it Sir I .. -i 
Brown, who was standing with Lord V..iJ. 
and who was therefore rcsjxjnsible, sen! \ 
troops out on a hopeless 'oisk m or.Ur 
maintain the good feeUng which es.>, 
between the Falglish :iud l-relich :.rm) 
Lord Raghiil, after a consultation « 
I'elissier, decided to recall the troi>ps ' 
before this was ordered, there were, in ui. 
\-ery few unwounded men cailside irar tieac 

in front of the Redan, 



The Left Column 

( )ll the extreme British left, a brigad. 
C.euer:il livre nun'cd ilown the rasim 
si-parated the French from the left 
left attack, with orders to sii/.e the 
at the head of the dockyar.l creek, 
a man of great courage, stimulated the 
of his troops, addres-suig himself parti 
to the iSlh Koval Irish. Their eour.i 
us dear, but the brigade carried not o 
06 



,:n>!e: 

MMtb 

,nlui:[ 
■ul.lli: 

ily tbt 



■fctfon I 



SEVASTOPOL-OCT. ,8S4-SEPT. 1855 



Kussian n-ork'! in ti.,. 

'^i^s in tJic ccmetcrv n,>-ir *i 

'"■■-»«.. ™ar;cr,:;"-;;™"^i.™ 

"I ivh..m 30 were nffi ■■* '"^a'tifs, 



Modern 



How Things Went Wronjr 

.i- that duv J "el ':'' ""'"'■ ^-"•••l■ 
'■■"b. The"fW„ r"' '-•mother 

«ttert,l so>-erc.|v, a„,l fr,„„ ^™"'' 

Ainu, at B.lfd'vr """"""•' ■" '!■= 

''"'» l.urrosdv. hut it „-L' ■ '""' l™ 
""!• .liaster. The TV „ l ''V"*-""'"""' 

"P i" il.e trenches T^, *•"" '"'^J 



niirks r.ipidly rcinirr.,1 i , 

presc.ntlv'retreate< V ; ""''■,""= P™"^h 

«•- vight'^; " ""«" "^' "«"«-'i from 

''™ch,a.te;ju::;r::t.!;^:;?"« 

men never ir,,*- ., , 'ittack. Our 

'"dies .^.r^errie'T ''^■''".' '" f"™^'" 
-...e,.er„;,se.lThr~^-;''-''-ls 

S"I«. Their leaders C^ kk^l T™ " 
Campbell and Rallant j" ,- v ^^'•■""''' 
remnant fell Inck , " ^^a-and the 

™e;x,i„t,d;n,X eSSr',t°"'^'"' 
fiery lea.Ier Sir U'if , '""''-''■ "'=" 

trated the defe ee i id"" 'i'', ''^"' P'- 
nut he was w™„ 1 , '''"'■™' "'e t'Hvn. 
ment nlde "":',. "■'"■•■'■''' ''-'«'S- 

P-PC.I, :!.;p;;;;:,,'^""''"'»'-'. "-t bei„g 



S'l 



Death o» Urd Rajlan 

Prom this grievous disaster lor.l P r 
"lio was alreadi- i„ t i , ' R"Slan, 

recovered. The L L r ",^'""'"'' """ 
'■ad Ions b, ^"Sl.sh s ier, who 

l"s fine character In, , ""«■ R'eatly 

«ere joined wi^tii,'^"'^'?^"' "" «ho 
Paignwassh.;™':';^^;;'™-'"'-™. 

"t l"s death. The rt,™', ? «"-"?' 8""^' 
"'"e I-renchman 1 ad S .,f 7": '"'"'^'- 

«- Inghest respect 'r.ttt:' rr^"" 
Bnghsh colleague ■ and if .".'"" '"r Ins 

'-<! Raglan ^:;.;:^,':-.'"jtwta 

came and " stood hv his he,l, d f """ 

of an W,c,,„^„^-'->-'e for upwards 

'.'^'.eottol^T- "--W.O 

'iotenninati,,," ""."^.""■""■'■akenedin 

featonlvred ,1 i"r'""r;' ''■■"'■'■ "- 
"• «.ceee,l i„ h ., **■';■;' '■'■"'"-"nation 

-«n-a;i,;-z';s:„r::;;;tr:r';"^ 

W;ert^h...,le superiors, and :X;:;;! 

still slow, hut sti h • "'■'"'' "■"' 

f-rward. n„„l it .,..,," ."^'1" »"adily 

tile foot of ,1,' ■'''■■',''"' 'n ...me ,, laces 

' ti.e cnem.v's defences, winle, 






^ / 



— ■j;'4 ■ 




"TWIVIW 



SEVASTOPOL-OCT. 18S4-SEPT. I85S 



Section I 



without intennissinn, tlic tvnr ,.f 

^jjLc— f:- ,:j- ,:- 



slioiild 



sfo our batti-rits 



;.".KS S,„,pso„, Lord Raglan'J s,,.-',- ls.,r^ 

JI-co„s.dea.d attack ; a„d ,vl,i)' tl " " , • 

coimter-stroke ' ' ' 

•fl.eam]e,,ftheTcl,cr„,,ya,or,,fTractir 
Bndse, f,n,gi,t „„ August i,tl,, was a ,1 -sp- 

;;«>.^n8,,„u3 attack uixinthrrS:;; 
7." ""'"'■ "l'«-e i.ur ncwly-arrivKl Sir 
d.n,a„ alhcs were ,„stc,l. Thirty list ,1 
R"ss,a„3 „.,^,^ Generals Read and I 

">, tlie wirole supported by cavalry and a 
n merous artiller,-. advanced at daylight but 
t U,ck«l ,00 soon the heights held in force Iv 

^U8'rr^'m'rr''''-^r'"^''""''«™' 

yiter. The Sardinians fought well 
i he final assault was still delayd but 

mL r ^°»™encenient of the Cri- 

h re,fs7;,""' "f """'""^ "-d lost 
fumlreds of thousands of men in the fortress 

P "..:'%>'■'"■ ""' "■* --"iti"" ^al 

c «re at last begun-the bridge 7t 

^c^7 T ':"""'■ ""™'"'- -'-^ 

V,t . , ' '"■''*= ■•'"'l ap,,roaches 

■i Ttl'^r''"'""'''"''-'-'''^''-^^ 
J " tte. eleventh hour to prolong the 



Modern 

;;;..;..eKu.ianst«;td;:r;rr;t:i: 



It wa 



tl.e dead he the -jalZlT '■ ""™""" '" "«="k 

TLe Russians „o„„ „°'^7 " *•■ P'-^'P" Point-before 

ho, "7,,,",'"" ,"''*'■"'' "-' -' <lK.t 

-i;.-f:;^t::^i-rit--^- 

' ''" «eneral control „f the ittirt ,,,.1 ,' 

-".^-a;-:~r:,^--'';- 

Ijl^nsh, under .Lr-";„dha;': ret 

b tht 1- ■" '" "'^"'" "■"<= «" '-e made 
the Central bastion by the Sardinians 



The Fr.«h Assault of the Malakoff 

l""u 2o yards of the Malakoff, and for 



599 



MacMahon's First Brlfade 

At noon exactly, JlaeMahons first brieul,. 

JIalakotI nearly empty ; but then the Rus- 

druggie began. Kvery traverse was taken 
an<l retaken, the Russians fighting t^ 
desperate courage ; and it was not until 1 
French ha.l broken into tne worl ' 

sr™/r,""'™'"'^- "-"■'«""•'. 

ate in t' T """'"' ""' """"--' "" 
ate m the afternoon, the Ru.ssians bri,,.;. - 

finallvTT- ,"' "" •" "" ""T"*' "n'l 

Ihe ke> to the fortress was won. 

«fe "'n'' r'" ;""' ''"" "'■"^^'^ •" 'he 
■"lies, llie trench columns .,n the left of 

tl|e principal attack had not suece,.de,l 

- .le .he British at the Redan hr;:;M' 

r e ,r.„,ps went up undauutedly ; many 

clunbe,! over the |„,ge para,,et, au.l l„r 

sona. tune maintained! a firm front inside. 

I nfortu lately. sup,x,rts in sufficient strength 

u e not promptly sent for,vard, and General 

Umdham went back in scaieh of them 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



Tliis ill-advisL'd si^p left the combatants, 
already hardly pressed, without the Ruid- 
auce of any leadt-r of rank, and tlie unequal 
contest was not maintained. Had tlie 
Frencli, it is said, turned the Russian guns 
they had cai)tured in the Malakoff on to tlie 
Ri.-ila:i, that work would have been quite 



untenable, So that its assault was rt-a!;'- 
unnecessarj', it being commanded by tli-. 
Malakoff. 

Thus SevastojHjl — nr its principal p.irt 
smoking ruins and an mpty shell— fell ,ii 
last to the Allied forces of Frencli aTi-. 
English. 




H Redoubt i ^^r 

rvnch jEttack) y Tti«F nic aff 

' ' Baat on -^ 



■?■''' -^s*' '■;"''■'''«' 



PLAN OF THE SIEGE OF SEVASTOPOL 



sfCTioiv i.~Mor,FRM 



THE EUREKA STOCKADE OF BALLARAT 
AUSTRALIA ' 



Tin; histor, „f AustraiKi begins pr„- 
per >■«,,,,,. entrance o£.L..^; 
ih.t n,t„ Botany Bay in January 

V^ , ami, ur,ng all the years «.h el, haye 
P->e.l sn,ee then it has heen , ,„,,, "^J 

lKv.ce, mtermpted only by the brief „„, ?',al 
" "t ?""■'?"■■" -■ «- fisl.t at the I reka 
Stockade ,n the G„lJe„ City „f Hallarat 

Some Historical Facts 

^;^™=ry---::-: 
:^"'^i«^:^t:i-^:-r"" 

«i what follows will show t ,n; ' ™'^'' 

.H..of^.airs„.asr.:^^;— -- 
■ ""'■'>■ Uecemlier 3r,l, 18,^ *" ' 

^^•"'w^u'a°f ""?'■■ ™^ *"-"^'«' f-n- 

-«';^™y,bylnrperia,";:l;;:f~ 
. S,„, At this period the people 7tl e 

latt.r ' .' "' ■' <""-"nor and council the 

-™aS T"ih:'G::"">- '"-''™. '™ 

cleet„n,'„ , "-ovemor and twenty 

imr, ™ 'i"-" '','■;'"''■■ ■ """ ''^'I "Otters co„- 
f "' ™ ""= "W Pastoral lines, this svstem 

iSt „,, '^»n. liowever, early in 

™ .X ' ^'^'''--red in the in^^J^ 

IBStor d T, , ■" '""" ""'5<^ "f the 

k St "'■ '""""'«'■ The settle! 



£ed1.:f.h:"rr^^"*'"-- Ttey 
from tl, ir re , hrT"? "™" '" ""-""d 

^mple i.roces, ''„':"' ""'"""J '"y «!« 

<«"cn,n,en Tx^l^ ^^"'^'°"- 'he 

«^utia!;:'rStrS"— ^^ 



" The Miner's Rlglit " 

>%£^ ™ rr f"""'■^'*''''>■'^- 
w^.fl:!:r.:;r;l;sn:s■' 

dona ./rV'"' '"';'''"''"«•' "'■™-" 
"•k up to Ins knees ni mud and water hid f„ 
W the document in his pock 'd 'f 
."Zdr"^^'"'"-"-''™ t'd 

''"neX::^Lm:r'--^-"»- 
™™c:dt;t.r"" ="^ ""-'' "•"- 

-».s:,:r^r^;o:.e::-e^S 
a^v:s^r^;:tr;;rir-f- 

commenced Ti, i- "cences 

unuiced. The diggers nnn.ediately held 

" ^'^'■"K. and sent a deputation to the C , 

raissiouer askinir tl,.,f .1 • "'"""= Uun- 

' ""« "i-'t the unpost be with- 



♦^ ^ 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



minister it. 



•' nieffer- Hunting 

Ls which 8-''-"^. -"i,:: ."to became 

Scarcely a da\ pasbea , ^^ ,i,e 

J Ihei fmed because they had lost, or 

,ei:.^^dt,ft,,..etsc™s^*-- 

,„^-Csha..^-*>--r;rti 



,„edinthe.™,u.^;-;^.;;^<;-:>-' 

educated classes ..f Eu'ope anu 

in a constitutional spirit, m ace ,,j j 

the Crown itself. 



The Increased Fee 

gS^the;:;lstsand,ohigtothedi,.... 
f t a sten which further exasperated m 
U°«ers-thlt raising the gold licence ... 
t^/'er month. This he did in the ho,. | 
leterrLg the people of the colony from t...ii 
^' Sggi4 in crowds, ^doprevenn. 

to officials from deserting th« P-'^ ,,, 
measure did not have the desired ettect. 
the r«as again reduced to 30s. per m-. h 
,ut during the period that the increase «.. 
"force ,»palar indignation waxed wari.» 
"" A strong agitation against the gold hcc« 
conimei.ced_inBendigo,n;8,., and. 



^T^^Z. 0. course, ven^redr^ ^T^ ::^^^-:}:tX 
J Holes when in uniform , bu ^« a Un. ,^^^^^ ^^^^ ^_^^,,^^, , t ,1M; 



iiiil.s when in uniiuii" , — 
thev became skilful in the art of trapping 

imprisoned bv the Commissioner m charge^ 
Ser-hunting was pushed to a poin of 

lionally independent character, ^^_^ 



soread to me umt^ & - 

?agues were formed in various towns I 

Mr Latrobe was succeeded as (.m;' 

-•:y-r;^itio,i'tf,e.remech.c* 
No sooner had he arrived than l»."t .^ 
,,„ured in, asking for a repeal of y 

licence, and for representation of tlu . 
fields' population in the U'Rislatue t " 
td to these demands the Govenim..^ ■; 

pUed in October, 1854. ''y-'f/'e ','/:';, 
Ihal the sanch.nifor u»Hce«.cdd,ss.r ... 
I, t.,c^,c„kd mill more vigour Ihan h _ 
that the police were to devote at k..=^ 
days a week to the business. 



'•.tm^i'./?^: 



Section I 



EUREKA STOCKADE-DEr , . 



•'-■ ".-re vioC ;;;"''"' "'-n.l 
■■■•'n^- T„-dav thcTe are, *'" '" "'"^'^ 

T.n,o,hy Haves, usc^ J ?""""' ""■"■•. 
■'"■iKnces: " U" II ve .'^ . ''""''"' <=' Ws 

"'^- time for i°' ;",r'" ""h™ 
'Kvc=. forgetting :*.,«"f>cr,me. -Mr. 

••;n.e)v surre„.,efe„. t,.„ „ L;,"; T'-" 

■■■— r«Si:^;'s:;^:v'- 

Hastening the Crisis 

•^t this juncture an ac<-,M,,,i 
Ihe crisis. A Scoh* """"''' 

'""lofthehotcl-aSetofl """'■ 
named Bentlev „ "'''^"■"f-feave man 

"8i.t Wor™ a "ThJ"! ■•"-'«■■ 

naniej Dewes .„ . ^"""^ . "'"g'strate 

"■'''-tciauuXrrto'r™'^"-"' 
'l'"rt time it «-i. „., , " ■" a \erv 

'»"« «arche„ out ^"^^;' 'V'*"- ^'■'' 
■""' three raen-u'r\ •""■'- '™'J. 

«Vs,erhev-«ere at'? f '' ,'''''"'""■ -1 
'°*"<liarism. '"'' "'"' '^''"S'-J with 

I'liise men were i.i,l . i 
"'«™tofanvco,„.^ '". "* "bsolutelv 

'""' arrest caused "7,;™ r '"' "" ^"^ -J 
.JB „„ _._.. "^^ "">"t mdiKuation. p^^^. 



-A lodci n 

"'"ntl.s' ira|,ris„„me„t On i • 
the JJailarat Reforn, , ''■™""S »""■ 

«- delegates reach^, r ' "" ''"■^■""'' 
J"^..h.a„dwere;li^ ':;™'";^-".- 
■'"'■ Charles Hotham w , ' '"""""r, 

A.tnnK.y-(;e„era,, J,,; s,t.^',;«'" ••>".' the 

Alarms „, Insurrection 

"" '""""'" "-■'"-'' to consider 




^^^™:".:.i::^rj;rTr""--"-). 

■■"tion were „„w in the' ,"" "' ""'•■^■ 

'»t.rne. wh le re L' '""'" '""' -•>«- 

^"i.^ which ;::r ';;:■■""'""■"■•-■"« 

""le tiia., tl,e Gold,., r '■ '"""■■ t'""l''^ 

"f -V"vemhe.8,t ''''■■ "" ""^ "■'"■■"» 

-•-ached^a;,ftt,:;'S;:!e";SV 

' "^1^::;"^, ":--'p <=t^:' 



603 ■ ■ "•"''"■'' ''V an excited mob of 



^iiSsi^WS^"^': ::$'-WfT-'' 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 

,liRR.rs Several soldier, were womKle,!, a,ul stretelunR out their rifiht Imn.ls ami saying 

: Uun„„er...n- was sh„t in the lc«. while •' XVe swear by the f^" '■-" ^^ j^J 

the haKKase wafions were rilled in s^areh of truly In- eaeh other, and 1 Rht to kfend , 

,„, Th". was an unprovoked attaek. and rights and l.berfe,." Names were th> 

C de,. ated by the leaders of the ,x,pular taken ,lown and the nten forn,ed .no s,ua, 



party. 

The Meeting ol the Dlgiters 

.Ml that ni«ht the coniniittee of the 
l.eauue s.it in euuncil. while their followers 
made niiiht hideous by the ilischarge of lire- 
arms and the beating of extemiKirised 
drums, ete. ; and the next <lay. November 
2'itli. a monster meeting was held on Hakery 
Hill, at whieh 12,000 men assembled. .\ 
platform was ere-cted. and on a I»ile was 
hoisted the insurgent Hag—" The Southern 
Cross '-whieh was blue, with the fimr 
prineipal stars <.f the great S.iutheni con- 
stellation worked on it in silver. 

The tone of this meeting was violent in 
the extreme. " Moral force " was denounced 
as " humbug " ; revolutionary resolutions 
were passjd ; il was decided that no more 
licence fees sh.mld be paid. Fires were 
li^.hted and existing licences were burned, 
amidst load cheers and the discharge of 
pistols and guns by the excited diggers. 

Spies in plenty attended the meeting ; and, 
being quickly informeil of what had taken 
place there, the officials dispatched mes- 
sengers to Melbourne praying for reinforce- 
ments, and the T«.i:-e camp was strongly 
fortified , As if ' ce on a conflict, next day 
—November .-ioin— the authorities ordered 
a " digger-hunt " in force, and at an early 
hour all the police and military in the camp 
issued out under the dirccti<m of two Com- 
missiimers. and. forming near the camp, ad- 
vanced upon the diggings as if upon a strong 
hostile force, with skirmishers in front and 
cavalry guarding the wings. The diggers 
retired as the troops advanced, but. collecting 
at various piints, they pelted the soldiers with 
stones and also fired a few shots at them. .\ 
few diggers were arrested, and the trooi)s 
then withdrew to their camp. Instantly tl;e 
Southern Cross Hag was hoisted on Bakery 
Hill, and thousands of diggers rushed forth. 
many of them armed. Peter I.alor— one of the 
leaders e died for lulunteers, and o-,-er five 
hundred m. 11 swore fealty to " the cause." 



for drill whieh was contimieil to a late hoar 
The men then fell in two abreast and m.irtln ' 
to the Hureka plateau. " Captain " R"^'' ■ 
Toronto, heading the nnirch with the Anp.': 
cm Cross llag. whieh he had taken dov.;. 
from the i)ole. The men were armed wil's 
guns, pistols. ]>ikes. anil all sorts of weapoi,- 
down to a piek and shovel. 

The position on the ICureka was taken u:i 
because it c.mmar.ded the Melbourne roa>l 
along whieh reinlorcenients of military l.r 
the eami> were known to be advaneiiiL. 
These eousisted of 800 men of regular Lire 
regiments and a large party of sailors ftoui 
H.M.S. £7i((M, with four field-pieces ; tla 
whole supported by a strong force oi 
cavalry. 

The Erection of the Stockade 

The erecti.ai of the stockade appears fi 
have been commenced llecember 1st .\ 
square plot of ground about an acre in ext' :u 
was hastily fenced with wooden slabs, supple- 
mented by overturned carts and ropes. It 
was a place of little defensive strength, ami 
is Ijelieveil to have been formed more a- .1 
place for the insurgents to drill in than a-^ a 
fortification. Inside the stockade were a 
few mining claims, and the place was doited 
all over with the shallow holes of fossick, is. 
and in these afterwards many men. 11 iw 
were using them as ritle-pits. were killed. 

Tents w-ere erected within the barrier ;iiiJ 
there was also a blacksmith's shof). in »! leli 
the -rging of pikes or rough lances wis 
vigorously carried on. 

The leader of the diggers was I'eter I. ,1 a. 
a civil engineer by profession. Young 1. i'"i 
arrived in Melbourne in t8,i2. and went irs'. 
to the Ovens goldfield. but was soon attr.ietel 
by the richer fields in liallarat. He " - J' 
tliis time a' -out twenty-five years of ag. .■.<'•' 
was a good-looking, strongly-built ni.ai el 
about six feet in height. 

He was secimdeil by .\lfred Hlack. ai. '. tlK 
pr'.eecdings of the ulsurccnts fnmi this ni"^ 
on shows that they (the leaders at all c ^iil>, 



004 



::i^^* 



EUREKA STOCKADE-Dt-r , , 



Section I 

• - ' •111-' ollK, r i„ c.„,i,i,„;,i, 




""^ ATTflCK ON TH,.; 



"1 :lll ,1 



>illlll, 
vtn 

-iRl, 

iiK- i: 

'lie 1,1 

ancf 

nerej 






^—A S,0CK..., ,,„.„„^ 



'-"•ij'taiii Tlionns 1 

«Mi' "f tlK. ,li-:;,r. "iT "'■ """' ""'""W'ared 

^"'' '" tins ™,1 i . f,,r"'*; ■'■"''''" ''"''■ 

;7'''p"ii«M„.rc.,,'''-:,^'-' 'I- .-..,« 

"■« i;ur,ka Stock,,,^, ' T''""-™ •" a't-ick 
, ^"' a"ack; and niTd! v'' ","', ''"■""""'« "' 



'"■Krossim," „,,,,„, "'.""■■ tliosi.c.vo,ifs 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



while larRO numl..rs .,f the " sw„rn m men 
wc-nt into the town in seareh nf (,«,! ami 
drink, and did n..t return l>ef..ie the liKht- 
Others .leseTteil, and when the s„un.l "f a 
tmralH.-t r,m*-,l the sleepy .lefenders lief..rc 
davlislit cm the tateiul nu.^.in^, tliere were 
..„t 2.« men in the stockade ; l.ut most o 
these- as the warninR shot of a senttne 
ran,, out an.l was follow.^l hy a seattere.1 
volley from those on Ruard, rushed t.. the 
l.reastwork and I».ured in a lire on the 
line of red-coate,l men that coul.l he seen 
approachins at a distance of loo or I50 
yards. 
The Attack on the Stockade 

The attackini! ' .rce, ^^onsistinR of 276 
mihlarv and ,».lice, replie-,1 >•> this lire, with a 
, ollev hv which live or six nie.i were kllle.1 or 
wounded, an.l soon bullets were i\yn.g atout 
in all directions. Orders were given to the 
insursents to tire at the officers, and very- 
sm. Captain Wise-, of the 40th Regmient feU 
mortally wounded, and Lieutenant Paul, ol 
the I2th was seriously wounded. 

Lalor, stan.liug on top of a logge-d-hole up 
within the stockade, et-couraged his men l>y 
word and gesture, but was presently shot m 

• c 11 1.1.. — Kmi ^i^ tH*> 



after the as.s;iulting force burst mto the stoci 
■ide a iwliceman name-d Khig chmlx,-<l up tl, 
llagstafl and tore down the S-uthern Lro- 
Hag anii.lst the cheers of his comrad. , 
The attacking force was ma-U- up of thir 
men of th" mounti-d 4nth, under I.ieuten.nr- 
Hall an.l jardvne ; si.xty-live men ..f the i j- , 
Infantrv ^U-giment, un.ler Captam ijuea,. 
and I,>.-utenant I'aul ; eighty-st-ven men 
the 40th Regiment linf.intry), under i.apt,.i: 
Wise an.l Lieutenants How.ller and Kichar,- 
seventv m.mnte.l l>olice, under Inspc-ct-.r- 
rurnell an.l L.ingley and Lieutenant t.>s,sac» 
and fortv f.,ot-pohce, under .Sub-InsiH,-e,, r 
Carter— .,r I7f> f.«'t and 100 m.)unte.l m ;, 
in all This force, when extended, was am-. 
to completelv surr.,un.l the stixkade. whi, i 
was t.H. large for the diggers to del.:i, 
effectively with their inadequate supplv I 
arms. Just belore the charge t.>ok place t:i. 
lire of the defenders slackened from want . t 
animmiition, and sinne of their weal«ins alt. r^ 
wards picked up were f..und to In.- l.-.i ■ 
with quartz pebbles instea.l of bull.,. 
The police and military tare testimony :-. 
the courage with which the defenders lon-jlit 
and had all the enrolled men bera pre-~n;, 
the attack woul.l in all probabiUty have I...1. 



word and gesture, but w^s presently shot in tne a- ^^^ ^^^^^ ^.^^^^ ^^ 

the left shouHer, and fell We;eJ,ng to h 'J" ^ ^^^, ;„,„ ,i y,e move, 



earth with a si-.,.ttere.l arm, .Uniost at the 
same moment Ross was shot in the grom- 
a mortal wouu.i : and Thonen, another in- 
surgent leader, ri^eidng a bullet in the 
mouth, fell choking with his own bl.».l and 
soon expired. An American officer of the 
insurgents, who had been shot in the t ngh 
at the very outse-t. remainetl. h.ipl>mg ataut 
and encouraging his men to resistance as 
long as there was a chance of reslstuiR, A 
number of pikemen st.KKl resolutely. W ith 
a loud cheer the military swarmed oyer, or 
tore down, the st.,ckade, and though pike met 
bayonet for a few minutes, the end was near. 
The insurgents were driven into the shallow 
holes, an.l int.i the tents and blacksmith s 
shop an.l were quickly surrounded and made 
prisoners. The military and l«lice are ac- 
cused of bavoneting and slKxiting wounded 
and unarmed men, and of .ejieatedly thrust- 
ing their bavonets or swords into the todies 
of those already stain ; but this is <Jenie.l by 
writers on the military side. Immediately 



iepvii»-" , "1 " '■■ — 

have joined the insurgents, and the inoveir.. ;it 

extended to other towns, 

Hanng secured I2,i prisoners, the imh- -n- 
and poUce lire-d the tents within the st.ick. V 
an.l then returned to the camp with l.^ir 
prisoners. 

Lalor'« Escape 

H..W many were actually killed in tht 
fight is difficult to determine, as ace .r,'- 
yarv considerably. Probably thirty f.l.. 
and »-ounded would be correct, while a.i-t.K- 
fifty or sixtv rcceivetl serious wounds " 
the military side one captain and four prn .'.s 
were killed, an.l .me lieutenant an.l m.n. 
-rivates wounded. 

The site of the Kureka Stockade .-. ". « 
marked by a bluest.me stage or piad.'n,, 
surmounted by a st.me monolith, an.l n 1" ■- 
a cannon at each angle, 

Peter Lalor, the lea.ler .,f the msui^.."" 
.scaiied. Three of his men maiia.,;ol t-' 
carry him out of tlie st.)ekade and (..•■.! 
606 



HUREKA STOCKADE-DEC. 3... ,85. 



Section I 

i;iiri-k;i Iviui ul,,.r.. .1 

rrtr..„«l, he" "■ ,"'™ ""■'""''=">■ '■-! 
r^'ns.s, where I ' ''"■''■ '" ^' >"" =" the 

"•'S iltt«I.li-,| t,, 
■'> lVif,„l5 till tin. 
'■ifl't "f I).«.„,- 

'"■' -Ith. «|a,, hi, 

"ijurol am, „,.,^ 
•'"■Ptitatwl. 

H'ith a rc-uar.I 
"f£-i""olTi.Tfilf,,r 
liis apprehonsi,,,, 
'•ilnr 1,1,1 in ,..„i. 

"'US places, and al 
'«'Ktli u-as ri- 
■■")viHit„GcvlonK 
"'";re lie under- 
lie.it several sur- 
K.eal optratioiis 
■J lie Govern men t 
"""■ »■«-•« kllelv 
"liereheuas, Ijut 
tliileshad change,] 
•'•'<> lie Has ii„t 
apprehendetl.and ' 
"" the acquittal 
"/ <lic other 
liiireka jirisoners 
0" -Ipril 1st, lO^:; 
''<• appearoil 'i„ 
PiiI'lic again. He 
» IS chosen to re- 
present Ballarat 
in the Legislative 
Cnuncil, and l,e 
miitinued in p„h. 
tlcal life ,„ ,1,^, 
f^y "I his death. 
He llel.l the p„si. 
tiun of Post- 
itia,^ter-r,enerali„ 
«ne Covemnient 
»■"' of Minister 

f^-^i"cr„?tr"T---- 

, -Wmblv. On LI '" '-''Sislatiie 

'"•si.io„-o,ig"J^f:""« «f '-st-namcl 

f4-,o for "d,-stlnin;'"'- '"■" "-^^ «"=<> 
I State," "-^'ngmshed services to the 

^Iwugh martial law n-as ,„ i ■ 

"w Bas proclaimed on 

6n- 



Modtrn 



following the I.:n„,k., „ , 

"VIS not will, .1 , ' P""'"^ 

'■'-■ 'iureka ,,ri',ner' \ ■•■ '""'"■"■".t. 

■^Pril 1st. I,S, . c ""'"'""' "" 

•'■' -^ '^'■"■■"■ssion of i„,,„i,^. 




THE EURtKA SrocKADE 



ileclared that the ,li.,„ 

»W I-egislati 1- ,'"*''' '■"f-T^J; the 

-«»all.'Jt . ,t',7^'"''^<'ewas 
quences, '^ 'mportant conse. 



mm'mm!i.^dMa^^F^:fSt§^mM:.^>ijiJi 



SECTION ll.-HAKLY 



FIRST DUTCH WAR, 1652-1654 



THE f.ict that Cr.iraiVdll's Ripulilic, 
;,lin,>st immi^ili.itely after its c'tab- 
li,lunLnt. L-k-ctucl to waRi- war asaiiisf 
a I'nitestaiit aii.l ck-mucratii: popl..-, must 
have af[..nK-.l c.nsi.UTabk- amusement tci 
contemiM)raTy cynics. 

Cromwell and the Dutch War 

It w.is a lU-pl.iraMe .iceiivrencc. 



Crn-.,- 
well himself lamented it bitterly. lie hail 
nil wisli to fr.!ht the Dutch, anil in lA;;t ho 
sent emissaries to Holland in the ho|ie that 
it misht he iiossible for the two Keimblics 
to form an alliance of some sort. 

But this was not to be. Cromwell's 
proposals, in that they demanded much 
and ollerod little, failed to attract the 
Dutch. ■•.liticalcn.,.i.les held no interest 
for the wealthy merchants of Amsterdam, 
their one ambition bcins to frescrve the 
existing situation. 

While (krmany hiil been agitated by 
religious strife, and England by civil strife, 
the Dutch had succeeded in monopolising 
the carrying trade of Europe, and. in con- 
sequence, were more than satisfied with the 
existing state of alTairs. England, on the 
other hand, now that she had emerged from 
ci\al discord with the best-ei|uipped Army 
and the best-equipped N'avy iu Europe, was 
bent im expa-.ision. 

But to whichever direction she turned 
she found the road barred by Dutch trade 
supremacy. 

Hostilities, therefore, between the two 
countries were inevital>le. And the in- 
evitable liecamc imminent when, in (.)ctober, 
1651, the much ridiculed Rum]) Parliament, 
contrary to Cromwell's wishes, replied to the 
Dutch rejection of Ei.gUsh overtures by 
passing the f.imiius Act of Navigation. 

This Act. wluch declared that no goods 
were to be brought to England except in 



I'liglish ships, colonial ship- or sllips of lla 
country in which the goods were produc. i 
was a blow aimed directly at Holland la 
the eyes of the Dutchmen it was an i. 
dignitv which could not be borne ; .1;. ! 
although not the cause of the war. served . 
spark to se-t alight the fuse of trade tiv.il: 
. • • • 

Hostilities began ill May, ibsi, wlieii .,;i 
English ship. patroUing the western ..i- 
proaches to the Channel, fell in with a Dutch 
merchant llect under convoy of tliree battli- 
ships. The latter, it was alleged, omitted t;.. 
ll.ig of Engl.ind the customary salute. .V. 
anv rate, a quarrel arose, and was continual 
until finally the Dutchmen were f.irced t . 
lower their topsails in obeisance to the Power 
that claimed llie sovereignty of the X.irr iv 

Se.iS. 

,.\dmiral Tromp -whom th.e Dutch. ri^li'Iv 
fe.iring the temper of the Ivnglish. had s^iit 
with a strong fleet to convoy a merchantni ri 
through the Straits of Dover— on heariui^ of 
this incident, at once made for the Eii'^li-'n 
coast, intending, as it was allej^ed, to do a.. 
more than make a demonstration to sli^iv 
tliat he was prepared to protect his coualrv - 
interests. 

But Blake, the English Admiral, regok '. 
the movement with grave suspicion .ir.I 
put out with his fleet from R\e to eiifnra 
the salute. Troinp replied with a IiriKul-iU' 

In this way the war began. A f. riii.i! 
declaration followed later. 

The Beginning of the War 

At the outset, the advantage l.i> ui:- 
doubtcdly with England. Dutch coiii.iKTce 
had outgrown the Dutch fleet. The T.i 
Navv. on the other hand, was more 
adequate to protect its trading interest. 
was gieatiy superior both in design 'ii-- 
struction to the enemy's ships. 



th:in 
allJ 



S.Ttion M 



Tlu' iMrly Stuarts altli.,„.,.|,tlu, 

-^'pl""'Krs; a,„l thdr ,,ri,l,. i„ ,1,, ,.K,t 
"i> fullv .l,,,r...l l,y tlK- CniMinmiv,,!,,, 
'-vc.mnu„t, Cn.nmdl, ,h,ri„« ,|„. ,-,r,t 
thr.cy>..,rs.,n,i, ,„,„.,,,,,„„,,,_„, ,l_^,,_^^,^ 

"";',;'"'"■ -"'■ '•>■ «ivin, 1,,,,,, „„i„. 
■ . l»-tt>.r pay, an,l l,..tti.r ,,.„L i,„pr„v,,l 
■"""■"•*■■>■ ""-■ P"*mird „f til., omntrvs 
i:: iritiinc fora. 

I'IK' Hutch |)IISSCSS<.,1 «.„ f^r ■ 

!.i:lt sukly f,ir llj,'lltill,i; puri,,.s,^ 

1 Kct was coMi- 

!">ul for the must 

!'irt of amiLtl mir- 

ill iiitnifii ; and in 

till- cotistructioii nf 

tlii'>i' Vf-ist'Is f\'i-ry- 

tliiiiR was sacriliivcl 

t" thdr priniari- 

-irvice ; whilst tlic 

Mu.ly nature i.f the 

C".i-t of Ilojian,! 

iiLide necessary ships 

"f ^hallow ilrauKlit 

■iii'i encouraged a 

llatiiess of k«I. The 

I'i'teh sliips, there- 

f'Ti: lieiiiK hghtl\- 

''"ilt, suffered yer>- 

nitltli more heavil\- 

from sun-lire tlian 

'1 ' '1 t li e soli ,1 

"ivMoikii walls of 

IJii;land." "■'■'■■" 

. ':""% '■ '■■: '■"■■ '^""'■' »■'"'-■>' i>- K'..„te,i 

■" "'e .Slnpwr,i!h,s Company, inaugurated a 

«v era ,n biiKlish sl,ipl,uildi„s, I'hi.leas 

tt. the hrst president of the compauv 

«•'■- ■' man of aliihty, who ,„,.,i,,j ,1',,,^ -,, 

«,^iM.s proper function was to he an 

'*"t siuhiii! and iishting vessel, and no, 

,-* afloat,^ fortress: ami. to achieve 

'■"■>I;M. he effected mauv reforms sweep- 

"^■"vay hish-pitchei- .,, sties at stem and 

■ n , and stnppnii; -1 ,ts of their heavv 

■I'-llaniper. 

Till name of Phineas Pett will ahvavs he 
""■■ered ,f only hecausc it was he „-„„ 
■M'?iie.I the .VKvi-,-,,.,, „/ //,, .s-,„, 
•aa.iud the .<r>;:T.-,)o,l. a ship of 
■''" ''^Ttl'en -more than --00 ton: 



FIRST DUTCH WAR -I6S2-I654 

e-^het.d 



Earl 



■d luainst the 
ser\iic in the 
the lirst three- 



linlv 
odel 




ADMIRAL BLAK1-: 



'■■'" "'>■ '"-f-i'-l ship u 
Armad 1— which did go,,! 
Hnteli W',,r, and which wa 
decker in the Mriii-h N.uy. 

t-'roinwell, recoKuisimj Iik. „,^.,i ,, 

siilmgvessc.l,,lla.c,cd his attention 
to the co,„trnctioi, ,„■ ,>j,^„^., ^ , 

vessel or which he had .,1, e.lcelKnt 

iv.ulahle -ther,,,,,,,,,. II-,,,,,, , ,_, 

•W-". ling to p,pv-, who sul,se,|uei„lv he- 
-irne .N-eretarv to the .VImiraltv, the r„„- 
l-;ngl,iiids r,r,t frigate, 
■^ ~l"l' ot •^.. tons 
I'urfhen, carr\iiig ;_- 
i;niis, and manneil l.v 
a crew ,.f one hull 
dred and (,,rtv „n.|, 
she was l.uilt in iiqo 
hy I'cter I'ett, ,1 son 
of rhincas: and s.i 
successful did she 
proye that during 
the Dutch War sIr- 
took. .says Evelyn in 
liis diarj-, ■■ as much 
money from the pri- 
yateers as would 
have laden her" 

The 1 Hitch lighting 
I-Ieet, again, w-.isham- 
percd throughout the 
war by the constant 
necessity of guarding 
merchantnien. This 
was a problem which 



1; , . i""iMcm wnicn 

-Id not conlront the J-higlish I-leet. Knglaiul 
at that time was an agricultural countrv - 
lier sea-borne onimeree w.is coinparativelv 
small. ' 

The prosperity ,,. lIoll,,n,l, ,„, the other 
hand, w,is eutireli- depen.lent on the safetv 
"I her nierchantmen. .\nd these ships- 
some of them carrying cargo to the value of 
perliaps. /.■.io.ooo sterling unless adeiniatelv 
protected, were exposed, of course. „-lii|e 
nuking their „-.,y „,, ,i„. Channel, to attack 



from a dozen 



,. , - 1 ".s the south coast 01 

Ivagland. I-^en if tliey salle,! bv- the altern- 

atlve route round the north of Scotland they 

Pat« could still be menaced from Lowestoft "d 

t-'-.i; Harwich. 

greater .Moreover, the one ad^■antage which tlie 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



Dutch possessed over the Enslish. namelv 
tlT^Z. ol Admiral Tromp, was larR-U 
dL^rted by the fact that HrrriarrJ^J^ 
to imd c.n.mandets to oppose h.m wortln 

"';£h^ u, fact, as Blake, Monk, Ayseue. 
pra;:iOea„elo.,,o^^^.-;or^; 

?::^/-?;j'rras:itr= '-->-'- 

^:eZi sailors, but they rendered servrceof 

^:S'cro,n.-ell's"An.phibi.u,s, ..nbuc^ 
, , ,,( *\,f. New Modul Ariu> , 

ea sci this defeat at once, and reorgarused 
tie ileet on U..es of military co.rccutrat.ou. 



,-es-i-ls, lli',. 
,■■1 sent t 



Naval Tactics 

Acceptu.B the sailor, .rot the *'P. J^ *^ 
u...t, tl,ey proceede.1 to f "^" ;; j'^,; U 
sonidrous under aduurals, % .ee-,.dnurai». 
rt;:U.,rirals,a.,d then to tram th^ 

squadrons so that, in the day "' ^•'" - ^^^ 
whole force might act m concert to ensure 

'''I^Z arose the t..ctical question : How 
couM a comma.,der hurl h.s tk-et .u the most 
efIeet.vemamretagai,.stthee,K.my? 
To nreu with a mihtary tra.nu.« the 

••Tii.e ibrcast, naturally would 
matron, Lmt . ca ^ _^_| 

first co.niuend .tsell. nut •'» . , 

M.mk so,.u saw, this format.on was u<,t su.t.d 

its broadside. Ships, moreover, appro.rcl,.UK 
the ene,uy Line abreast' are exposed to a 



This task proved an easy one 
captured or sunk the convoy, th 
Admiral emptied tl>- ^o'-'i; 
ing the catch ii toe s.; 
herring fleet, so. le o,"> Siul^ 
to Holland. 
Tromp in the S. .i~- 

Tr„n.p, u.ea..while. with ^'^"l," 
ships, sailed for the Stra.ts of Dover, .hK, 

■^vscue, makes second m com.na.>d, ...1 

i,een left t., hold vvith o..ly .4 si"!---- 

Unable to meet the «'«7 » ""';", 
fl,.t. Ayscue took refuge .mder the gu,-M 

rw,.r Thither Tromp dared not t'"' » 

;I bu,^>:ei,.geagerfora,ig.,t.thel.u,.:. 

,a,; waited several days for Ay=.'ue to... 

out before rurally he deeded to make, ^r.,- 

proper sphere of act.ou-the >•""" •-"-,■ 

ly that tinre the herrmg fleet h,.d-.. 
displ^rsed; a,.d to add to Tro.rq, s > ■ , .- 
,,„int,..e..ts, on the day when at 1,. 
sighted Blake a viole.rt storm ar.,.e «„ki 

rendered an action .mi)oss.ble. 

The Dutch fleet was scattered, .1..- 
the ships behrg disabled; a,..l h ■■ 
U.>vi,.Racc,..upUshed..otlu..g,washe,.l 

,,„„„ to Holland, "f"- num^i' ■ 
de.noeratic Ooverrrurent deprived h.ra -a ,., 

comnuLiid. 



rndaunte-<l bv the failure of this e>cpe^hu<«i 
the S; equipped another fleet, uun.n„j 

between sixty a..dseve..tysh.ps^ win. . 
se..tov.t.n,derthec.mrma..dofDc\\«> . . 

He Ruvter, ,•,„,. 

This' force was ..ret by Blake oil twk.,, 

ishK..ock. .o miles south-east ot Un.K. 

Septc.nber 2(itl., , .-i i ,, , ,,, tin 

The battle did not begm ...111 1.1 '"» 



osed to a ■"»■• '"""-■ ,-..,, ,.^,,^,.1,. „„til uiu!.! 

S:;::i;ich;i;:;arepowerlesstorep^arid ^.--riT^tbbed the 1.,... 



tiro to w 1H.U Liii.* ^"- t - 

are therefore, in nmch the same position as 
a node o( troops when taken in flank. 

Graduallv therefore, the for.nat.o.l ' I....e 
ahead- was evolved; and, before the clos 
„^he l%st Dutch VVar it had beo.ne^.e 
recognised mode of man.euvrmg for attack. 

,^(f..r war h...l' been formally declared, 
Blake w.,s instructed by the Oaiin:ilo^^.i|^ 
to procee,! at once to the North bea 
operate against the Dutch herring fleet. 



tall, wi.eii .ia..» - 

what would with more tinre ha cbeo 

eisi^-e v.ct.uy, 'I'he Dutch ™"^''-'" ''' 
and Bl.ike had good reason tor el,o ,i 

^"•rhrConncil of .State, unfortm.alel 
so far as to regard the victory as c,n 
a,,d, thinking that tliel Hitch won. 

t,,tU,, action, at any rate un 1 
were content to rest iip.m their U.. 

set about to dismantle the lleet. 



;,,l,r.; 



6.0 



_ ym 



Section II 



■";l"i"Ks.,tl,c.yscri„„.l,u,„k.r-«ti„,„,,, 
,.u aiii;,-f(l (kUTmni.iti.)ii „f tiK- ™,.,„v 

•■■' ll..t of ,„ sl.ips „,.. ,,,„ „,„,^ 

-. .n.md ,„ Tr,„„p, „, ,,„„ ^ , 

'■■"-'■-li suprcnmcx- ;it sea 

Hut tiR- K-MiH Has a " 

f-nw.iK. i-,,iu-!„si,,„ ,v,„„ 

""■ ""Isif. Till- IHittli 

Ii'lvIi-ssK- oiitm,„il,m-,l 

'!i^l-:"Klish;a.i,l,val,am. 

'' tlioiisjh tlic- lalti. ,- 

l"ni;llt. Tn.mp i;,,i„„i ,,„ 
'■!-> \-ict.)r>-, aii,l sailc,l 
«""!., k-ste-,! ,lo«„ tlic^ 
Cll.iiind. 

"'■'kc took his ,k.,;,j, 
•■" iH-art aial, aixvpt- 
■"S l)laiut' vvliiclj rightly 
rested 0,1 tlR. Coxeni- 
nieiit. tciuleriHl his rt- 
-isiutioii, "so that," Jn. 
»"'>"e. " I may he frt-wl 
'r"iii that Inirdcn of spirit 
"liiell lies Mp,m ,„e aris- 

liiC irom the snise of „n- 

"^vti iiisulVidL-iic>-." 

I'lle Comicil of State 

'^ecliiml to acce|>t his 

'v^Wlation. 'I'hev acl- 

"Mt"! that tlieir own 
"'■aliKeiicc, not his i„. 
'Uliicicncy, ha,I hecii the 
c.uise of (hsaster, and 
■■»"ed filake a ha„d- 
"'""■ ai»>lnK>-. promisiir- 
■■""■ *" *' e^■en■thi1,^ 
■™1"" thdr ,,o,ver to 
•"eriKthen his han.l. a„,i 
t^. M ™ the s„R«estio„s. rosarding the Fleet 

.;h '"'"""■ ""^" ' '"'i^'«-'y i"»tit„te.l • 

-^.e„,e.ha,,t„na,o,,K,h,,t;;;;;;:; 
«K:;::;tt;:;:,t ' "'"^"-'-'"' -'-■ 

"" ™- captains :„;:[:;;h;;;^:n,::; 



FIRST DUTCH WAR-16S2-1654 



l:a,ly 

custom „.as „ovv aholished. a„d heneeforth 

he ..,ven.,,,e„tuadertooMheappoi,,,,,,e,, 

al Irttcers. from e, y p„i„t ,„ ,,„, 

this lias a v-ery „„,cli more satisfictorv 

-miigemeiit, for a man who owned, " d 
" '".ailcial interest in a ship, elearl^■ 1, 
reasons other tliai, those prompted l,v l,,;k 




CIKORGK 



6il 



MONK, l.UKK O, ALBtMASLE ,«,.,«„ 



lh>rsir^ '"' iK-inK imivillitiK „, 
a'-olle,,.' "'''"' ''•■"'«"' •I'atcoald he 

from' Z '''^='"«'"^''"l '"«'^"» ""»■ drafted 
' '" '" -^'"'y '" the Xa,-v, two ,ieserye 
sevial notiee^Ceneral Richard „eane 

nnitcd toCr..rawelIs victory at ITeston 
;, 'V'"-'' ^-'■•H'-- M.nik, 
The latter, one of the most l.riUiant ami 
r,Ytile men that se^•en,ee,l,h cent 
'•"«'-iJ produced, soon pro,.,, himsel l 



I"*- . _ 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 

.. . ,..,1 .wi,U tli:Lt he w;is 



..Jetn occupy am.>„uso.-crta.s a, U 
s«„..d only t.. that hM by m-'l-- 



Oeorge Monk, Duke of AlbemarU 

•-r"^'S*""\e^;"".ti.ai. 

iiiKkT MI Ki^ii"" „,,.,i,,,i,ls but at 

!"S"t sriSi :?.:;- 
" -'?-v-s:.1' ":■«''■ 

s£ :?.=;;■ «-"-■— ••• 
r "L \t mk ■■ l..sses«,l the Rr.ut R.!t n 

,„„,,, ,tr„M>! ■ u m.m, moreover, "f siiKmlid 
!r 'wivs superblv cahn a.ui.l the roar 
'r'bSe !•"« even if the sailors In Ir.s 
c™;:::l:clwerete,n„teYtfi..ttolauK.>a^ 
him, thev souu learned to love hrm ami 
'i:m,!;e'Leribe.Monkas"averyc,.njely 

„cr, nage, his countenance very manly and 
mlleslie, the whole fabric of his body very 



Strom; '■ ' ami a.Ms that he ivas never know-, 
CLi e. neat or drink till he iv.isc.dl.U 
it Nvhieh W.IS but once a day, and sell. . 

drank." 



The Qeet allotted t,. Wake bv the Umn. . 
of State amounted to more than s^yeu; 
sail and ivas divide,l. accoidmg t . . 

--'"? rrt.rKrwrt:ni :. 

'"XaudDeane,whoweretoKethe,.a 

aw - I. -"-"'- -''"^*''-- 't'T 
c'ei t y had johied the lleet, and ,vho now u ., 
riSa-ar-admiralsllagonthcf.nr/,- 

The Battle ol Portland 

By the cud of January, i653-barely t» 
months after his -bsastlous defeat -W-. 
had his fleet rea.ly to put to sea, and 

':■;,,,;;; , ..am conclusions WUH •lion.; _ 

Seeim : H,e latter already had ■•... 
,. ou-h the Straits of l'o'..r 

Jn^a. .^imdrightlv-thathew.,,, 
"^:v™rtodosoa«ain,inorderto.U„.i 
protection to the merchant fleet the.. 
i.ected from the Indies. , ■ , , „„. 

' The Enslish .\dmiial, however, deculed . t 
t, m, s? the initeh on then way d 

C I. nel. He remembered how he h.i.l K 
r'Xd of victory oil the Kentish Knoa> 

, onlyle could meet thenutehmw, 

waters o( the Channel he wonl.l the. k 
:;fi«htthemforseverJdaysi n--;; 

^„d so force a decisive result before ';■ 
™,dwith,lraw to their own slu^.ww,;u. 

Moreover it would be greatly to hi» .. ' 
,, e";«tpone a.i attack on Tr.nnp u|;n. 

*■■ f^ *■ 1 ' , _ 1 1,,- iiu.Trii:ilr.lll'.o 

H„. P.tter was encumbered by initen.'" 
'".X eordingly he allowed the IHltehn... 
,,ass unmolested through the Straits of ... 
„. their .mtwardvoy..Be to meet tl.. 
Then he sailed, keeping ns fleet eMe. 
lar IS l...ssible across the thanue s,. ..- 
t^ntaiL the risk of the enemy, when ,..,..= 

3 1-. . i.in l^^st imonser\e<i 
waid bound, slipping past i.n- .. 

The difficulties of this vigilance wel. 



■fition n 



' ru'H.nj; abu„t ,ift,,,, . ;" '"^ '""o «vs 
l'"rtlan.l-rm-iv,.| " ""' '^'^' "i 

"■'""■■"o.^;.^:: :"",•'• '■•"•■•' 

-'75 warships .I^IC™'' "■'"''' ''"' 
"i^rcliaiUMifii. ■ " ■■' "'""•y "I I.5V 

"laK- imaiuliatclv ■■ul..,r,,l ( 
"imns tlk- mVlit l, ' '-"■'^'■'1 '"r actj.ui ' 
-.■ltWs^ai',7^^"-."- "•■"■! cha„,„, 

"rcfzc from tliL' i,„r.i " ■'■'"'"I 

'"•'l^'-Mm,! 1,,. wisl,c,l „, ,|„ s„ ,f , 

'T "''"■''"" "iti. tjr i' ' r'T'"""' 

tMl„. ^ '"'' ""' 'iriiis llimsflf 



I-IKST DUTCH VVAR-I652-J654 



AltlitniL'li tl... r> 

^"""■"^■■'>-^;*, ;';;t."f-^"™'^-' 

lTosc„tlyfr,>„, the oast cam, 7 
"'>-• rcmain.l^.r „f ,i„. „ , ■^""■- '.avvam with 

'" ""-■ 'Lu- .U.mk a,,f' "'■;;"'"'"• '"'t^'r 
'-■fci"^-. .nana, d t ' '"'" "' '"«"'- 

»■«-"■ Th..„ t ,';:;"■" "■'^ ^"'i« "■'.. 

"""-v™t a change. "' '" "'^- '-«'- 

i"S;;';sr';7«'-'^'-™p''-his 
-;^''-«i-..^;;„;'-,::^*"-h,i..t 

l-™.tal,.„fn; ,: '''V-'-«-'-^«-hichl,ad 
tl..c.™,,,io„ ,'■;"■''"''''■''■■'>"'»■'''' 
""" t., ll„,t J "''™-"'S .1 .lisi„di„a. 

''""" the dr., Itul' '"-''r '™» ••*l"«--km«. 

->-'-,thM;":,';;;:;ta^::.'«^^"«'-« 



Stake Engages Tromp 

"•■th„ut hesitati,,,,, ther,.f„r , . 

'te /fe<W, ■ a, I*" , '^"""!' ' "^'«-Wl>. 
'« iK-lp arri -id ;, r""-''"' "■■'■^ ""'I'lav 

*PS su|)p„rt his hor h,.|,l ,, • ^ '"'■ 

s:' -•"-,.„„:;;;;; :;;;::,::■■-;- 
"'■■■■'■"-'"'■".1..' « h/x rr 

'""^"-'. A,„lr™- Rdl ,1 '""'■s^' "f tho 
'"■■"iv tl,,. \ I . ,. '■^■Ptaiii, a,„i 

-">-' the ,i„-^"'""r.' ^ ^■"^''■'^v, hdng 



""'I' "ivts .„,„, H, ■ , * 
^■'■-tins repair,' ,,;"■ '"^'l'' '■^"■- ■•«■. 

■'-■-'- I., s ":;,?. ""'"'■' ^'-'"i-t 

-'-'i-..t ™;;^,::;7"^"'- """"K tiic 

"'-"'^t;:;-:;-;;i^d:-„;^ ""';■ ':-■« ™.. 

-'Kl.te,! t., the , , " ■ ""-''"' '■'■'""1' "-.as 

'^™.uio„t..;;;;;:f;;;;-"-'--ce.,t 



•section [[ 



l"".-.il t„r ., , ''""'' '■-'''■ >'•'"''■■ Ik- 
,-,, jiuwL\cr, . ^ lining lii^ht 



HIRST DUTCH WAR-,652-16S4 



E:,rlv 



Panic Amongst the Dulch 



-'-■ *n,M „,.t .s4. „ ur, '" r 

l-ir.l perished. ' "*■■'-'■'""-■ "" 

_ "ar, l„cl,„l,„R tlie (;,/,„■/,. ;, ves*I „f 
' Tii tons, te, 1st Adniiril I .„. 

, '" ■' '^'™' "i l"s nierchantmen. 

, ' ■■■< f-.ir slnps |,.d deserted during 

, ■'-.lit- Ot tiinsi. re lahii,,:; „e,-,rlv ,„„ 

". rf a„d ,l,e c„„f„si„„ i„ „,, 

' ..; ''V'-"f^''- S-^^-^al battleships 

'"l«c the splendid exa,„ple set to the 



'■IS 



...-^;; rir:^::: ■:;,:-'-"- 

^"allow dra„Kht „t his ^esl^ s ^^ ^ ■, '" 
t.>™rds,,,«,.,fa„ i„ standi,,, i„el„st' 
hZ '^""'^ "™' "- '-«-'. -..red t 

t-:^=ha^'t^;-L;;-,-::: 

«""'l "..t „, „,id.a,a„nel '■ ^*"" 

•Monk and l,eane, therefore, ,vh„ had,,,,, 
^'-med e,„n„,a„d „( the He ".k 

-"i ;:;tii;:r"-^ *""-''- -^ 

^sta-e^r-::,;,^ 
■7"-n.:'r:,:;h:dese::, --- 

't was, hi,ive\-er -, s„rr,- , 
/le,.t n.„ T ■ '^■"i".nt "1 liis 

"! "'■" Tr.„„pto„k hack int„ the Tev 

1. Iv a,sser,s t his ,s ■ c TT" ""'"' 

1- c„nntrv,ne„ tl.^ H^t!;' ""' '^'■'""^ ''" 

' osses and Qains 

Tlwt sa,ne historian adn,its that ,],e 

™ if ^::;^h :r";;:i-''th,;t":;;';: 

■\s a niatter „f laet, the laedis st 

'■"-• »l"l. nnly-the .s„„„„„ „,„; ' '.'"' 

-."n.«„l .„e> tl,e,„se-lve; , ^ "f 

;"- tiK- first day's cniliet ; , d t 
'".td,. „, additi,,,, to t,5„„ ,„;„„, , 



BRITISH BATTLKS ON LAND AND SEA 



iiU-TcllHiitiiK-n. 

,„ April i.^mA- ."""tl'^ ''"^'^ '"■ 

a,..„K.a th. !.".« l'arli:..m.,it, an.l Ik- 
,o aU ilrtcms ami inu,>o*s, .1 I'.cUt,.r. 

N,nv i.. Cr..m«>ll^ .yc-. the «ar 
U^aUna wa. hateful and ""---^;;. 
-innulv wi^lu'l tlR- c-uiUrv tn le ".1 in^ 

t.nns>vith.tslTnt.<ta..tm.kW."ur,a' 
s.„m.r ha,l he !;"t the u.u- "1 K""n 
i„h.K..w.ihan<lsthai,he*tsen.H,^htn 

for peace. 



ike\ 
.l.slv 
aiue 

with 

He 

lallv 
1(1 n.' 
iineiit 

work 



Uenewal of the War 

But his pr,.„„saN fell "" '"'-" f^™; i 

Cromwell wa. not a ''■'''""'f ^ ' ■™ 

the Kutch, alth-UKh s,, far they had 1 u 

worsted ... the str..BRle, re^ar.led l"--" ' , 

R.„t de„.a..ds as ...,th.,.K >.ut a.. . t a^; ■ 

war.,.ly .lecli..i..K tc accept peace at th. pr.e. 

,1 Liu.ed liy l-a.rfa.id. , , 

NuchasamsthisNyill.tl.erel..re.er,a„Well 

...,' "vvd the ^var. He placed h.s cnu.Uv s 
honour, Uoweeer. before all other co,.. e.a- 
ti.,i.s a.al deter,>.i..e.l that I'a.sla..d -I""' 1 
'«;,af..llharyestfro,..thevietor,esuh,eh 

lier lleets had Wo.l, 



the deck of the R,.nl„l,<'« hy the sld. 

,„.e was .,o, hit. Nor d.d h.. ..erve . 
Lrhi,„.or.,.,.o„.entattheeal.u..av.u. 
,,„, ,,,(,dle„ hi. caleasue a..d the .1. 
1,„„„,U drenched i.. the str.ekeu ,. ... 
11,od he e..vere,l the l».dy iv.th h.s el- . 
,int..o..e,n.«l.tl.ed.sl.earte,.e,ll.ythes.e: 

Then he pre",l l.on.e h.s attack so .-; 
": thJ.l.e-teh aUho,.rf.tl.eylu,: 

„,,t ,n no wise .nienor to thai OPI.OS...S t'H . 
were c.enpelled ere ...l^htfall to haul out 
:;:;■„, .n.!l ....dercoverofdark,.ess.toh, 

u„ lor lloll.n.d 

\-,^t ...orn.a..; M.mk followed up ... P 
.,,il ■ whilst Hl..ke. hear....; that a K.t 
,;.smpro.,res., alsop..touttosea^de-,. 
l,„,nhr...it.e~. withthelNsl..ps.nl..se.. 



■I'o i; 



, :r-e Mo 

the W..I 



ik IkIo 



successful termin 



hrinj;...: 

'"■n.ew..u..d which Wake rcceivul. lM,r..a-v 

,Rth. was still cansh.B U". "'<"^l> "";,,, 

in co„se,,..e..ce he had been C"«.l-;"" ^ ;' 

tunc t., relh.riuish his co.n.na.nl . thonv... 

""trary to the advice of h.s «'-";!- ; 

stro..gly urRcd hunt, rest, hems St o. 

.ccepth,s a ..ominal post--... charge "( 
sl,i|,s then relitti..s iu the "™>^-- , 

n the .neantin.e the supre.ne con,., a 
deyolv.,! upon Mo..k and l.ea..e, who w 
,„ec,ofxoo.hips.....urf.ttl-.,..a,, 
Trorap at-ain to action olT the (...bhatd, 
cast of Harwich, 

The battle bcKan, unfortnnateU 1 r a., 
land, disastrously. l)ea..e ben.K k.Ued 
the first l.roadsrdc fired fron. T'ro..,,,s flaK 
ship. The ca,.non-sl.ot winch struck the gal 
rmtsoldier-s.il"rhler:dlyc..tlu,nmlu,ll. 
Monk, althouBh at the tii.,c standn.R on 



""u ■ ,ni,ld,,^ Wake had ..vert..ken M".,- 
,l,,,n cL.se upon the enen.y ; a..d h.s -n, - 
"edan..,'aluablea,ldit,ontotl,el;a.!.-,. 
, He.,ccforth,sofa:asthelH.tcl.w-' 
o,„cer..ed. retreat beea..,e a ront. Wtw;.. 
„. ente and th.rty of the c.en.y s war-,: - 
,,.„i„t„tl,,ha..dsoftheU..glish.and p, .^ 

liini^'lf escaped capture o..ly by a lu,' 

■"Hut"lhc str.dn of the co-dliet had U." 
>,a,,.er th.n W.kes strength could sir,', 
Mter the battle, he was landed at N - 
,,„- .erio,.slv ill. a.,.1 set .nu..cd,.o. , 
„',:.„c,. to his ho...e at l)r.d«w.iter to r, 

"''■l-he Ul.-hsh ..ow blocka.led the wSlole eo,,>-. 
„, ,,'„„,„.l.,„d«. the trade of that c.n.„.rv 

„.,. totallv at a., c.d a,.il its hsher.es -a- 
nvnded Cnvinccd at last .'f the nece--.:-. 
,isnb..,.ssion. tl.elH.tchresoly^»lt..J;r.,t,.v 
the pride of the s.ster Rcpnbl.c by s..l,c, a 
,,, J,. ; but Cron.well would not grant .t e.. 
;,eeeplable conditions. 



Van Tromp Sails-lor the Last Time 

In a few weeks they repancd a..d .n,r.(..e. 
their licet ...lew. e.p.ippinR ships of a ..^• 
size th,m any they had hitherto ,:...t to s. 



IKterinined to e.illqner 



or die, \'an 'f- 



„nee ..tore p..t to sea, and for , he l.e;t :i 
II, set sail with il.i ships from Ze,- 
a,„l w,,s soon after joined by i,i more,' 

lie Witt, from the ", ^ sel, 

, ,. ,,1. - ,>r,l'rs that Ui- 

t.eueral Nioiik f,---- 

el6 



ilion I[ 



MKST DUTCH WAR ,652 ,654 




- SC.,„t„,, ship. .li,c„vCK,l tl.O l.„,d, 

■;«'-"- yii.i.,„, „.ow.„.,.t, 

. to A,>.l.r Z.., ,i,e ,„il,s nortl,- 

■' .^•I.'..I, Ft I,a,U|,e„.„,, village, 

....ta„.l\\,,tvii,.Ia,„l, ,!,,,!,« ,,f 

•"I """• c,n-.a,l l,v ,1,,. ,,,,roadnns 

ll«-t of \-a„ Tr.mip coMsistal „f ninotv 



ll.atc.,„M,,syt.tc„nii-i,p Ik-kl,!', 
will tlic-iH off CampiT.l,™-,, ■ , vil 

C"ast„fir„lla,„|. ,K,,r„l,id, lie. 
of ])Ure vvliito santl - 



-iliattlo 
'III tilt 

-■ (iiiiiis 
l.l.. for 



■ or tiiert-aijout 



more. tl,an one onRaKomolit. cspociallv the 

riiou,,, the ,,,„i„^, „.^^^ ^, J^'- 

w,™ h.,a.tlo,..«a,,,Jui,.,th,.i...e,ve 
Sllli two li()iir« <if . -i,.i;..i.i ... 



'-..Ships of __.„,. J,:- :-^,^;;-.th,u...e. 



wm- 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



™e of the fla,ni.,g =lu,.s set Ure f, th. 
r.,„m/-ft, most »( -vhosc crew tl^w ". ' 
Lives ..vciboard i..t,. tl,c sex and she ^ .s 
™,, save<lfrcmt.,taiaestrucu.,nb>tt. 

hrive fellows who adhered t.. her, wm. 
am d the .moke and flames the Dutch pourrf 
c™ss-bar,eham.androuml-shot upon them. 



The Qreat Fight 

\fter darkness fell, all hands on board the 
n^twere^ttoworkinl^mrn^new^^ 

'^•"''■'^"'^.rSlps U^l'^^ed nmeh_ 
:Ch'lH:gJhad on., t6 killed and 

'\;:r'30th scarcely a shot was hred. both 
.,ud opened lire at seven m the mornnij,, 

;■;,£-■;,:»: ::.:"■»»"- 

,1. Kn''^ - went on board another vessel, 

the O.,*,nu,sto.t^.e crew ■^-;;f'j;:;,, 

=-^^^^::;,;"^'"^;el^!;L.. retook the 

?",""■■; , J in which had been captnred by 
Si'ultclrrrprevions battle, bnt the 



captors were compelled o abandorr , 
burn their prize. Van Tron.p = ll.>8 b 
\Z shot diwn early in the morn.nu 
„asnotrehoisteddn™s.hew,h„le d.u 

\lter the fall "f the Kreat Admiral 1 , 
command of the ..utchileetdev,,lved on,: 

Viee-Admiral, I-vertzen. 

The r.dorv commanded l'> /-r.-, 
I,, 7 "was hard beset by one of the Du:.. 

, . ■ 1. „„' two other men-ol-w .', 
vce-adnui Is, ,.n : "o"" 
Imt made her party good. Another Du 

"cladmiral, mistaking the condition o 

s-hr^m:^^.rtrth:'i^f 

;:t;;::^i"'retnru>il it with a broadside whwa 

imraediatelv sunk hini. 

Notwithstanding the b«l■«.""^ "^- 
i«ued bv Monk, many of the prisoners «... 

ken up bv the English boats as they w.K. 

.:J;mnung 'about among the blanng .aM 

*Thrf];io?V.".Tron.p.> disheartened lU. 
llcet that soon alter his death It began t. 
i!::::^:... each ship making all tljesa,. 

acw could put ul».n it, pursued b> the u . 
Lt of the Enghsh frigates, till shelter «.>, 

found hi the 'i'exel. 

Ouarter was neither B'ven n,.r ,^Ud . r 

l!,Si bv !'»■ lluteli and by the Engh... ... 

^e wa» .ought with splendid deternuna- 
^'\o the bitter hnish: -<1 t^^^^i; 1 
gained bv Monk is the more t™arfcd 1 « ;■ 
one remembers that, throughout he b. * 
h, had -, man.euvre his fleet in shall.." «, 
Itter suited t., the flat-keeled ships.. ;■ 

,,„,, tlian his ..wn ; that 1"^ "^^^t. ,' ■;, 
ten already ..t sea tw,, months^ a -' 
bottoms; and that the enemy were o . ^ 
superior i.i numbers, but had in their 1 ....,.• 
the advantage of the wand. 



l.os.ses and Gains 

The I'utcli l..st 5,0...' mt" *"""''';■ 
wounded, in a<l.liti..n to l,o.... pr.-". , 
whilst <.f their flue fleet scarceh ,. - : 
:^Ld to harbour which had n,.tr.«.., 

Prions damage. Thirty did n..tret.i...- 

The English lost two sliips, a ,.1 t 
csualties numbered 4"" n"^" ^"^"- ' 
..^00 wounded. 
118 



i 




'HE BATTLE OIF CAMPERDOWN. JULY 2. 



I picture by CorJoti Browi: 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



The d.ith .■( tlK-ir l.u.,iintc- A.lnm.il 
cscitua litsli ccwstctiiLitioii araoiiR tin- Dutch, 
who new l.i.i;.in tu l..sf some ..( their wonted 
S|.itit. .in,\ t.. .hc:.il^ tluit the hand .if C.'J 
vemeil ti' he u|>raise<l .iRuinst them. 

The States C-eneral paid the hishest honimts 
t„ hi- mem..iv, and interred hini witli Rreat 
sdenmitv in the (hide Kerk of Hellt, ,vhere 
hi- f.inh is still til lie seen. 

Aftei the battle .if July .list. A.hnital 
Lawsiu. «h" "uis.d .1(1 the I'utch cast 
with 50 sail, t...ik 3» ■""te "f '1'^'' -'"!'■' ■""' 
m mv' herring buals, which he sent int.i \ar- 
m.iuth ; and a few .lays later ,V=i "tlK-t ITIKS. 
liden with 1-rench wines fish, etc., were sent 
l,y him t.i llle sinie ].lace ; ami then the 
Il.iUan.le.s liec.nle reduced to the verse of 
despair. 



The Return of the Victors 

Upon the return of the fleet, gnl.l chains 
and medals were presented to Cclieral M.mk, 
and A.lmi .Is lUake, IVnn, an.l I.awson, 
Smaller nlcl.ils were given t,. all the 
.itlicers, 

August 2ith was appointe.l a day l..r 
fOlemn tli inksgiving. At a publi.. feast m 
1/jndon Cr..rawell put the gold cliam i.mnd 
Monks neck, and refplire.! him to wear it 
during the enterlaiuuient 

In tlK' foll.iwing month, Mmik, m lu» Miip, 
the Rcsohilion. nearly penslie.1 in a terrible 
galj of wind oft Cromer. 

" The linglisli fleet being now absolute 
masters of the sea." says General I.udlow, in 
his Memoirs, " no ship coul.l stir out of the 
Texel without their permission. The Uutch 
were vmwiUing f. impute their .iwn ill-success 
to the cowardice of their .illicers ; but so it 
was bv the blessing .)f God up<m the en- 
deavours of the Parliament and its fleet, that 
since the beginning of the war we had taken, 
sunk or destroyed between 1,400 and l.Soo 
of their ships, of wliicli many were consider- 
able men-of-war. I'heir seamen generaUy 



dec.ined the service; neither had the. 
suflici-nt number of ships t.i put t.i se.i i 
sh.irt matters were br.iught to that 1 >- 
continues the Gener.d. ■■ that when Myir. , : 
NieulK.rt, ..rie of tlieir f.irmer Arnbassa., 
-ought t.i bring ab.iut a peace. Cron,,',,:: 
could now .lietate liis .iwn terms," 1 t.. 
was signed in .\pril, l<>34 ; and one -.1 1:; 
cimditions ..f the treaty was the expulsmn : 
the e-:iled King Charles II. from the d.i.ii!' 
ions of the Hutch: another was that !;., 
latter shimld recognise the English s..mi 
eigutv .if the sea. S... after all llie lives th :• 
had been lost and treasure exlKudeil tip 
matter .if the ll.ig remained jus', the sun. ,- 
it did bef.ne. 

The clause wis to this effect : 
" That the ships of the Uutcll, as well s;,r. 
of war as .it -.ers, meeting any ships of w,.: ; 
the English Commonwealth in the lit,:,-; 
seas, shall strike their flags and lower f,. ir 
tolisails, in such manner as h.ath ever bei- jt 
any time heret.ifore practiscl under any f,™. 
.if g.ivern.nent," 

N.it only .lid Cromwell thus r.o;:i 
for his country recognition of llie Aa •■' 
Navigati.m and ample ap.ilogy for p..-t ir,- 
suits, but-am.mgst.itlierthings-ane..,,n!;- 
ous indemnitv and the right t.i share tr,.lii:i; 
privileges in the liast Inilies which lutlail" 
hail been enjoyed only by Holland, 



Bngland Mistress of the Seas 

England had claimed the sovereign! -, n 
the seas. Thanks to Blake and Monk si;, 
had justilied that claim. 

But the full measure .)f their achievement 
can onlv be gauge.l when it is borne in nun.! 
that thev fought an.l triuraphe.l over .lie .1 
the most brilliant and illustrious sail, as whuin 
the world has ever known. 

The gallant Tromp was fortunate m tu.it 
he passcl awav bef.ire the Dutch had t.- 
drain the bitter cup of humihati.m as.. 
defeat. 



^ '•^r;. 



SF.CTION ll.-F^m V 



SEDGEMOOR 



CHARLIES II. ,|ii,l Rbruarv (,tl, 
il)S4, ;ni,i will, all liis faults was s., 
much ,k.|,l„ru<l tl.at tlari. was scarcily 
I li'nisviUiiKl ill I,,„i.l„n Hli„ i|i,l „ot «car 
train; ...1 the uccasi.ni. Aftir tin. atnssi.m 
.11 Ills bnithtT, King JaiiRS. riliKi.ius aii.l 
i-'litlcal Jisciiiitfiits at liniin. iiicreast-d tlit 
minil.IT ..f llriti>l, cxik-s alm.acl. Amst>r- 
'I."" "MS the place Bliere the 'eaclers w 
tiiose asseuiljled. 

Argyll's Rebellion 

Thither came Mi>iira„utli (expatriate.! 
sinev the Ryeli.iuse l'I„t) from lirahant 
au.l Argyll frum I-'rieslaiul. The latter. 
-« i.f that Argyll ivh„ had hceii he- 
ht-ided for complicity with (.nniuvell, after 
iMiiK sentenced to death f.,r treas.m had 
tsc.ipe.l from the le of hMiiihiirKl, ill KiKi. 
riRse two fu^itiv,.. and their followers had 
fen sentiments in c.miuon. s;i\e aiitafioiiisni 
t" Kiiij. James and the .lesire to return to 
their country. The Eiigli~li ami Scots were 
jalrais of each other. ,M,,ii,ii,,utirs aims at 
r.nalty were distasteful t.i Arsvll, a Celtic 
duel of long descent, aiul the lesitiniatc 
lepre.sentative of the Scottish Kiiijjs. 

C..iiii.romisiiig their differences, it was 
.sree.1 that they should make an attemiit 
t.i xcurc the Throne for Monmouth ; that 
->WH should le. 1 the wav for the former 
■^y landing on the > -stem coast of .Scotland, 
lit "MS to holil that e, untrx-, alul .M.>nnioutli 
Ellljl.iad. 

M.i.callum Mhor. as In was named In- his 
t.in.Mlien. laii,le.l in Cant; re, and sent iorth 
!IK Uery cross to summon the Campbells in 
'"■■* ; hut only 2,ooo claymores obeved the 
call : y,t with these he I'lad the iKirdih.iod 
'■' eminence his march for Gla.sgow. He 
»as .ipiKised by the Earl of Humbartmi then 
°™";-';«li"8.«ie forces in Sc.tlaml, and at 
in Dunibaitonshire, was irre- 
6:! 



arms 



Mui 



tney,,bly .lefeated, ni,sB„ise.d bv a long 
bear.l, at a time when most men were closi.ly 
shaven, an.J ela.l in the attire .if a peas,ilit 
he w,is .nert.ikeii by fne I.owlaml Militia- 
men when crossing flu- River C.irt near 
I'.llsley. The li.ibiht.v of his bear ig ,xeilv,l 
their Mispici.ms. He s],raiig into .he water 
aii.l kept them at ba>- for a time, though the 
immersion hail wetted the iii.itehes of his 
l>ist..ls an.l reii.lered them usi.less. He was 
overi>onere.l an.l struck down. ■' Al.is ' " 
he exdaime.1, as he fell to the earth ■ ■■ ,il.is 
unfortunate Argyll ' " 

^ T.niclie.I by his iiiisf.,rtuiies. an.l respecting 
his rank, the -Militiamen were about to .set 
him at libert.i', when Lieutenant .Shaw, of 
(Ireenock, approaclieil, and recognisiiig the 
-Mari|uis. ordered him to be bound haiiil and 
foot an.l coinkicted to I.aL.iburgli, where, by 
order of the .Se^et Onincil, he was executed. 
His hea.l was placed on the Tolbootli, while 
his b.,d>- was laid in the tomb of the Camp- 
bells, at Kihnun. <iii the shore of the Holy 
Loch, in .\rgyllsliire, 

.S.) emled the attemjit of Arg-.U. 

Monmouth Lands at Lyme Regis 

June, the in.mth in which he perishwl, was 
far spent when his comiiatriot, Monmouth, 
.after sailing from the Texel, anil being nine- 
teen days at sea, appeared off the coast of 
Il.irsetshire, and lanik^l at Lyme Regis from 
the //■■/,/,T,■n(.,■^.^ >(, guns. The town was 
then a cluster of steep and narrow alleys, 
built of bhie rag-stone, on a bleak and rocky 
coast which is beaten by a .stormy sea, with 
a pier of unhewn stones named the Cob, old 
as the days of the I'lantageiiets. The appear- 
ance of three ships, foreign built and without 
clours, pcrjilcxed the inhabitants of Lvnie. 
The townsiKople repaired to the cliffs, but 
could find no solution of the mvster^-. At 
length se\en boats put off from the largest 






BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND 



AND SEA 



1,1 r.'ivol t 

„,li,l.ll.ol-,t. 



. the 



ni the str:iiii;c \t--^N. ■' 
.l„,n, Fr..nitlu-^-t'"atsl. 
will .innul nun 

Monmouth-s ProK'trss 

0.mm.»..linK -.Lua Munm-nth ku.lt ".i 
U,e.h..a..>Kls.n.l'Itlunk.-...,Uurlum,« 

I 



u,l tlK- frillies 



,f lihcrtv and puK- Tlu- c;iMvlry «>.re 

., ...1 i,f t ^ll 111 



„, l-.«ht :>Kai-.st Monm..uth but t -c K 
l,,„l „„ „rc.u omr..k.,c. Ml h.s M.l.t.a. 

•riu- Kiimsc-nt f,.™iir.l .. latt.ili.ni , . ■ 
C.il.l,trc;im Cii.ird-.. vv.tU two iMtt.l.-i; 

„fl,i,ml,art.ms Sets, and I. small 1...U. 
und.r CluiKllVicy Kirkc mulL^.N-i 
) striini;, iuid wiTi L 



,,1,,:; i„ipl,„.d a IHyuK. ..l.ss,i,K ..n , 
uliicli >vas vc-t to b. done- by and . ai.d 
,, ,,i,„ „u s«..id. lyd liis btt^c baiu^ o 
„ly.n.ur.rsov.rth. dirts m.oI.>.n.KvM 
„.1,,K., .nHuarin« who IK- -as the pu.,,k 

g,.,,.d him «..!, .n.lu.su>tic sh.ai.s A 
Monmouth! A Monmouth and the 1 ro 
ti'stanl H-lii;ioii ' 

His standard ol blue -ilk ^vas unhukd u 
tlK markct-l.lacv, and his 1 wlaratLin. l«.md 

b l--cr«usson, vyas read at th. maika-cross^ 
It d.-uomicd thy r.li«.on and K""'""'™' 
ofK,naJam.s.andsmumo,K.dalltn,. - 
,«tantstojoiuMonm.....h,^vloasM^nK e 
titk of Jamis II., and olkryd /..><- i"' h s 
uicW. L Ku«. d.a,l o, ahye Thy ro.i, Is 
".„. str.wu with biURhs before Monmouth. 
I„dbythetimehereadKaa.ard.m.s,.mer- 

Lsllire, he was ,it.e,Kk.,l by ,'<,noo ho.sc. 
All things l,.oke,l prosperous ami encourai;- 
i„„ Aparty..tthey.mnsla,hesonaum,.n 
;rese-,..edhimwithaBibleamlar,d,lyeau- 
L„i,kre,l banner. ■ I ,™"e t,, defend e 
truths eontained in tins and 1. ■■! bun 
veith my blood!" hee«-I.nao, ,- ■e,,,.-se^l 

''"i.-r!!ni'T..unt.m he marehe,! to Bri.lKyyater, 
ami then adyanredupimBrist,,!, at that l.me 

the second imi«.tant dty m ba.sland ^but^ 
finding .ttoostronRly-kfended by. he Roval 

amy, he marehed to "^'"■■, " '"^- "'=,,X 
equally unsueeessful. Repelled at Uatlr 
,yi,ere'tl.e dti/.ens shut their Rates and shot 
his herald, he fell back on 1 r,.me-Sdvy.."a 
am. there hrst learned ticlmss of the eapture 
of Ariivlln. then.irth. He he,m als.. tui 
the Seots reKiments from Hoi .md had 
landed at Crayesen.l ; and that the Earl ot 
Feyeisham. with about .i.ooo Reunlar tr,..ps 
and lb pieces of cannon, was mardimg 
against hi.n. and that other tr.K.ps were 
mustering , . ,, . , ^ 

A Militia force was eolleeled in lindp^ort 



,«>sed of i,v> men tlrawn from the o 
inKipsofHorsetimuds. and i«.i. tern..,: 
„„ horseback; se-yen tr.-.ps of the II - 
(•,u,ir,l-.. ,md forrr tr.K.ps ..f R.>yal >rag,., • 
l,mnb..rt.ms Sets were the .mly r, ,, 
that still a.Ihere.1 to the ancient matelil, - ~ 
The liel,l-pie<es were obt.uned, nme ;: ;: 
the Tower ..lul seven from rortsm..ut h 

Sliots were litst eschange.l at Uil,, • 
N-„rt..n where ,iil indecisiye euci.unter I 
place. TheEarl..fl-eyersham. hearing I.. 
M.mm..utli was p.,ste.l at tins place , ; 
fonyar.l a sdeete.l ,let,.d.ment of f,M ., ■ 
,„„1 loot un.kr the IHike .,t l.raft.m v. 
„pK.rs t.. nuke a det.mr. and attack 
IHlke ill the rear, wl.ik he. with tlle : , ■ 
1„k1v slioul.l attack !iim ui front. 

M.,ninouth. snspeetmg s.>mc such :.. 
mellt h,ld line.1 the he.lgerows ol 1 
Norton l.,me with his musketeers, b. ^^ 
appr...ich he knew the r,.yahsts must i 
Craft,.!!, a v..utll ..f lire and spirit, any., 
,„ -liow th,!t he had no share m the ,l!-.' 
schemes of his l.,!lfd.r..tl!er, dashe.l , ' 
the head, .f his patty, till in a, leep green: 
he f..u!ul .ill pr..gress impe,le,l by barn, 
an.l a yolky ..f i!!i!sketry ..pe!!e.l up, ;.. 
fr,.ni these-, and on b..tli flanks. II.- 
fell back with l.io kill«l and w..unde.l 
young I hike cut his way out sword m . 
liil.l esc.iped unt.)uclie<l ; the appr.iaca 
night d,.sed the iiction. the I-arl ..f I'e.ei- 
mardicd towar.ls S.)inerton. and the - 
of M.>nm..utli fell back ui»m Hn.lgw.il 



Deserters from Monmouth 

The rain lia.l f.ill. •! latterly in coal:- 
torrents, and the old highways whieli 
sected the country had become v.: 
quagmires. 

The pusillanimous now begiui t.. 

him- the brace remained, but inai, 

covered more emoti.m for the dang-.^v 

now menaced him than fur themsel 

ej; 



Section II 



SEDGEMOOR-JLXY („h. 1685 



tint lii,,„|v t.HKllol t|] 



Monmouth's Resolution 

thp-msl, church ut «ri,l«„u,,r. I,, ,„„k^.,, 
MJ.y „v„ the Ur c«,.„t ,„• ,„,,,,,„, ^„ , 
fc.. >y „,„rshc. which clurac ■ rise. ,hc sc^UTv 

UmvJIvKw ,,f ,,,c ,,,,,,1 ,,,.„,,„, >-; 

o.",.^>y«iwi,hhisUsc„,«. u^,.^ 1, ;:: 

suiishnic, ami he ciil.l ••V'-iuuf, 

sii'. at the distance ,.| 

thfe miles Ihe h.,r-e 

anill(,,t„f J-Vversliaii] s 
army encaniijcd on 
Se^dKemiicr. He s.„v 
tllat they were sollie- 
"hat apart : tliat the 
Siianls were carelessly 
JH'Stcd, from ail idea ui 
mer-sicurity with re- 
gard to „ retreatiii); 
I'^e-; and, knowing that 
the liarl was a weak 
and indolent fieneral. he 
res..K-ed imniediatel.e to 
attack him. 

Heneath tlic eve i,f 
M"nmoutli. siiys' one 
"ll" lias trackeil all 
his m<'tinns clusele, lav 
a Hat expanse, now rich with crnliel.ls and 
I'PI* trees, but then a dreary „,„rass, ,l„„ded 
"the Parret when rains were heavy and its 
tr.l,utanes merll.nved their hanks.' .ScdRc- 
"■'"■r f.,rn,e,l part „f an enormous swanVp 
heh u, early tunes had arrested the u,.arcl, 
tworacesofutvaders; sivcn .shelter to 
the Celts a,^..,u,st the kiuRS of the VlVst 
■•'■«"'i» : and t„ .Ufred had heeu a hidiuL,- 
P |ce m the days of the Danes, wh™ 1 
„ J'^'T''''-' ■'"'"'"^■'l »''™' i' in their 
m ..tl, .Se,lgem«,r was partly re^claimcl. 
^"'I the rank jungle, whilom the lair of the 
Jeer and the wild swine, had been intersecte'l 
b deep and w,de trenches, which in Somerset 

Zatf u"rC ^"J '" ^-ne^ parts of 
Zetland spelt " rhimis." 



.Monmouth 
spire .m.l nil 



ould 



^e .imid tile u 
,, , ^- - U'estfm Zoehun 

l-eyersl,,un I,,,- with the nnal , 
He c.n,l,l distinguish ,,nioug ,|,, 



ranks th.it 
" whkii W.l; 
its c..lom.|, 
h.is loiiu :, 



gillant h,in 

then called i,„|„ ,1, 
liuniliartons Regim, 
■11 kiioan ,, ,|„. , 



Karlj 

or the 
where 
iv.iln. 
;he hostile 
eontiiiutfl, 
e li.ilue .,( 



which 
Seotsi o, ,1,^. ,i,,^. ,„,^, „'|',';,|, 7,', ,||"'|;^, 
lour ,|u.,rters of the worl.l l,.,s s„ u„|,,,. ,„„ 
l».rte-d i„ ,...rly reputation. • I know thole 
men, sanl .Monmouth: • thev will lidit 



i hail hut Iheni, 




Il 

'ulj go well : 

I'e.scending Imm the 
-pire. he re»..Ked lo 
liaiiard .1 night .itt.iek ; 
and prepar.itio,:s were 
made for it. 
When 



full 
Stle 



lllo. II was 
':ortlK-rn 



sho 



laill- 
"1 tlie 



iniers 

i.intle. ,1„ 

>'"Ke ,„t 

'ait their mo\enients 
"ere concealed l,y the 
marsh misf, which 

l.iy dense ,uid dee| 

.'^edgenioor. 

I'Voni the records nj 
the .Scots U.,y,i|s. it 
■ ippears that their liiv 
eonipauies w\re on 
the right ..f the line. 
, ,. , -""I P"sted in re,,r of 

a deep d.tch, one of ll,e rhiiies referred to. 

A squadron of horse, and ^ol.r.ig s „.re 

se-nt forw.ml as an out-i,icket, with i.o of 
tile Koyals in .support. 



DUKE or MONMOUTH. iWS-i68! 



Monmouth Advances 

Ulien Moumouth put himself at the 
liead of his army to ,,uit Hri,lgw,„cr, at li 
■■M^. It was oleserved by those ahout him 
tlMt he was not in the frame of miinl which 
IS required b>- one who is about to strike a 
deeisne blow ; au<l that the very children 
who pres.sed to see him pass ohsJrved. and 
111 after >ears remembere,!. tli.it his look was 

I'assing through a place still called War 
I.aiie, he marched at the head of Ms infoiT- 
The horse were led by Lord Grey. Strict 

02 ; 



4-' . 



0^ 



P0^- 



'.^z^:,'^'^'-"^- 




'^s. 






HOW THE DUKE OF 



MONMOUTH'S SUPPORTERS fOUGHT^CAU 






-*■>■ ■•!iKir=^. ■ 



DUGHT!«CAUSE WITH SCYTHES 



AND PITCHFORKS, JULY is,h, 168S 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



orders were issued that no drum was to 1)C 
beaten and not a shot to bo fired. 

'• Soho ! " was the watchword, by which 
his people were to recognise each other 
amid the darkness and obscurity of the fnggy 
night, sc-lccted in allusion to his residence 
at Solio Fields. London ; and by one in the 
morning of MonJ.... , July 0th. the whole of 
the "orces of this ill-fated, ambitious son vi 
Charles II. were out on the open moorland. 

Delay and Confusion 

Between them and I,ord Feversham lay 
three deep trendies filled with water and 
soft mud. Two of these, called the Black 
Ditch and ttie Langmoor Rhine, the Duke 
knew he must pass ; but, strange to say, 
the existence of a third, called the Sussex 
Rhine, beyond which the Royals lay resting 
on their arms, he knew nothing of. 

While his amnmnitiou wagons remained 
at the entrance of the mot)r, his horse and 
foot, in long columns, defiled across the 
Black Ditch by a slippery causeway of rough 
stones. At the Laiigmoor Rhine was a 
similar causeway ; but the guide missed it 
in the fog. Delay and confusion ensued, 
and though the passage was ultimately 
achieved in silence, a pistol-shot caused im- 
mediate alarm. It was fired by a Captain 
Hacker, to give an alarm, after which he 
immediately rode off to solicit the King's 
pardon. 

The ca\'alry \-idettes of the Horse Guards 
fired their carbines ; Dumbarton's drums 
beat to arms, and as the men fell into their 
ranks, the glow of their lighted matches 
showed the men of Monmouth distinctly 
in wliat direction to pour their fire. 

He ordered I,ord (.>rey to push <m with 
his cavalry, which he did, till before them 
yawned unexpectedly the black dei)ths of 
the BuEsex Rhine, beyond which were the 
King's infantry in line. 

" For whom are you ? " demandctl an 
ollicer of tlic (luards, as he saw the dusky 
masses deboucliing amid the gl(K)ni. 

" For the King," replied Lord (irey, or 
one of his peojik-. 

" I'or which King? " resumed tlie officer. 

" For King Monmouth— and God with 
us!" was the defiant response. 



In a moment cver>- butt was at the 
shoulder, a line of fire ran along the black 
edge of the ditch, and Monmouth's cavalry 
were soim falhng over each other, or galluji 
ing madly in all directions. The animals on 
which they were mounted were marsh mares 
and colts, which could not stand even tlie 
sonnil of the drums. " All is lost, my lonl 
Duke," Grey rashly cried; "and I must 
sliift for m\ s..If ! " The tin^'St cavalry in 
tlie world could not have acted against 
infantry on such ground ; and these were 
all untrained, and rode horses unused to 
stand fire. But now Monmouth advancing, 
pike in hand, at the head of his infantry. 
found himself compelled to halt by i]w 
margin of the fatal ditcli, of the existence oi 
which he had been ignorant. 

The Royals and Guards were still firiiii; 
and now his men responded, and for three- 
quarters of an hour an incessant roar of 
musketry ran across the black trench amid 
the mist of the moor. The Somersetshire 
peasants, "Anabaptists and poore clotli- 
workers of the country." as Evebii call> 
them, bUkmI to their ])erilons task with gr» ai 
bravery, but tliey levelled their barrels tn.i 
high, and the i)alls Hew over the plunieii 
beavers of the royal troops, to lodge in tlu 
marshy soil beyond. At Sedgemoor lh< 
Guards from London did not beliave wlH. 
" Feversham's troops," says Dalrymple, tin 
annalist. " as often happens in combats witli 
an Irregular army, at first gave way, all 
except Lord Dumbarton's companies "i 
Scotch"; and the King tells us that tiu 
whole brunt of the rebels' fire fell on th<-in 
and the regiment now kno\m as the Gren,i<li< : 
Guards. 

An Honourable Resistance 

Wliile tliis futile lire was maintained .,i 
the ditch, the Life Guards and Oxford Rhi' ^ 
came in on the spur from UVston Zoyl.m ' 
at the very moment that G* y's fuL;iti'.' 
horsemen were spreading panic in tlie ni: 
where the train of wagoners whipped ' ■ 
their cattle, drove off at full speed, and nv\ r 
drew rein till they were miles from the lu 1 
of battle. The unfortunate Monmouth " i-^ 
seen on foot encouraging his now aband'-n I 
infantry by prece])t and example ; but ;k 



Section n 



was too wdl acquaiuled «ith Hk art of war 
not to know that all was lost. 

Thougli thus Jescrteil, his infantrv made 
a most honouralik asistaage. But Lord 
Fuvershara, wlio had been abed, was now 
m the field. Day was breaking, and well 
horsed and cuirassed. the I.ife Guards assailed 
their right flank, the Blues their left ■ but 
ivith pike and scythe, and musket clublied 
the eliwns of Somersetshire met them n-itii 
res,,h,te brayery, and the llendip miners 
did deadly execution with their tools and 
sold their lives dearly, <lying mth the war- 
cry of ■ Soho ! ' on their lips." 

The fluke's followers now lost all regard 
for tlie orders of their leader, liyery man 
imsxd where he thought his presence was 
needwl most, but chiefly where he saw the 
bravest of his friends, using sometimes the 
musket ana sometimes the sword ; and 
often, wi.h bhml fury grappling the Ijodv 
when wea|)ons failed, man rolled over man 
m blood and the slime of the marshland 
They then threw themsehcs into a solid 
mass shoulder to shoulder, and thus moved 
or halted, fought and died togetlier. 

I'or three hours this bloody work went on. 
.4t last I'evcrshanrs cannon were lirought 
oil, but they were so ill servcl that thev had 
to l>e worked by the Royals, wlio had brought 
nine field-pieces with them ; and for loading 
and finng these ,m this day a gratuity of /40 
"■as paid by the King to Se-rgeaiit VVemXss 
01 tliat regiment. 

Ily the time these guns hail come up the 
sun was shining ufxin Sedgemoor, and Mira- 
mouth had He.l, riding for twenty miles, 
not knowing 
whither he 
n-.is going, 
and had then 
<l"itted his 
hoLse, uncer- 
tain where to 
shelter. From 
t li e rising 
Krnnnd above 
t li e d /. o y . 
ivlkre he con- 
ce.iled his blue 
riljbon, he wit- 
nessed the 



SEDGEMOOR-JULY 6th, 1685 




PLAN OF THB BAIILE Of SEDOEMOOR. JULY i>h. ItIS 
027 



Karly 

flasliing anil smoke of the last vollev fired 
by Ins desperate and despairing adherents, 
mien the cannon began to bowl fi r 
deadly lanes through the dense ma.- „f 
these, cries were heard of " Animunilion < 
for Goils sake, ammunition ! " but [wwder 
and ball were spent. The pikes and seethes 
began to shake and sink. The mass now 
broke, and fled wildly in all direetion, pur- 
sued and cut down by the royal cavalry. 
Many were .surrounded and made prisoners 
m the adjacent fielils ; and when the infantrv 
ixntred across the Busse.f Rhine, the Rmal's 
had the honour of capturing the Duke of 
Alomnoutirs standard, with his motto in 
letters of gold. " I'ear none but God." 

The battle was over, but the miseries 
consequent to it were not yet eiuleil. 

It was past four in the morning ; the July 
sun had been up mt.re than half an hour, and 
the routed army came pouring into the streets 
of Bridgwater. "The upr,>ar, the blood 
the gashes, the ghastly figures which sank 
down and never rose again, spread horror 
and dismay through the tmni. The pursuers, 
too, were close behind ; and those inhabitants 
who had faxonred the insurrection exiiected 
s^ick and massacre." 

Burnet says 1,000 rebels were killed on 
the s[K)t, while 1.500 were taken prisoners. 
Of the King's troops there fell joo onlv. 

Handsome gratuities were given to all 
the troops engaged at Sedgemoor; and 
to the wounded of the Rovals. who 
were 70 of all ranks, James gave /id;, 
to the Horse Guards ^.(17, and alf the 
other coriB he rewarded in proportion. 

During all 

July otii the 
pursuit con- 
tinued ; and it 
was a long 
tradition in 
the adjacent 
villages with 
what a stormy 
s o u n d o f 
cheers, curses, 
and the clatter 
of steel the 
cavalry swept 
past. Before 



'^ertinn U 



SEDGEMOOR-JULY 6,h, 168S 



Earlv 




rUL DUKE OK MONMOUTH EECCNO IN VAm FO» ,n/^^^^^^^^^ 
lULV ";,':. '"f '"^ ""^ '■° «l^ ""CLE. „MK3 „.. 



h J end,,, „,„ .„„ „^^^,,^,,_^._, ^.^^^ 
"1 .«. penned hk,, ,,, ;„ „ . 
< ««<m Zoyland. Of tl,e,,e S„ „■„, 

»'"li the dinnes in the ol,l spire r„,„ 
"."•"Sly and the infantry made nirv on 

-n„„r. whither the a.ljaee„tfarn.e-ser 
"'™ "■»">■ l""«sheads .,f cider and heer 

on « '''■'•/■''""*■' '""' "f Siljbets appeared 
tl e road that le.l to Bri.lgwatlr O 
<■ I, hung a ,,„soner by the neck, and fou 
"ftl^^ were, eft in iron, to infect the air 

U.Ionel K.rke." says Puffendorf " oneof 

l.e commanders in the roya, army, did o de 

* 9? >7-l«' Pri«.ners. taken in the 

tl of Sedgemnor, to ,,c hanged im.ne- 

c , ' ; ™"'™,'.'""- I'"«^ ; this fact being 

cl...Wd upon him after the Revolution " 

l,aS",, K-'l' '""'"'"«- I>--r.s were 

"M.l I y Krrke at Taunton, amid " pipes 

>..... drums beating, and trumpets sonid 

I. fhe pipes referred to must liaye been 

jeofDnnibartonWegiment, whiciTa 

'« been without them to the present day 

iuc . n- 1 J """ <"«^"™= field, the 

'"S'tue Ouke, who had changed clothes -.vith 



6i 



i' peasant was taken witliout resistance near 

K-K«o„d,mn„rse.shire,,yinginaw^W 
ditch covered with ferns. His beard' ws 
P^natnrcly grey, he trembled, and ^ s 
m, lie to speak. He ha,l not .slept for three 
■"Kbts. and from e.x-hansti.m of s,,irit, „„. 

K^ettes state that he wept and fain ed ad 
those who looked „n,l„nl,te,l if this wrec, 
feature conld be the once gay and brilht 
SMrai '.'-■''™""'=*'''"fClK,rlesn 

i^ Uilliam Portman searched his ,,„ckets 
and amongst other things were found • some 
raw peasgathered in the rage of hunger.'" 

Orde'r,TH"V°"'""''"'° >'"*"'"■ »'■■""■=' 
Order of the Garter was dispatched to King 
James in token of the fact. Ho,e. while n 

..^ -ay to London, he wrote an imploring 
le ter to a ju.,tly incense,! King, and wl ™ 

a 5 Iken cord, he lay grovelling on Ihe lloor 
and wet the feet of James with his . ar ' 
^'""g he b ame of all on Fergusson, ,l,e 
Scot, actmg thus as Argyll wonld have scorned 

to do: and how he was doomed to immediate 
exccufon. and died by five strokes at the 
hand of John Ketch, on Tower Hill, belong 
to the common history of the country 
■9 



KILLIECRANKIE 



'T""v"l-» »' O'^"^' ™ '"' ?rsL° pi ce t"p,ace i„ the Hightands, then .e„„ . 

1 these kingdoms, wjVl'P"^^,'!^^ Ld aU but inaecessible » strangers nnd . 

land bv a great and powerful part , ^'■.P^'^"^ .„;„„!„„ of May, »hen he appeared at t , 

bvthe majoritv of the Highland ch.efs and b^'""' g ^,^„,„„„, « by Sir Don.M 

b> tlie roaj - ,, . j^ ,;„„.entlon of the headoizu Glengarry 

'^:t:^s:nt»onl':^:^inof «.»« ,eade«to Macdo-". ^d the ^ 

rttempttherestorationoftheiroldheredrtarx Macle ^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ ,^dated «. h 1. 

line ,>f kings. Meals of loyalty, ehivalry. ='""1 J^"";^. '^^ 

^^ H had about 120 horse, commanded b> . 

James ll.'s Friends " „ „„,, ^-ery meral«r of tlu= 

Their new commander was ™ -";«'- ^ "^^l „,s a gentleman. The army he 
lander, vet he won the c,m6dence of the c an . quad „^^ .u^ay com,„» 



strv-::r;=-H^-~- • „„^^^^^ ,. 

remembered in the l'™'^f; -'^^Ji,. marched agamst him wrth .,,ooo 
,,l„ody Claverhouse." It should be borne m ^ ^„„,ij„,Me force of cavalry 

SH-£'3'Hsr^ "-"•" 

Scotland ulitd 1707. ..vhihit 

5r'ieS"^r;^i;:.tt^= 

';" '.0 watch the course of events ; and 
^erv'few agreed to join the V.scoun. who 
;:esoht«easecretofhispurr.,se - . 



Mackay Marches Against Dundee 

Lieuteuant-Geiieral Hugh Mackay. Cun- 
mander-in-chief of ^^^^^'^ ,XZ 
and a consideranie n)rce u. ^».».... ■ .^'-'" '"■' 
the tidings that this force was cornn,.;. h. 
recent fall of Edinburgh Castle, nor he 

appointment of assistance from Ir 1^ • ^ 
»Wch King James had P™™«^' ''^"; 
the heroic ardour of Dundee though 1 
fidency of provisions i'^f^J^ 
him to shift his quarters , and to ,1 
followers, who served without pay. en.Uu .1 
without a murmur the f^'^fV^X 
Like his prototype. Montrose he was m 
entlv calculated to be a leader of Sc >« 1 
Highlanders. In his bulT coat and h a., 
' * . 11.. „,,,rl,ed on foot. nii» 



mide'so little a secret of his purp'se tnar ™ "*'— g^„„„,,,. nr.,rched on foot. n.«v bv 
the spring of K.89 the Convent.on. wh ch e P^'^^; '^= f ^,^„ .„„, anon by the ra,.k> 
"«'P,\..,, ,..,„,„ leeal authorrty he de- thc^-Jde ^^^^^^^^.__^ ^^_^ ^^^^.^^^ ,„ „„ 

native Gaelic, flattering their ^i^^ 
gies. and animating therr proud rrv. h 
redting deeds of their forefathers au,l tl. 
Btirruic verses of thdr ancient bards. _ ^^ 
His lofty courage, his wnmmg mauiK.. - 



the snring of I0»<) tlie i.on>^.. ■ ■■•■ 

detest d, and whose legal authority he d 

1 «.nt a ixirtv of horse to seize him 
"TtheEar of'Baicarris, The latter was 
Uto bu^Dundee found shelter in the High - 
ltd"' where no enemy dared to follow imai. 

He was thus compelled lor his own =afet5 , 
a, well as for King James's cause, to com- 



6J0 



Section II 



KILLIECRANKIE-JULY ,7th. 1689 

'Jy bcautv of I.I.; t . 



tlie wonderful manly bcautv of his f-,.« ■ 
Dundee at Killiecrsnkic 

of tl,e town „f DuikeM ?; ? "°'"' 



HiSMgSa^ :^^SS;^1?^^:^;^ 



runs thf ('.am- f ■ " "" Hit-- ouier 

«f= JarkDonlirf "'"""S 11"! waters 

=" -ot'^s'To';' '!'"' '^■"'"^'' '^s'"'»'». 

Uckiv n If '"■■"■ «^l«^^«ive colonels 

'■ had r! '■ "*"' "^^^--J-- W'h these 

'-n,.t..:'^;:;::"s:eT:„rr- 

«n„," The'lr""" """""■ ^-i-™" 

•Hack" , 1 , r' "'"''' " ™= J^v. 
--l^eYe" b'; I "rr," "'^^ °' Scottisl, 
i WmZ 4 ; ^""' '''■■"'"ven ; the other 

-" '■-'""■■'S ll.::t Maekay was ti.reading 



Early 

Lowland offi" "^\"'* °' Blair. Hi, 

''.atjnnctnreTuUheCr^.i'j/^:''"^^' 
and Sir Evii, r ciutis, Glengarry 

-™.KiX„'rT:^:^^-'''^'.-re 

%'..^an.^rS,t«'l';"^"^'',"-'' 
to three Onr J ■ ' '"''" ""'v ™= 

only f r iXt H "' '" ""■'"■ """ "'"' 
Civl .1 . ■ "" ™™y should cscaoe 

P"ish But if f "P'*^'^ """'>■ "' 

comFel thl to- '■'""'" "'™' '' ™u 
ansn'rf Xl"'"™ - '"e defensiye, 
--"erhre^^---%;.we 



o„j^ ""uc.a, as ms countenance 
ended and his dark eyes sparkled ■■ 

-...noran;^-;^^^-^"''"^^''-" 



Royalist Troop, i„ ,he Pa«, 

:Ss:p4fr-s:c=- 

^Wad3tr „„,,„,«»^;-;|^»;.e 

H^fts'hr--trdS:^-^ 

oame?,r,™'''*"«'''«-*™«l.'wt 

Hi,Ua"°ders"'"'''''""^' '''""«'■' 'l-'tl'e 
arm, ,t T" "^'^ ""= <1'™^ beat to 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 




,„. .OW.ANOEE= AT THE BATTLE OF K.LL.ECRANK.E. 

JULY mh. ie» 

Fcoo • pi""" to W " '■ "°" 

b12 



tiirtans ami the Rlittir ' I 
sttL-l-as clan afttr ci i 
came fast into position. 

llumk-e roile to tht- in- 
to ri-'Conuoitre tlie foicc ■ ;i 
tlio result of tlie encoimM 
witli wliich so mucli . - 
ptmled ; and aftera.i .- 
formwl his men with .- 
nuicli skill as their p>xuV n 
wishes and tactics iH.iinitv . 
l,i„i to exert. There c<' . i 
lie nti formation of reaiiiu;; 
or brigade ; each clan 1; , '. 
to l)e kept aliart. with .l 
space between it and l!x- 
rest. Tliree ranks deep v\ i- 
thensiial formation. In !!.■ 
centre of the front rank « .- 
the chief, surrounded b\ in. 
lil.iod rekitions. 

On the right were '.i- 
clan Odlian. under Sit bJr. 
}ilaclean ; on tlie left » i< 
an.'ther body of Macle.n- 
with the MacdonaWs el 
Sleat. In the iinmeih..tc 
centre were Joo men «Ji" 
had recently come in uu.ia 
Colonel Cannon, with tli^ 
Camerons under Sir i'xMV 
the Macdimalds of the clan 
Ranald, and the Macdo.ialdi 
of Glengarry, under a t.ill 
chief conspicuous, as lie 
bore the Royal Standard ol 
jameS VII. There was .1 
small party of horse, »*■ 
rude on lean and wont, lil- 
ted and ill-tended animals. 
Mackav's formation was: 
On the right the regiment 
„f the Earl of Level.. Or 
the left were the K"y-' 
Scots Fusiliers. InthecciitK 
were the three battali ris '■' 
the Scots Brigade, and Has- 
ings F.H.t (now Sum..*'. 
Light Infantry) Repm"-' 
In the immediate centre 1,0 

., piece of marshy St""'"'; 
in tear of which he I'lJO" 



Section II 

th. horse of Belhaven and 
Annandale. t.. succour eaci; 
naj:k as requin d 

"is .milfcry. „.hicl, con. 
«stcd of smull /-a-W-pKCM 
!""™l 'o IJt of vtrv littl, 

'JSt' 

'"■■ '™ '""TS the I.nstilc 
imius faced rach (ithiT ()„ 
till' "no hand were the lli,.|,. 
"Hers, array,,, each h,,lK. 
t^nans „f their native cl i„ 

"■"■their kilts hdte,lti«htlv 
,"'"' ,"'™- 'I'eir hrass- 
'"""'"1 'arsets, I„„K clax- 
■■■"as. pfuulerous I.ochal,er 
«'s and l,.ng-l,arrelle,l 
^I«.ush guns sJiining in the 
snninHr sun ; on the other 
■ ■'•steady and precise arrav 
"' "'" ^""■'■"■d regiments, 
»!■■«■ P^es and bright steel 
"'tis gleamed stea.lilv as 
"'<: men st,«„I ,vitl, ,'hcir 
"7 "['!"«' The I.-usiliers 
;,";'""•■ RUnl-rgh and 
""'■■gs regiments „„re 
«At unifonns, but „„„, 
' "alfour. liuchan, and 
Kamsay „,re the uniform 
' ""■ ■^<^<"s in the Dutch 

:t\ ■^'"* ""'^v '■■><i 

'«s f yellow buff and 
t-Ps of polished steel 

" 's 'elated that as the 
:«fs.deye„fMackavr'.- 
::;-">'red the position „f 
, ' '*' mother-officer Dun- 
'"■ I'e pouited out the 
'™"'"''.".™nngl.„chiel, 
■ .^■'Ptam m the Scots Fu- 
-ws. who rode near him, 
'■■<! s;u(] ; 

'BeMd your father and 

, fJ,>ou l,te to be with 

,'t -alters little, "repHed 
I. , "'""S tnan. haughtily 

I" Jfackay, himself a 
-»"'=■■<■«, speak thus- 



KILLIECRANKIE-JULV ,r.h. ,689 

i\'en ant) 



I'.rlr 




THE HJGHLArjDEHS AT thTT^^^^^^^^^''*^^*^ 

(,33 """ " ■"""• <" w «. s. s,.„ 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



■■ Imt I rc-cummfnrt ynu to Ik well T"-q>aml. 
or my f^UlK-r an.l his ' wiM savaR« Kfore 
ninlit 'uav be ncaici you than you wish. 

In tho Highlan.ls war was not yet a science, 
hence personal ,.r.,wess was the first retiu.s.te 
of a comtnaiKler, l-oehiel, aware how much 
the '...h..si..n of their little army ami its 
ultim-ite suece-ss depended on the hfe of 
llundee. bes.,uBht him not to ix-rll it "shly. 

•■ Your l.>rdshili's Imsiness." said he. wun 
reference t.. this. " is to overl.Hjk evety'- 
thing. and to issue your orders. ( urs is to 
exe-cute them br.vely and promptly. 

•■ Tliere is much in what you say. but 1 
must establish my character for high courage. 
Your people espe-ct to se^e their leader m the 
thickest of the battle, and to-day they sliaU 
see me there. I promise you cm my honour 
tlut in future fights I shall take more care of 
mvseh." 



The Macleans cut the left wing litcril! t- 
pie-ces The regiment of Balfour was bt ..iii 
through and through, and he himse'.l «.>i 
cloven down; that of Ramsay. iI.muI. 
trained long in the Dutch wars, faced ... .! 
and threw away its arms ; that of M..> ~ . 

was swept away by the Camerons. and v . 

did his brother and nephew seek to rail ; ,c 

soldiers The former was slain by one m: ,;; 

of a broadsword, and the latter m a ni.-..; ,t 

received no less than eight wounds. >>' ;.. 

fought his way through the tumuh ami 

carnage by the side of his uncle. 

The End ol the Battle 

In vam did the latter order up the li"ts. 
as suplK.rts. Belhaveu is sud to h.^^. .- 
haved gallantly ; but his men were app.,!...; 
by the suilden and disastrous rout ..! tii ii 
mfantrv. and wheeling al«>ut. gall.iped ,.« .; 
followed bv those of the Manpus ..f .\lh.i- 
dale. Then all indeed was over, and tl,: !¥= 
that wild ravine, when the sluuluiv^ .: 
evening were deeiienii.g. and when .-.r 

sound reverberated with a hundred et < 

»vent surging madly down .r nungled ra..^s.i 
flying retl-coats and infuriated Highlankn 
Kh,< were cheering, shoutmg. and al.u.,: 
raring in their triumph. 

The Cavalier historians allege that I."i. 
Leven was among the first who fled. .Uc. m- 
panied bv one trusty servant. General M..*;. 
spurred through the press till he gamed ..- 



A Hand to Hand Conflict 

Tlic Highlanders, crnucluug under the 

target, ran to within fifty paces, then, 

having fired, closetl with claymoreand dirk^ 
A= the lines drew nearer. Sir Lvan went 

along the front of his clan, and every Cameron 

gave him a promise " to conquer or dle^ 
The British Lowlanders' answer to the fierce 

shout of the Highlanders was so feeble that 

Sir Evan said, exultingly, "We wrll do it 

now : that is not the cry of men who are ^^ 

going to win. .ipvated ixjint from where he could vk« ti« 

A fire of musketry had begun : the smoke t'fV^^'^'^^j ,1,^^ his whole armv h... 

lav thick between the two hosts, and many ^^^f ' -^'°:;^,„ ,he exception of ,:. 

Highlanders were dropping. F„„lish regiment and some of Angus s nic; 

At half-pas. seven o'clock, when the sun ^ f h ^g'm ^^^^ ^^ _^^.^^ . 

was dipping behind the mountains, nundee ™"° f > «^^^ Highlanders. He kl .hc"- 
,ave the w,,rd to charge and U,row.iga.de ^^^^^^^^^^^. f„, „„„ ,, haltedi., . 
their plaids, the clans advanced, and » en ^^.^ situation : mr !' 

within fifty paces of the I.owlanders they ''^e » »e to ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^ , 

,os.ed aside their muskets, drew their cla^- ™"'' ""Jf 1^^^^ ^^.^ ^j ,„^ ,,, 

mores, and with a muted >;.l rushed am^d baggage Ir „ ,j^„j„, „,,,. „,,. 

t ^r r tr^' p;;:;e:r i:::rt;;^ -"' - — '^ - - .-- 

muzzles of their firelocks ere the latter were 
striick up by the targets ; and a livuig flood 
of Camerons, Macdonalds, Macleans, and 

Stewarts, hewing with axe and .word^^ or ^"j;;;"; ^/^r; ^j j^:^,^ ;„ ,he .!h.»i 
stabbing with the dirk, overbore on all sides th^Sn^l;;;^.^^;^ ^„,, „ui„ately h. aad»| 
the triple ranks of Mackay. c.irlinr at the head of only 400 men 

In two minutes the batUe was won. Stlttng 

634 



General expected to be instantly pursu.d. 
him. and on being joined by 300 .u.u«..: 
of Ramsay's regiment, in the darkia« ' 
without a guide, he commenced t ">''" 



KILLIECRANKIE-JULV ueh. ,6.9 

'-ated. but „,„e „,, „„ _, . 



Sic'ion II 

A" night he retreated but ,!,„" " --■'"". lOJ^V ^. 

-,x.. tha, .hie 'L. "Livl"^^™ 'o P-™.™rad'":,:!?- ,''■■«'•*■ -iUery, 

"-' '!-■ sreat Caval.er w . " , ^T"""- '"'" ■»"■ ^■..". an I'ft.' """ >"^ "ad 



'■ "«!. and. Stan, Z V ,t"' ■'"■■ '" '"""■■>' 
ffl-n^at a ra,„l,™ sl,° j , , ™- -^' """ 

c-"^r,..ir:;i.ts'r.^r;^^thed,ing 

«- An.deTri"';^:'"''>'-''eof 



fnn. In the ■■ Men,,; "^ "a^^ no c„ap„,^. 
that I20 Camer.,„" r;'^''<;'>:^-' »='earn 
probable the other T ''"'"■ '""> 't « 

"ho.itissai.!, ■■ ke'^"'''""^""""'«™r. 
flr= and sword , „aH jt'"?. "'"'■■ "■'™- 

'-«sr St- '■■' 

■^Iwrge and pursuit i, , , ' '"" '" «le 
(<=kngar,v, ^ "i ,e, X't'^ "'"?'«' 
lowlanders with his sw"rd " "^'"^ 

the pass i,«,lf „: ,"'""^P"^'''and 

q«tadeofhu„LfsTr1, "" "'^'■■i'"' 

■■■uttoedbys™::^'!^""'?^*"^ 
^Pwsed among them I ,'"'••■ '""- 

g'enadie caps^rums f"' P'™"" hats, 
swords which had b"-'™^!'; P'"-' «d 



•''«• the death-shot struck himf''*" ^»™'ls which ha,, b2 '" P""''' «>d 

'^"'W by the mountain^r, w tT.'r""' " '^ '"' "'^'^ ""d sha p cTa '"""'^ '""'"" "y 
'«I«tasther™w,„„-^;r'^i'^««'''."d latter with both fc! ""T ^"'^-""S the 
«"^- Imrriedly i„. '"'' "'^ ™ams baslcet-hilt, the cL,^ ■ ''™'^''«' « the 

tnecJonsmen " cut down ■■ ^ys 



«"^- hurriedly i„. 
""'J in the rural 
""* "I Blair Atholl • 
f' 'I't cause ol Kliig 
I /™«. in Scotland at 
I ™- »as buried with 
i ^'"- His brother as- 
'"■"''1 his title, but 
';"' '•' penury i„ 
h «"" " '70O. His 
''"I coat, showing the 
I "nlc- made bv the 
r*ll»ll. and stained 
I "'tU-od, his helmet 
I =■;' other relics, are 
Iff '«'"-«! in the 
|*« castle of Blair. 
|?;WIin the very 
'•■" of manhood. ' 




"•^ I I, I \\ ** ' iliei.i«in«. 

PLAN OF Thp ,1 II I II ■ ^1 . 



an old author, "many 
"f Mackay's officers 
and soldiers through 
skull and neck to the 
very breast ; some had 
the.r bodies and cross- 
hdts cut through at 
one blow : pikes and 
sn-orils were cut Uke 
™ows; and whoever 
doubts this may con- 
sult the witnesses of 
tlw tragedy." As if 
they had been torn 
"II by cannon-shot 
heads, hands, legs, and 
arms lay everywhere 
about, lopped from the 
bodies. 



SF.CIIOS ll.-EAULY 



THE ASSAULT OF DUNKELD 



Tlir: iKws (if Ituinkv's victnry cnvr 
<■.iiRr.ll Mjckiiy iit Killiw^rimkic, JiiiR- 
l-tll. Ilj-^^ii, (icc:isiollL-<l Hra\c iilanii 
in IMiiilmruli. wiUl uml falitiistii; rumi.urs 
f^uiniilK criili.-lli.L\ 

Panic in Southern Scotland 

Maclcays army— s<i nun said— liad been 
utti-rly ikstroyi.ll : Mackay liinistli liail 
falkn ; anil tlit all-ciin(iin.rin(! IliKlilanikrs. 
llusluil «itli victiiry. the- imliiniitahk' Dunckv 
at tliiir lii-ail. were swiiiiiiif; iknvn fn.m tlitir 
natiw hills in irrt-sistibk fiircf ami ovtr- 
rmininji tlif I.owlaniU. 

SiiinitliiiiB akin tii panic sprt-ail tlirmiKli 
sciutlarn .-Icntlaiul. Ilarilly a man «:■» 
tlltri; will) iliil ii"l l».lii--vi; that tllf i.aiis.- 
cf King William was lust li r <.M.r. 
Jaculiites o|iLnly exiiltiil. Whins mi.xcil in 
kar and trcraliliiiK : '""l "''• ■'^<:""i*h 
(■.ovtrnnitnt, tlmrmighly frinliliiifd, thiinKht 
iif transkrriiiK the scat "1 KiivtTnmi.-nt tii 
Clasgnw. The fall "f Stirling sttnicil to l.i- 
immiiunt- laliiiliurKli. it was ftarud, ciinlil 
nut hiilil out a wcL-k. 

Mtssengtrs wxri- sent to London to 
ur(!e KinR William t" sinil from ICuRlaiid 
every soliikr he could s|iare ; i r to come 
himself at the head of an army in the ho|>e 
that, by his jiersonal Kdlius. he iniulit yet 
Ik' able to preserve for himself the northern 
Kingdom. 

Then came more reassuring tidings, .\kic- 
ka^, though badly beaten, was alive, and 
was rallying his ilek.itid trm.ps. Unnike 
was dead. 

To the Scottish Council this ivas glad news 
indeed. Whigs and Jacobites alike were 
fully alive to its signilicance. and realised 
that the death of the great leader more tli.in 
counterbalanced the effects of his victory. 
There had been only one man in .Scotland 
strong enough to hold together the tui- 

6 



liiiKnt and l.iction - ridden Iliglllaii ' : 
th.lt drea.'. ; man of olood. John Co !, .;: 
of Claverhou-.'. Hut he w.is ile.id :. 
longer, then, could the rebel clans s<ri. ,.; 
endanger the st.ibility of King Willi i:,: 
Tliroiu , 

It is more than donbttul, liowi \ . : 
IHilldee. despite, tile brilliant way in win. 
he hail olniied the campaign. wouMi.Hi 
lieen able to carr\ the war suceis-l ;lh 
into the Lowlands, or overcome the dillieul- 
ties which, in any circumstances, must h.iw 
arisen in the army owing to the ihi.iIi.,: 
nature of its comlxisition. The task i\ .- 
beyond the ability of C.encral Cannon, ui- 
sncces.sor. 

James's Promise to Dundee 

Prior to the outbreak of the Hr.;iil.ir: 
revolt. King James 11. had promised t" -.ip: 
from Ireland reinforeenients to his t.mlii:;: 
lieutenant in Scotland, Ilnndee, e\.; I" 
loyal to admit even to himself how w^nr- 
less was his Royal masters wonl li.i'. 
built hi.gh holies ujion that promise lul.- 
destined never to be realised. 

The force which James actually dispattln-: 
consisted of ,loo iU-trainetl men. in;iili- 
quately clad, inadequately armed ; and nith 
them he sent C.eneral Cannon. James w.nj. 
have done better had lie sent no lul]! .■ 
all; at any rate, had he abstained fr'- 
imposing on the Highland cliiettains .i on- 
mander of Cannon's calibre. .\ liraV' m..: 
he was, and in the .N'etherlands had had ck:- 
Mderablc eipericiice of war, but was uniittii. 
tor an independent or a sU|)erior coiiiiii,iii'. 
Vet the commission which he bore g.i' e hi:: 
militarv rank in Scotland next to Ii'::iile. 

Cannon knew nothing of Higlilani! 
and customs. He was a liiall de 
imagination, who had no symiiathy "itii tii^ 
spirit which had prompted the re\<'lt, J':- 



■id 



Sccffon II 



ASSAULT OF DUNKELD- AUG. 21,r. 1689 



wh- /actol that iKTs,,,,,! ,„:,8„rtis,„ <,s.,„ial 
t" ..,>,.,K. wl,„ |,„|„| ,„ ,,,,,,, „ 

" ."" . ""°»-"»- I^""'. alth„u,h da„s 
wh.cl, l„,hc.r,„ |,a,l ,,M al„„f, „,,i.,„K ,„ 
«rn,,vl„cl, ,|ia.c,i„„ „,, f„n„„,, ,„>„ 
.nr. I,ki.|y ,„ i„^|i„^. „,,^^ ji^^^i^^i ^^^ ^^_^ 

■ stan,iar,l. tla- HiKhland ariuv „„ 
m after KilliVcrankii- l.a.l «v ,r.. 
.*, more tl,e air „f ,|,c- shatter.,! re,„a,„s 
of broken lr.K,,,s than „f c,mquer..rs." 
The niihland Army 

.M.ic,,hers,m» an,l rarquharsuns. F,,^,, 
Go Ions. Stewarts, all eager for battle, 1,1,k„1 
a.M plunder. haste„„l to the eamp at Blair 
and ere n.ghtfall Can„„„ had around 1 im 
,,000 men. but as a fighting force his ar„,J 
T "'"■"'' r"'''^''^' '"' "'"'■■ »-as rival . 
n,ughout the camp. an,l each new trli 

a marched ,n brought with it some fresh 
cau^.- of diEsensK.n. 

The Highland chieftains had ren.Iercl 
'«!> imperfect otedience to Dundee at 

m.V, l"";?' '"'1 ''""''■'-^■- w™ could ill,:. 
eM «"l. then, that in their hour of victore 
'f '"71* 'hey would subn.i, „, Z 
rulings of a man whom they despised. wh„« 
prese-nce they resented, and for whose eon^- 
aiis.„„„ they held „„ aspect ' 

The Highland chiefs cared but little for 
fc cause, of their exiled King. alWtl,; J: 
the lo,,th Monarch <,f his line. Thev were 

™j .mfaet.m„rebyacomn.„„ cad 
tk House „, A.gyll. whose, ascendance he 
fewJution would .nsure. than by anvlo e 
.;.i.eR„yalHo,seof,stuar,.- Bttle 
ttm„le which the> adopted towards, 1 

'' ra-'ke for strength in the Highland 
-P. and the state of affairs, alreii^'t 
, " ''^"''■reJ •-' thousandfold worse bv 
U»o„s hlundenng hesitation. • 

nquests. But Cannon would not let them 

*;c;-r''^T''^"'' "*"'«' "'™ 

U „ , '■ ''"*^'I'^""S tlieir zeal in fruit- 
'- m.rehes and countermarches, .M,.I 

^«I e a, ^,7" ,'""""" '="''«'*•""--' 



harly 
"■■'111 V kni,, rT^.M^ I '■ "I Ilii-tl, 

■«npy the eit.^ This he believ ,? 
would I,.. ,1,1,. , ,. '"^'I'^ed thev 

Ml he ,,Mc. ,„ ,,ee„„,p|„|, „,i„ 

'oiiutermg op|«,Mti,,u 

thfabdir"" 1"" ""■'"' ""''-"'in-tcl 

•ekav la, , T"' '"' '"' "''''""^■"^ 
■^lacka, had already rallied his tr.».,.s at 

MH,,^,ai^restor„l„„hem.,niesem,L^ 
order S,,,,-, „„ ,,,„,„^ „,^_, _ detachment 

e^muons army was m„vi„g towards IVrtS 
he set out in person to meet it. at t],.- head of 

part , , "■ '""''"* '"'"■ " ''-I «^ken n„ 
P.'rt in the disaster at Killiecrankie. and v, 

t "7«'"' "-f ""'ik^lv '■■ l.e ii,timidat„i 
'■ .':"«'■'"«-' .-tions i:s to the ,igh,i„,. 



qualities of the Highlanders 

A Fierce Skirmish 

J^"^"i- '''''' ^''', '"» '" »"l' the Robert. 
s<™s. A herce skirmish ensued - short 
bloodv. and deetsiv.. Ti n 1 snort, 

numb;.; , '""'"^^- The Robertsons, out - 
mimber„l and outmatched in skill soon 
oun. tlie„i.s.,.lves overwhelm.l. and lled 

-der. leaving thirty prisoners in the h,an 
tl" enemy and i,jo men dead on the .scene of 



637 



thenc-.unter. .Maekay |„st only one man 

I -pile the comparatixely .small number 
t troo,,s engaged, the moral effect of 
^.is skirmish was great. Hitherto Jlackav's 
«'ldlers had regariled the Highlanders "as 
-.l>e:rmen. invincible in battle, bu ,1, s 
■ll.ision was now shattered : and as tie 
rqn„a„„n of the Highlanders dechne 1 L, 
d"l the .se.lf-confidenee of .Mackav's ,'„,« 
Robert,,, '"'"■■ ''""" "' ""^ vanquish. d 
the disorder and discontent which prev.aile,! 

... I- eamp at Blair:. and Camion hesi,;.: 
as to his course of action. 

Sir Evan Cameron of Lochiel, tlie veteran 

wrr.orwh„b.ad been llundees most faithful 
and trusty advise.r. strongly urged him to 

:ffX,r"'^^'"'=^"-^'^'"^''^'>--'' 
This Dolicy Lochiel advocated not ~, much 
because he felt eonlldent of victor>-indeul 
his hopes of ultimate 3„ece,, i^j-.iie,! „^,^' 
Dundec-as because he knev -lut by 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



vifinrnus action only could the Hit;liliuid army 
be kept intact. In his opinion it was better 
to risk defeat than to avoid battle and so 
tender inevitable the disruption of the 
clans. 



them to come down— as he knew i 
must soon come— into the low coumi 
attack him. This ixjlicy of inactivity j,.. 
most distasteful to the Government 
they insisted that Mackay, if he refusi : 
attack the camp at Blair, should sent'. 
.■wly formed Cameronian Ri-Kiraent 



Lochiel Retires to Lochaber 

Cannon thought otl■er^visc. and ignored north as l.unkelJ to garr,«,n the t.,» 
Tchiers advice- who. deeply chagrined, re- There was not Inng to be ,, n,e I,, 

arrangement, and Mackay strongb • 



Lochiel' 

tired to his castle at I.ochaber. 

Macdonald of Skeat, whose forces were 
more numerous than those of any other of 
the confederate chiefs, followed this i x.imple. 
I.ochiel. however, did not take his clansmen 
with him ; indeed, he personally directed 
them to remain, but the Bghting men, de- 
prived of their leader, and aware of the 
reasiras which had led to his departure, 
ceased to be the irresistible force that had 



Jnmght havoc among Mackay's infantry at peculiar hatred by Jacobites througl 



KiUiecrankie 

While confusion was thus increasing in 
the Highland camp, Mackay made good use 
of the respite given him to reorganise and 
equip his army. A tolerant man. of habitual 
piety, he wisely abstained from pas.suig 
censure on his troops for their conduct at 
KiUiecrankie. The panic which had I»>s- 
s.-ssed them on tliat occasion he regarded 
not as proof of cowardice on their part, but 
as a sign of Divine displeasure against him- 
s.lf. " His dependence on Heaven," writes 
I.ord Macaulay, "did not, however, prevent 
him from applying himself vigorously to the 
work of providing, as far as human pru- 
ilence could provide, against the recurrence 
of such a calamity." 

Mackay, therefore, gave orders for bay- 
onets so to be fashioned tint they could be 
screwed on to the muskets without closing 
tlie eiul of the barrel. Then it became 
possible for infantrymen to go into IkihIc 
with fixed bayonets, lire, and await the 
onslaught of the Highland swordsmen. 

The Crown Ministers urgently requested 
King William to replace Mackay by another 
officer. 

But the King knew the man, and firmly 
decUned to make any change. 

Mackay was anxious to avoi'l the danger 
of engaging the rel)els for a sec(md time amid 
their native hills, and proposed waltmg V 



proveil it. Dunkeld was an open i 
dilKcult to defend, dangerously near t- 
enemy's hills, and remote from M.ick 
head-quarters. Moreover, if DunkeM t 
be garrisimed. it was folly to employ 
Cameronian Regiment for the puri»is^' ■ 
the regunent recently raised was U"'. 
untrained, liut the sect of men from w 
it had been formed was regardel 

^__ .^ '.U tiil 

country. 

But Mackay 's warnings were <lisrei;.irilt' 
and tlie Cameronians were sent 'li 
Dunkeld. 



The Cameronian Regiment 

This remarkaljle regiment derived its 
name from that of Ricltard Camen.ii, nicf 
the strictest and most resolute of tin*' 
ministers of the I'resbyterian Chureli ivlnv 
despite the citercive measures empl^ 'il ''^ 
Charles II. and James II., had declr id f 
acknowledge the King's supremacy in m.ittif 
of religion, clung tenaciously to the i^'k-m 
League and Covenant, and w-ere ,ll^v.t^s 
ready to resist, by force of arms it lui'd I* 
movements to revive I'"pi.scoi>ac\ . 

Richard Cameron was killed in a 
in l(),So. but the si-ct of which he li li '' 
one of the leaders contiiuled to mon'. 
chielly in the simth-west of Scotland 

.\t lirst these stern Covenanters h 1 '^ 
unwilling to eidist in the army . i K 
William, although they hated King }j:mf 
and the name of his cliosen lieuteii 
anathema to them ; each village 
mil dreadful tiles of Claverhousi's 
ous cruelty. Xewrtlieless. they de» liiiol '• 
enhst because King William himsili n.i< .•- 
uncovenanteil Prince, and he li.fl 
the command of his army in Sent I 
Mackav, a man of doubliul ortlioti ^ 



^kiniiifli 



II 



Mfl..:- 



1 I'J 



6tS 




THE ...... o. n™KK,o, ,,.,,„^..,^ J 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



This was the a«ilutii)ii come to at a grc-at 
meeting lieM i" the parish church at Douglas 
i„ the spring of .<*). But. though the 
majoritv pr,)nomice<l against takuig service 
the minoritv which remain«l was large am 
influential ; and from that minority tlie Ivarl 
of Angus raised a regiment of 1.200 men, 
mthout heat of drum or pay of levy m.mey, 
which, now known as the Cameromans 
(Scottish Rilles). has w<m renown and 2,-, 
Battle Honours in Europe, Asia and Alrica. 

William Cleland's DIHiculties 

William Cleland, who for s.irae time past 
hart been Dundee's n-st implacable enemy, 
was appointed ist !,i. ' .nant-Colonel of the 
regiment. Cleland found his new post no 
sinecure Ditliculties were almost msui>er- 
able Of those wiUing to enlist, many stood 
out for conditions that would have been 
subversive of all miUtary disciphne : others 
insists that officers, who ha.l taken the 
tests imposed during tlie reign of James 11 



Cannon, to whose standard the pcasantr . 
the neighl>nrhi»«l now tlocke<l m so ■ - 
eager for him to advance with his whole 1 •._. 
upon I'linkeld. and destroy its hated garn-..;i 
The evident hostility would have tn.-d i :v 
.lisciphne of any troops. Among the Can;, r 
onians. who from the outset had niistri:-!.,; 
the motives of the Covernment aii4 1 
General Mackay. it almost occasioiiL.l .1 
mutiny. Iwjwsed in an open town to at? lA 
by an enemy vastly superior to themsiK .- 
iri numbers, the men felt that they li.i 
been led into a trap, delilierately. treaelur- 
ouslv ; and their apprehensions greatly ni- 
creased when three troops of Dragoons, which 
Mackay had sent forward as remforcenKi.t> 
refused to stay in the town, on account .1 
its defenceless conditiim. and returne.l l-. 
Stirling. 

To the rank and file of the Camen.m.ms 
this base desertion revealed yet amilhi-i 
danger. Might not their own officers alKia.lnii 
them. I'ears and suspicions grew 



ests impose-l during t''^; J'^^'K" "' T . ead The men taxed Cleland with questions 
,hould publicly confess their sin at the head in ^^^^^^^^ ^ ^^ ^^^^^.^^^ „ ^^^^ ^__^. ^ 



of the regiment. . . 

It was projiosed, again, to eumblne with 
the military organisatiim the organisation of 
a Presbyterian ctmgregation. the idea bemg 
that each company should appoint one elder, 
and that these elders, under the presidency 
of the cliaplain. should constitute a court for 
the suppression of heresy and immorality. 

Mainly through Cleland's tact, the majority 
of the men's demands were considerably 
mndilied. Still, the regiment was very re- 
markable. One of its first acts was to 
petition Parliament that all cases of drunk- 
enness licentious onnluct. and profanity 
might be punished severely ; and the be- 
ll ivi.iur of the soldiers themselves must have 
been exemplary indeed, for " tlie worst crime 
that most austere bigotry could impute to 
them was that of hintzaing on the King s 
birthdav." 

» * * • 

On August l/th. the Cameronian Regiment. 
800 iii.ti strong, marchcil into Dunkel.l. 

The tears of Mackay were ciuiekly realised. 
\s he had foreseen, the presence of the 
Camer.mians proved intensely unptipular 
throughout the neighbourhood. Tlietr 
arrival was immediately made known to 



Neither I." he replied. " nor any "t 1115 
officers will, in any extremity, abandoi 
Bring out my horse, all the horses ; tliey 
shall be sli.jt dead." This speech Iti'l a 
magical effect, bringing about a cmiJet,- 
rcvulsi.in of feeling. Cleland had given lu- 
men the very assurance they requiri^l. .\n'l 
his manner impressed them even more th.m 
his worils ; it fired the figliting instiiioi 111 
them. 

The horses, thev saiil. should not In -li"t 
Their Colonel had Slioken : his wor.l « i< 
enough for them ; they needed ii" "th,; 
guarantee, and would stand by him now l- lli 
end. Then, as proof to their prtinns. th.- 
s...t to work with a will, to strengtiuii ttt 
walls and enclosures of the town. 

The Attack on the Town 

Meanwhile, Cannon had been rou-ol ' 
activity : and at daybreak, Augu-l -'■-' 
some four or five thousand Ilighlii.''- 
advanced against the town. 

The outiKists of the Canlcroni.M - «^-' 
speertilv driven in. Wall after wall idl :>■ 
tore tiie onslaughts of the enen:> »' 
jHH. .Jd into the streets of the town 

The church was the first serious "i«.it» 



Section If 



ASSAULT OK DUNKELD-AUG. 2,s, ,689 



tliey m« vvi,l,-,|,i, ami ,l,e >,„„„;, „, 

AtLoll » house, which ada,Klh..l,a,k to 
mam ,K,iiits of resistance 

Tl^ wall r„„„,l ,„.. ,a,t,, ,,„„ ^ 

A Furious Assauft 

mi'f n r'""""""" save „„,. s..„,e „f „,e 

8" iiie DRast. A minute ater Miinr 
™,orso„, Who ha,I taken his pla e tik 

The command then devolved on Captain 
Munro; and the flgl,t round the hous^'c™ 

■ km mf '!'""„"' "'""•'"' "" ''"'«'. -"1 

un, a, t I"-' '"' '""- "-e «indows," 

° I ' "' '"'«"■ ""•■ tan,eronians. making a 
^1 , from the Marquis of Atholls garden 
^- l.re t„ the house-s and locked the doors 

l-'-ders and iowhmlers em-, 1 ' *■"'" 
comhat. "■K'V'-Hl Ml mortal 

I-..r four hours ,,,eha,tle rased. Hv that 

■■■^-i^=":.x,::d-r^rt 



Karly 

.'" "■'""' '"'» the Marquis „f .\tl,oll'. 
'"'u*. there to delav their fate r s 
-.l.eycouhl.,vhe„su,ldenlv tel ;;^ 
'"^sault v,s,i,.ly slackened ' " "'° 

fel'tcf^'n'T' """""" -'"' »'"-«'■ 
er.l , , " '" '■•"" 'l"t tlieir Cen- 

the H, ? '" """"'" ■^I'ance with 

^^^s^pi'^ast-'iiri:--- 
ff^'irT^t:-.:-:---: 

tl.--- tanghng (;overnn,e„t of .Scotland 



Thli' Hw',"" ;1 """'"^''' "'"^"^l >l«-' war. 

;p^.fir;-:-tr-.fr;::d^ 

swore ,„ „,,j „, „,„^^ future ,dteK' 
^^ihJ^h^r™--"^^"''-''-- 
As to the actual losse, in the i.=.,,ul, „;_ 
n^ates dufer ,roatly. Tne author „,' r, 
H,.s,or,cal Record of the Twen.v.Si.,,, 
Lameroman Reniment ' «f ,. ' . 

.|«h.nders .ost^rL;:2\hr'^r 



«4t 



t«.<*» Rf>-M> -v ,i :0 



■jFCTION l.-MODERS 



THE SIEGE OF DELHI 

\-,J. n,ce InU the ven nrliies of the «"'""•,•,«,,. Bn'iiJ. Isles. millm'S «f -Uiitu^ :- 
^;^-."::n/t ,....: 0.. ';ii;^'-l:jt':- ^lifJ^Ui....... the „nin .„.. . 



^// Wittres to lilt- i_«ri»ini" ""f. — . . . i iiT(Hi/i<'f ()/" (/i*' VO""i.' 



more'eiiieient leltile «tlicers luui he 
annexed by Lord Ml'omte^ll^ P 






id^ur;^ titeu-n TU:^^^.7'-p!^^'^''^k^^ '"■"" '•"""' ' 



T 



l,„.: „u>in a,ul ahul.nR interest « t k t "^^ „ „„„,t„l white ik-.,,-!^- tluy . 
■ • •'■■■ '■■''-" ^'"""^•' """,;," find .„d U,en r...le aw.y to ra.s. tb. > 



.n\ III I'"- - , 

, cmntk-ss f,«s.«l« ..f tnigeJ: 
,tori,„ heroism, .s f.cuse>l arum. ^.- 
ri.Bc.s-the SioRC of Ca,n,«re, a SK„e 
„f Uickuow, ami the S.ese "f I'elh - 

U Cawn,H>te the British were l.esieR« 
.,u\vere treaeherously massacre,! w.th 
:;valli". cruelty. At I .,cka.;w th|^ wen^ 
besieRe'l. Imt ultimately triumphed. At 
Sf th^y were the hesle^e.: and there a^ 

i„ histnrv hut few stories of valour a. d c 
durance -more stirring ^^^^^'^^ 
bow a han.lful of British clung for moii s 
'rend to tlieir precarious posifou^m he 
Resiliency .nitside the city which, sa Mr. 
Fitchett. " was the nerve-centre aiul heart oi 
the whole Mutiny." , ,i„. v.tivc 

It was on May loth. iHl- that the Natl%e 



S';n.,"i,.:r::.:re:tpo;::^a.:n;;:;,:., 

WUhi:; the walls resided the last jv,.e- 
tive of the C.reit MoRul : and he, H. 
l.rn of all prerogatives- a decrqa, 
t "ate. opiiini-soiUlened man. n.oa- 
,i„htv vears of age -still retained 1. s 
;^ „!« a nominal leader around who, 
Itineers eouUl rally, and m whose 

revolt could Ihul a head. 

The maintenance of a li"l,l,m.elhi 

i„,e was essential to the British P"> 
India. NO man realised this more . 
than did Sir John Lawrence, the 



(,J,2 




"'?U.v°^"r^-— HOBV.P.O.... 



JULY, UJ7 
' ■ <•'""" bi. Si.„,„ L. Woo,, 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



Commissioner of the runjal. ; and tlic ulti- 
mate success of the British arms is due 
in no small measure to the determination 
with which he kept the British bayonets 
pointed at " the nerve-centre and heart " of 
the revolt. 
Lawrence's flood Counsel 

When the Mutiny hroke .mt General 
Anson was Commander-in-Chief of the forces 
in India. He was not a Rreat soldier. He 
had risen, in common with many ollicers 
then holding high commands in India, 
solelv by seniority. 

Anson, on hearing of the fall of Delhi, held 
a council of war at Ambala. His five senior 
officers unanimously agreed that, with the 
means at the General's command, the cap- 
ture of Delhi was impossible. 

This opinion Anscm endorsed. Happily, 
however, it was not accepted by Lawrence, 
who wrote to Anson : " I'ray, only reflect on 
the whole history of India. Wiere have we 
failed when we acted vigorously? Wiere 



HriKadier-('n;neral Archdale Wilson. It c 
sisted of two squadrons of the Carl .mi. 
half a battalion of the Kings Ro>al 1; 
Corps. Major ReLl's Gonrkha battali.ni " 
batteries, and two cightcen-pounders, wit:, . 
company of siege artillery. 

The column had left Mirath May aytli :t 
bef.ire it joined llarnard ha.l to light t« 
sharp encounters with a large force of t!,. 
enemy who had been sent out from Delhi ' . 
intercept it. 

At about the same time a siege-triini - l 
28 pieces from Philur, accompanied by i ... 
European artillerymen, arrived at Ali|.iit 
and considerably strengthened the lii'l. 
armv under Barnard, which now nunil..r..l 
2.400 European infantry and Ooo horsemv.:, 
with 22 field-guns. 

The infantry were now divided int.. tw.. 
brigades: one. consisting of the 7.ith .ist 
Gordon Highlanders) and the 1st lie.ij.il 
(Royal Munster) Fusiliers, under C..I..11.I 
Showers ; the other consisting of the Rilks 
the 2nd Bengal (Royal Munster) Fusihir. 



l-r^:.:^.;;^:'^-; s"e=J=:=:s:;rl 



timid counsels ? ' 

To these questicms one answer only could 
be given ; and on May 25th General Anson, 
having ordered a column from Mirath to 
join him one march north of Delhi, moved 
out of Ambala with all the tr(x>ps whom 
he could muster. They included the 7,ith 
Regiment (ist Gordon Highlanders!, the 
ist and 2nd Bengal (Royal Munster) Fusdiers, 
the 9th Lanc'.'s. under Colonel Hope Grant, 
and two triKips of horse artillery. 

Ans<m thought that he was embarking on 
a hopeless enten>rise. l>ut. like a bra\e man, 
he resolved to do his utmost to accomplish 
the " imiwssible." 

On May 2()th the column arrived at Karnal, 
Here General Austin was attacked liy cholera, 
and on the following day he died, the com- 
mand of the force devolving upon Major- 
l.eneral .Sir Henry Barnard, 

The heat was intense, and the British 
soldiers suffered terribly. Nevertheless, they 
pushed on resolutely, and on June 5th 
reached Alipur, twelve miles north of 
Delhi. 

Two davs later they were joined by the 
Mirath column, under the command of 



Graves. .Some horse and guns accomp; 
each hrigiide ; whilst the remainder of iIk 
mounted men. with two troops of li..ise 
artillery, formed a cavalry brigade un.Ur 
Colonel Hope Grant. 

The Sipahis had taken up a position t.. 
bar Barnard's advance at the small villiw. .i 
Badli-ki-Serai to the west of the Amhal.vl vlhi 
road, a few miles north of the capital 01 ilie 
N'orth-West of India. 

The Plan of Attack 

Between the village and the road '.vis 
a serai, or rest-house— a square Imil.Uiie 
enclosed bv high looplioled walls-wlarfi 
formed a strong post for infantry ; "lalst 
on a commanding hillock, on the cast si. le.if 
the road, a sandbag battery had been en- 
strncted for four heavy guns, and an .'- incli 
howitzer. The ground on each side of th^ 
road was swampy ; and on the left llmk 
the mutineers' position was protected bv the 
Delhi canal. 

The plan of attack was smilile. Mi 
Henry Barnard, with the main body, «■* 
to assail the iloiit of the enemy's xx--"" 
from the road ; while Colonel Hope Grant, 



644 



Section I 



|^..h tl,e cavalry l,ri„a,l., ,„„,,,, „,„ ,,.,j 

■n.. cavalry m .v.,1 ,„„ „f ,,„,.,, ,„ ,„i,|. 
.a.l^Ju„. ;,„-,,„, „„,„„,^^„ I „J 

.•-rcar.,f,|,csi,„„,i,„„„^^,„.,^'-:^ 
li Inim Delhi. 
■'■'■•-■ "";!" cl.nm-,,,, (,„,,,. ,.„ 

I.ucr. and after a jnarcli of 
tn-f iiiilus caniL- within sifjlit 
of tlie enfni\'s canij). 

As the triKijis niuvul iloivn 
tlif mail the enemy opei,e,| 
lire. Barnaril's brit-ade im- 
meiliately deploveil to the 
"Kit of the road, an.l soon 
cim, under a heavy lire from 
tllesandl-aR battery. Craiess 
hrisade was some distance i'l 
taerear. Ho,h.- Cranfs horse- 
l.iwi were not yu in siRht 
But, without waitins for re- 
inforcements to come 11,, 
Sir Henry liarnard onlered 
»>'• 7,ith (1st Conlon HiKh- 
lamlursl to carry the l,atter>-. 
'flu- men eagerly oheyed. 
As they advanced over tlie 
''"'"'' ""<■ swamiiy gronnil 
Mleyivereex|x.sc^ltoanreso 
lK."y that in a few minutes 
ixarlva hundred fell. Hut the 
":lnTs iires.sc(l on without a 
tall and finally lin-nKing their 
"•'yoncts down to the charge 
sursid into the batterv 
•"■I' I.St Ilengal (Royal . Minister) I.-usihers 
s,,,,,«,rted the llighlan. ., 'and »: 

ttlie same tune Hope Grants cavalr,-, 

,1 ''■'','"■'" '1''I">«1 I'v swam,,v ;Tound 

."0 led on the left rear ofthe'mnth.,^;;: 

;^ chargnig with great determination 

.""' ^"'1 put them to llight 

..,s.palii force halteil on the ridge over- 

J^"~ the city, and there seemed di.six.scl 

'"■"•'I--- a stand. Barnard, however ,le.pi,e 



SIEGE OF DELHI-1857 



so..n disl„,lg,.,| ,1,^,,,, 
then coiieentr.ited o: 
jirrived within sight 
There tliey were ohii 
hegin a 



The ll,ili-l, ,-,,rce 
tlie R„lge, havhlg 
'i tlieir objective, 
II .111(1 
iilg 



^' "I'l^'ll 1-isled for three 1 
and anxious months. 

"l.'U.olding the :irH.nals, IKUI a pr.ictie div 

■..-i.ans,ii.K..up„,y ,„,„,„ ^„„,^,.>^,^_;_;!;:;|;> 




THE I-LICHT l-ROM DELHI. MAY 



Were 
ll. 

i ..1 
S of 



whilst mutineers from m,i„^- „^,t„„ 

llastening to rallv roun.l tlie C.reat M 
l-.arly on J,„,c „„, j,,^^,^, ^^^^_ 

j-warthy liorseinen and si. companies 

"'fantr^ came into the Hritisli cimi,, Tliev 

were the Cui.le Corps, which had I.een raised 

™. I.e borders of Afganistau. under Captaui 

■>>, and had marched from Mardan, near 

I i-shawur, a distance of s,So miles, in „ ,,,,, 

In the Ilritlsh camp the Cniiles fouiKl' •, 

man after their own heart- Lieutenant Ho<l- 

s.>n, who later raised Ho,l,«oii's IIo,,se. an,l 

l-.veiyn Wood, in "The Revolt 



---;----—-:::; -if.::;; ,^-- ^^» ; ...e idea, 

645 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



Two vears before the Mutiny broke out 
llodson hail iKfii removed from the command 
of the Ouides on charRra of irregularity in 
llis rej-imental acccmnts. But whatever may 
have been his failings, Hodson was one of the 
most dariiii! liorsemen and brilUant Light 
caxalrv leaders in India. " Wlien the Guides 
caught sight of me," he writes, ■'they 
seized mv bridle, my ilress, hands, and feet, 
and hterallv threw themselves down before 
tlie horse witli tears streaming down their 
faces " 



The Position Before Delhi 

The ixBition taken up by the British force 
before Dellii was, in some rcsiKCts, strong. 
It was two miles to the north of the city on a 
sandstone Ridge, which extends for two and 
a half miles nearly parallel to the course of 
the River Junma, The sunmiit of the Ridge 
is tolerably llat, and .So feet above the level 
of the surrouniling plain. 

The lines of the British camp lay along the 
western slope, the crest being occupied with 
strong pickets. 

The left of the jxisition rested on the river \ 
its centre was behinil the Flagstafl ti>wer ; 
its right at the south-west end of the Ridge, 
where the ground fell sharply towards 
Sabr.imamli, a suburb of lielhi 

At this end the Ridge was crowned with a 
house formerly belonging to a Mardtha 
chief, and calleil Hindu Rao's house. This 
was the key of the jxisition. since it com- 
manded the grand trunk road to Kanial. 
along which all the BritisI: convoys from tlie 
Punjab had to pass, and it was held with 
great determination throughout the siege 
h- ior CharUs Reid and the Coorkha 

bai 

Fi Hindu Rao's iK'USe Delhi was 

plaiul. visible, standing up ui the clear au 
with its massive reel walls a' a bastions aud 
white hnildings embowered in trees. 

The ground, between the dty and the Ridge 

was rugged , and dotted with housi s sques, 

tombs, antl ruins, which were iwrtly o loceaK'.l 
among clumps of trees. On the south the 
whole country, so far as .\)ita, WM in the 
hands of tlie enemy ; the river protected 
Delhi's eastern face ; he besi.^gers. therefore, 
could only assail the cilv (lor.i the north 



Barely hail the little army settled d. ■>:: 
on the Ridge wlien the enemy began a tir < 

of almost incessant attacks. This was l; '. 

policy cm their part, for the attacks ■in:,-': 
harassc'd the besiegers, and served to k ; 
the mutineers hi g(K)d heart, although t: 
were uivariably repulsed. 

On June Qth, loth, and nth vi-' r -^ 
attacks were delivered on the Hindu K ' 
house p<isition, but all were successf.iM 
repulsed. On the lM\ the enemy. tir..i l 
trying the right, fell unexliectedly o". t!„ 
left of the Bntisli. 

In front of the FlagstafT tower, at \\v. 
point where the fertile soil enils and the s;. 1' 
of the Jumna begin, stood the hous- a:,'! 
grounds of Sir Theopliilus Metcalfe, hi wlikh 
the mutuieers had established a garrison .i.il 
a batterv'. 

From this cover they sent out on fat 
morning of the 12th a strong force, winch 
succeeded hi aiiproachhig within niu~kit- 
shot of the Flagstaff tower without beiii? 
detected. Thence pressing on vigoroufh, 
the enemy gained the Ridge, and er i^cd 
over it, there being only two guns and .1 c Ji- 
pany of the 73th (ist Gordon Highlaiidei-i m 
position on the sumniit. 

The left of the British position w.i? ill 
extreme peril for some minutes. Then -iil'- 
ports came up ; a steady charge w;is ni.i.le ; 
and the rebels were bayoneted and drivea m 
disorder d.Asu the liill. 



The Rebels' Faulty Attempt 

This sh.irp onset had no sooner heeii 
repuKed than the enemy sliowed llini~>li ..11 
the right. It was a faulty attempt at i 
iunultaneous attack on both flanks and 
ended ui failure. 

Tne Sipahis isniuig from Sab7.ii:i.uicl! 
made a deternuu^l eff.Tt to monin tla 
hill, but the pick.t of Goorkhas aiiJ 
Rifles .Old l>art v'l the 1st Bengal (ist Royil 
MmisteT) I'uvilhrs, drove them back anu 
chased theM out of the enclosures. kiUiTis 
many >>1 them. Xo quarter was given : anJ 
the Kvss inflicted on the mutineers m thCM' 
%hts were estimated at 400 killed. 

Oil the nth five young ofScers, of "Ii™ 
Hodsou was one, were directed to draiv upi 
plan sliowiiig how to take Delhi 



e.« 




THE 9TH LANCERS 
From 



AT DELHI, 16SJ 
picture by SUnley L, Wood 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



Tlii-ir lilau n-is simpk- in its cimcc-iitiim. 
It I>li>l»5iil that all till' European infallto 
available, sonif I.""" mt". sluiuld ni'ivc at 
niiiliiisht <l(.«ii t.. tlie walls. hl,.«- in two 
gates, ami so sun'fise and capture tlie city. 

The Ceneral ileciileil ti. aiU>pt the plan, 
and issue,! ..rders that the attack sh.mlil 
l,c delivered im the nislit of the izlh. irn the 
heels (if the repulse inflicted that .lay. I'art 
of the trc«n« reached their assigned stations, 
and halted waiting for the reraahider. 
Instead, there came an order to retire. 

Brigadier Ceneral Craves, who had not 
been fully instructed, declined i . act on a 
verbal order to send all the pickets .uvay from 
the Ridge, and instead rode to see Sit Henry 
Barnard, who asked for his views. 

Graves agreed that the city might be taken, 
but was extremely doubtful as to whether it 
could be held, and (kneral Barnard, after 
hesitating until daybreak, decided t, ■ abandon 
the attempt. 

This decision was bitterly censured at the 
time, but Lord Roberts, in his " Life," says 
that the lilunder was " a mcrcifvl dislK-nsa- 
tion, which saved the British from an irre- 
parable disaster." 

The rebels now received a large reinforce- 
ment. The brigade which had mutuiied at 
Xasirabad entered Delhi June 17th, and two 
days lat. r emerged through the Lahore gate 
and marched westwards', with the intention 
of cutthig the communications of the British 
with the Pmijab, 

Late in the afternofm news came in from 
the rear that a Sipahi force was in position 
across the grand trunk road, and Colonel 
Hope Grant, with seven troops of 1 ntish 
cavalry, the Guides, and 12 guns, rode out 
immediattly to dislodge them. 

The AtUck 

Although the odds against him were 3,000 
to J.io. Grant did not hesitate to attack. 
Tht^ guns, under Major Tombs, went rapidly 
into action. The cavalry, under tohmel 
Yule, of the 9th Lancers, and Daly, of the 
Guides, charged with headlong gallantrj- 
whcncver opportunity permitted ; and for a 
long time the mutineers were- held in check. 

At nightfall, however, the cavalry and 
guns were pushed back before the masses 



crowding in upon them from everv -i 
Colonel Yule, .1 brilliant oliicer, who 1: 
Iiersonallv sl.dn three mutineers at H 
ki-Serai. June Sth. liatl been killed ■ 
Guidesliadbrimghtoff Daly wounded 1 
Grant had had several miraculous csca]. 
and two guns had fallen into tile hand- 
tlie enemy. 

At this critical moment a detacluni-.t 
joo infantry, drawn from the Killes and , . 
2nd Fusiliers, reached the tielil. ar.d. giiii-, 
ui with the bayonet, quickly turneil the !i 1 
of rebel success. The guns were retak,:. 
and next morning when Hoiie Grant i' :■. 
on to tlie field he found it abandoned. ■-'. ■ 
enemy having retreated under cover 
darkness. 

The Brigadier owed his life during ti. 
previous davs engagement largely to ti. 
devotion of his Native orderly. Roup.r 
Khan. Seeing two guns surromided 1 
f.bels. Hope Grant collected 1 few men .a.'l 
charged into the midst ol Hk enemy, .\ 
moment later his horsi- was sli<,>t undei Inm 
Roulier Khan then ilismounted, and bei;'.;i i 
the Brigadier to esca]K> 011 his horse, saviiii: 
" Take ray horse, sal.ib. it is ycmr only ch.iiif. 
of life." Ho]>e Grant refused the genet",' 
offer, but siizing the orderly's horse by ti, 
tail he allowed himself thus to be dragUL^ 
out of the struggling crowd. 

An Unfullilled Prophecy 

The Jjrd of June was the annivervirv 
llassev. The British raj had tiki' 



lasted too years; and wily pundits ii..l 
recalled a prediction that, on June .: r! 
I.SS7, the British rule would end, s 
early in the morning, the Sipaliis iiio'i- 
out in a frenzy of excitement to fullil"' 
prophecy ; and from noon to sunset assiU.iu: 
the Hindu Rao house position with s'l"' 
determination. 

After a long struggle the attack « < 
repulsed. Colonel Showers then beggeil Su 
Henry Barnard's leave to assume the ollev- 
sive. Barnard assented. The first .iintk. 
however, failed, with the loss of two olMt:* 
and several men. The column was tlie; 
reinforced by the 4th Sikhs and 2nd lln.- ■ 
(Roval Munsttr) I'usiliers These u<'<T 
although they had just come in, hiit anJ 



64S 



Section I 



cxLaustcl, after ,i twenty-mil., march while 

.he thern,.„„etcr st at ,4,, ,Ie^^ees I-ahr- 

cnheit, went cheerily imo acti„„ j,u|, u.;,,., 
tl.e haronet freely. rapi.Uv cleare.l Sal„i. 
niamh. The ^■illaKe was then „cciM,ie<l ami 
cw,necte<i by a l,reast«„rk with the Ki,|,e 
Hut the .lay s liKl„i„„ ha,| c.,5t the l,«ie.*.rs 
>nKii killed al](l iiS wounded 
HMKadier-deneral .^•e^■ille Chamherlai,, 



SIEGE OF DELHI -1857 



Modem 

however, wore ako rei„f„rcod ; and Ihcrc 
reW,.'"'*'" '" '""" " ">'» ""■« J<>.«» 

General Barnard died of cholera on July 
_4th. He ,v.,s sticcee,l,,l by (leneral R«,i 
r^i days later Keed fell ill, ,,„,,. „„( 
-m s.ck leaye, handed over the command to 
liriKadler-l General U-ils,,,,, 

Anion- the lT,x,p, who had a.„.,„|v 




MA,0« TUMBS HKSCUmo L,EUTKNA«T „,LtS AT LUCKNOW 

■ """" " "■""■" •■■ '"^ °'-- v.,„,. c„.. o.„.„ w„,.. 



■'■^■'l 1.1 camp next day to act as Depute- 

J '".."l-Gen.,.], andwithhimhebroURht 
i^'^i-nant (afterwanis Ceneral .Sir \) 
'JMor^IieiiRal i;„si„eers, who grealK- dis. 
.■R..^h..d himself during the subse,,„e,.t 

Alpit the the same time, too, a con.si.ki- 

tk. yn iV 'r'"'"'^™"-'"'^ >""«=''■ i..cludi„^ 
ill Wli (kniK s r.iyerpool) Kegimei.t, a,..l a 
:"ee number of troops sent 1- «- Toh-i 
...«...,eelron.>heI.mijab. These rein force'- 
» ....hro„gh,„„,,rn,y„ntheRidseupto 
'•■("O men „; _n arms. The e.iemv 
a \ 

64 



entered ' ielhi „ere the ,Sth IrreRulars. .\ 
W1..K of the <|th was in the Hritish camp and 
many „f the troojiers had friends iu the 
mutinous Sth. 

I>..ri..« the afteracKm of JuK- ,,„,, j,, ^ 
'.o"uii.,ur of ram, t,>„ squadrons of tl.e Rth 
rode out of lielhi, .md being mistaken for 
the ritji, wii.ise uniform was similar ip. 
l>r«ached two Rinis which were on picket on 
t.ic i:;;nt r.ar „l tiie British position witli- 
ont atlract.ng the attention of the I-uropeans, 
tl.™ ,,urpose behig to win ,ner their comrades 
'.■ tl.c 9th. \\1,en close up, the Sth galloi^d 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



at the >>ns, shoutiiiK. " l>ccii-Uwn n- 

''I'.Uuti'uant Hills (aftei«ar.U Genctul Sir 
IIills-J..l.n>.-s) cnmn. '"•«"(! l!» «>i"s, a man 
of small .t st..r. l.ut ^en- 1..J, .'«art, cl.arK«l 
al,„u- int.. ilK- tea.l ..f the- hmscmwi, in 
,mUT to 8>v. his K""i' """•■ «" m'"*"' 
and cut ',..... ..".. c.f fac lea.lins s..wars, 

„l,ik- the man. l«dy, ri.lins past the guns, 
l„ll„we,l u,. the cavaln- c-sccrt. who ha.l n«l. 
A m..me..t later a cmfusecl mass of hc.rse.nen 
cinie streamiiiK into the carap. 



How Major Tombs Won the V.C. 

llearim! the alarm. .Maj..r Tnn.l.s liasteneil 
out towar<ls the p.eket. and. writes Captam 
Norman. ■' was just in time to sei- h.s Kall.int 
subaltern down on the Rround. with one of 
the enemy's s.wars abcmt t,. kill h.m^ 
From a distance- of thirty yards fonibs^ l.red 
with his reviver, and dropiied Hills,, 
opponent " Hills had cut down one sowar, 
hit another, and then his horse rolled over 
on him. He was encumbered by Ins cloak, 
ami while recoverins his sword, ten yards 
awav was attacked by one aismounted and 
two mounted sowars. He s^-i^ed the s,».-ar of 
one assailant, killed a second by a plstol-sh<,t, 
and wounded another with his sword. Hien 
he cut down his first assailant, and when 
fighting with his fists feU and, ble-edmB from 
a wound in the bead, would have been kiUed 
but for Tombss help. , . 

Both these officers recei^■ed the Mctona 

The reWs meanwhile ha>l swept right 
through the camp, but eventually lied back 
to Delhi, leaxing behind ,i,i of their number 

'■'riiis wild chaigc heralded a serious attack 
on Sabniiiandi. The fight Uisle,] tilUunsct. 
and the rebels lost 500 men killed, file 
liritisU loss was .508. 

Five davs later this same ground was 
the scene of another fierce struggle winch 
]lri,.adier-f,eneral Chamberlain ended by 
leading a counter-attack against the enemy, 
under a heavy shower of grape-shot, riie 
„,en. not liking the look of a wall lined with 
Sipahis. stopped short instead ol charging 
at It Thereul«m Chamberlain, spurring his 
horse leai».d over the wall into the midst of 



the cnemv. calling on the men to f..Il 
him. This they di.l. but Chamberlain 
badly wounded. 

Th« Arrival ol Nlchol»n 

On August tilth there rixle into 
British camp the nii>sl remarkable <.. 
many remarkable men whom the Iii'l;. 
Mutiny brought into prominence— Brig.i'h t 
(k'lieral John Xicholson 

"Nicholson." writes I,oro KoTcrts. ■^;. 
pressed me more profoundh. tlian any ni.n I 
had ever met nefore. or have ever uk: 

since." , , , t ,. 

He arrived before lHln at the head ot t.,^ 
movable column whu',. air John I.awre,,,, 
hail organised to 'l..mp out mutl'.y w 1. 
Punjab; and b:< .irrival \,. ■ forr.ni ■ ■ 
more wavs than ou ■. 

Chi.lera and fever «ei --.iv in the c- .ii; 
2..V") men were in 1.. spi'al I.ICH ■ .: . 
Euroixans, out of a total (.1 -..m." ulnl. ■■' 
present on the Kiilge. T'hree geaei.d- 1.:, , 
succuinlied. Both the senior bta.T oUkci^ 
had \x<!n severely wounded ; so lad M. ) 'I 
Baird Smith, the senior Engimer <.men 
and the (^neral. who was entirely gu..k'l b' 
him was also ill. The situatitm made 1; in;- 
mrative that Delhi sh.mld lie capture<l bu^ 
even Baird Smith and the dauntless Clum- 
lierlain no longer advocated an imra.lun 
assault. , , 

It was fortunate, therefore, that . '.in 
N-ichoIsou arrived, since he was the mi 1 !' 
lend the iitH:essary spur to wavering re- i.i. 
At the same time, moreover, a (xiwerful mu:.- 
trahi, organise-d in the arsenals of Plnlur "i.: 
Ferozcpore, was on its way to Delhi. 

The mutineers, alarmed by news that tlK 
siegc-traui was coming up, sent out a l.itsc 
force to capture it. This force was met .m. 
soundly beaten by Nicholson at Nai..li;:nli 
nn August 24th. The guns, therefore, -.ile ' 
reached 1 Ridge, and their lire mad. tlf. 
as.-ault of the city |Kis.sible. 



The fortifications on the northern mO' 
cimsisted of the Water bastion, the Ku l.m'' 
bastion, and the Mori bastion. A eMrt.a 
w:,ll lonpholed for musketry, connect. 1 ti.i 
bastions. The besiegers er«ted a In.ci 
batteries strong enough to silence th. g""- 



Mi),lcrn 




MCHOLSONS DEKt Ar nk thl- = 

OH THl KKBtLS *I NAiAKOAR,,. aUOUS 

A. Pcurte 



n-.ill 



tte basti„„s and l^rcacl, tl,e curiam 

ten- v„ , ' " '"'■''" ""= "Kl'f hat. 
'^0,-\o. I, was completed ami ar„.«|. 

"Id Ludlow Castle. „,id,vav between 

• urana and Hindu Ra„'» !,„„«,. It wa 

.^quarter that the ntainsieKebatteri 

'^"*...i'S:":j'srt^r»"""'--^ 



'to tins side four hreachiiiK Latteries were 
thrown up. TJie .Va.ives worked well or 
I'a.v. and readily plied the spade a , pick 
under^a_.a.l,in,«„.a,th4hthe,.l:t 

The mortars „,,ene,l fire at sunse.f on the 
otl, , and on the ml, ,l,e breachinR battery 

bS ::!^,r' '">"' ™ ""■ ^-""^ 

"ater bastion, that the k„„s „„ t,„, {„„J 

clattenns down m huRe masses 
for three days the Ix.mbardment went 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 




...„..„. c,.™u,..,.so.s.rr,.o u. b«t....s o.ts.o. r„. ctv 



„„ inccss^mtlv, the Runs firinR l>y (l»y, the 
mortars shcllinK the breaches a.lil parapets 
hv ttinht. On the 1 ith there were two Ktea 
bre.iehes m the walls, wh.ch l..eule„a,.l 
Tavhir reixirteii to lie praeticalile. 

The (Jeneral .lelaile.1 live eohmms for the 
assault. Of these, the first, under N.d. ils<i". 
eousistc.l of the T,iU (lior-lo" "w''^""'"' 
ReKimenl. the 1st Bengal IR">^1 Mnnster) 
ln,,ihers, au>l 2nd I'uujahs (.,(,th I'm.)* 
Rilles), anil was to carry tlu lite.ich of tat 
Kastiniir bastion. 

The second, under Ilri^,,.lier-<.eneral Jones. 
consisfKl of the 8tli (K.nR's L.ver,«H.l) 
ReBiment, the :nd HenBal (Royal Mun.teri 



I-usihers, and the 4ll. S*hs. This cnl 
was direete,! to ent.l the Water h.- 

hreacli, , , , ,. 

The third eohiinn. connnanded li> l" 

(.onlihell. will, J4" "f '"* "»" ""'"^ 
(Dxfordsliire l.lijht Infantry), and 7.V1 > 
infantrv, was .lirecled to rush th" K.i- 
gate after it liad been blown in. 

Tlie fourth c.ilumn. under Major R.i 
detiiuler of Hindu Rao's house, was In- 
sist of the C.uides iuid Coorkhas. a c 
eeut of Kashmir Unnps, !,2(» stniiu; 
,uv Kurnpean pickets that mlRlil l>e 
abie It was dire-cted to carry the sul 
KishengMJ, and, U possible, the Labor. 



-hunt 

1, tl« 



,iV..J- 
nil ■ 



653 



tPW¥. 



Section I 



Il.e Wthclumn, un.lcr BriKadivr-OcTOral 
.....RMd, fonnc.l ,l,e re^.rv,. Tla- ™,i;e 
f..rce <M no, exceed (,„,„„ „,e„. a,„| „,, i„ 
.t ack ,o CO,, , ,sci|,Ii„ecl Sipahis, standi,,, 
bil,ind high walls. ^ 

Alxn,t ,, A.M., Sep,o,uber i^,,,. ,8,7, „„ 
.''1 th e. col„,„„s a„,l ,he rescTve Lv„, 

i.v,. from the Rid,e towards ,.„ „ 

^■:srk The k,i,,^ s Royal Rifles. i„,e„,k,l 
to act as a coveri„„ party. a,Ka„ce,l i„ e\- 
tindel onler in fro„t of all. The whole force 
Ilia, lay down „„der cover while the Latteries 
r.o,„,e,l on ,],„ hreac],es, which ha,l bee, 
l^^tly repaircl by ,he e„e„,y duriag the 

»"< »t A.M ,he Rifles .spra„R forward 
«ita a cheer. This was the siK„al for tl,e 
.attenes to cease liri„g. a,„I for tl,e colu.„„s 
til advance. 

.Nicholson's column, headed by the la<l,ler- 
[Mrty nnmediately n,sl,e,l towar,ls the 
'"f-icl, „, the Kashmir bastion. Ii„t the 
"".tmeers „,aintaine,l a heavy lire, an.l 
■he earners were so s.nilten „„ the co„„ter- 
•<'W »t the ditch that sotne ti,„e elapse,l 
i«l"re the ladders could be got down 



SIEGE OF DELHI_18S7 



Mode, 



they braincl or bayo„et«l rebels, were heard 
o .nntter. • That's for my wife ! " or •riLfs 
or„^^ch,^,re„!" -VevertheK^ much ehil-! 
* was shown towards non.co„,bata„ts. and 
m.,n> Native wo,nen. we are told, " ran up to 
nurmenf.,r,,r.,tecti.in." J" up to 



The Strui^le for Mastery 

-^t '"igth this „.,s .accon.plished. The,, 
•in' st„r„,ers slul down the slo|». planted the 
'■"'■■■'^ ^'Ka,n.st the sear,, below the breach 
■""I l"-w:< to ascen.l. The Si|,ahis fought 
-IXTatel.v, but Xtcholson's men were not 
t. ... ,le,„ed: and the struggle for the 
nustery was funous. 

I.i«.tena„t Fit.gerald was the first to 

«">tt,era,nparts. ife was instantlv shot 

'^■1 Hut others followed fast; ami the 

«n ..^1, sohbers, wrttes Sir i;veh„ Uood, i„ 

lie Ke^oll," "fought with in.lescribable 

«x,,ess. The orders ha.l enjoined „„ 

™ rcy was to be shown to ,nutineers in 

ton. and every liriton ha.l • Caw„,,ur ' 

>'- m,>,d ; moreover, in the hearts of son.e 

-■ assailants there was a personal i„. 

' "'■ """"8 <"' vengeance, to be 

Mt.^K,|on^v,„ slaying or in bei,,g slain." for 

q>,e„ts ,„ Delhi, and whose wives and 
ma d,,;s, May lith-.Oth. These. n,c,i. as 



Blowing Up the K«Ehmir Qate 

the'k-';",''"'' ''""■'''^"■* ""■" l-ad reached 
ie „"','''"'■ '"'^' !■'"""■« i" of the 
aim r,,"f"""' "' '■'"""■"■'ts Hon.e 
, Je ,-uT"* ' ■"""" ^'--hael, 

II Kvs,v an, .\Iadoo .Si,,g, ,ie,,,,,, ,.:ngi,,eers 
».tl, seven .Nat,ve sappers to carrv pow.ler 
'••",-• «-.th the party went Robert Jfa - 

..ght Infantry), whose, duty it was to soun.l 
the a.lvance when the gate was blown in 

A wicket gate lea.ling on t„ ,he ,lrawbri,lge 
1-" fo-nJ to be ope.,,. 'i-,,r„ngl, this wejit 
H"me; a„,l. accon,panie,l bv (our sa,,per< 
eachc,rryingabagof,«,wder.hesera;,;bIed 
oer heshattere,ltind,ers„f,l,ebr„lKeand 

;;or::r'^~""'-""^^"""""— 

■'.So utterly j^ralyse.l were the encnv 

t.,|.ta n JIe,lley. " that they onlv lired a few 
stragghng shots, ami made haste to close the 
•.ncket. w,th every appearance of al.inn so 
that Lieutenant Ho,ne, after laving his bags 
jun,|*u ,nto the ilitch unhurt. ' 

" It was now .SalkeM's turn. He ilso „| 
>ance,l with four other bags of |»,w,Ier, ami 
a hghte,! ,»,rt.(ire. lint the enenn. ha,l now 
recnereil from their consternation, and 
a ,ieadl>. lire was poureil „,„„ ,he Utile- 
liand from the toj, of the gatewav 

"SalkeW lai,l his bags, but' was shot 
through the arn, and leg, ami fell back ,„■ to 
till- bn.lge, han.ling the i»,rt-lire to Sergean* 
Hurgess, bnhluig him light t|,e fuse,., 

" liurge.ss was instanth- shot deail in the 
attempt. Sergeant Carmichael then „1- 
^•a,■ce,l. took up the imrt-lire. an.l sneceeiled 
. . . In another ,m,nient a terrille explosion 
shattered the ntassive gate." 

I.:re the roar of the ,x.w,ler ha,l ,lie,| awav 
Haw.thome's bugle sou„de.l the " Regintental 
c.,n and "Advance." The vml (Dxfor.l- 
5h,re I.,ght Infantry) iuunediateK. started 
forwar,! and carried the gale. There was 



W«f8 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



no rcsistanc- ; ^n.l as tlif nun ^cro rc- 
formini;, Xich.ilstin's ci.lumn caniv n|> from 
the other siile 

At the Water Bastion 

The seconil ci.hr.nn in its a.haiicc on tlK- 
Water bastion iTeaeh snllerecl Rreat losses, 
tliree-fourths of the huMer-rarty falhnR 
together with Lieutenants C.reatliea.l and 
llovellilen. Densal Hiipneers. Tart of tlie 




rLAN Ol' THK SIKGIv OK l)KLH[ 



cohnlin liowever. got insi.le, hut the majority 
of the Mien followeil tile track of Xichols..n, 
Once insiile the walls, (.■aiiililiell an.l 
N'ichoNon re-formed their iiieu. 'I'ln' work of 
the first was t' clear tile hlhldiilKS near file 
Kashmir Rate, and then march straight u|ion 
the Chainlllil-'houk-tlie main slreet of Hellii. 
Tlie second niulertook to sweeli alollR the 
rami>arts, ca]iliire in sueeessiou the Mori, 
Cahnl, and I.alioie li.istions, and Biye iidmis- 
sion til Rcids enhmin if it had cirried the 
■iid.e.r!!". 

Oplonel CamiiKeH's coUi.im met with liltlc 



opiK.sition, and soon emerged ia'- • 
Clian.hii Cliouk, where il at laice ..i. 
the Kotwallee l|<ilice station). I-art'.ui ■ 
this Col.mel Canipli.ll e.aild ll..t a.K 
So, haling waited for some time in th. 
of seeing Xieholsim's men sweep n] 
ChandiChouk from the Lahore gate, li, 
liack towards the Kiishniir liastion. 

Nicholson's Column 

1,1 the nieaiilime, Xicliolsons colmiia ; 
aa^■anced along tlie Uami.art road, e.: 
runs the whole circuit of tlie city within 
wall. It rapidly seized the Mori liasti.iii 
the Cabul gate, and was pressing on tnu 
the Lahore gate wlien it met wltli ,ai 
expeeteil check, 

•■ The column," writes Sir I*:velyii W. 
in The Revolt," " "ow advanced to« 
the Burn bastion, which overlooke.l 
Labor gate, and l.as,sed down a holli.» 
rnmiilig about lo feet below the ram; 
and -se-piirating them from the cit> , 
The mutineers hid three guns in aii 
two on the tani]«irts and /,11c in the Ian. 
vntraiicc to which was coiumaniierl i-: 
three pieces. 

■■ Major J leol, adi.meing at the li. 
hi> J-'iisiliers. was mortally wooilded ' 
.ipi.roachiiig flu defile. Although s'di 
terrible pain in his shattered tlli.;li 
resolutely refusiil all aid. ordering lii- 
who wished to carry him to the rear 
me Ik I go on and capture the guns." 

t.ipt.iin (LientcM.mt C.ihmell S<nil 
Cmille . assumed the command ef tin 
l''iisiliers. some of whom were in the l.in.- 
and some oil the rampart immediately ..lieu 
it. . . Southwell Croville led his men let- 
ward miller a heai-y lire, but they ca,.tural 
the piece in the lane and that abm. it 

■Spike it!' he slunite.1 : and .ider ' 
momeiitarv hesitation. Sergeant )""'-"' 
Corporal Keefe Privates Itradley an.l Mm 
pin', umler a sliower of grape-shot fr..ai tli. 
gun .1 lmndre.1 yards farther back, di.l sol. 
breaking the imiiit of a rainroil into tli. i.m 
and then threw down the rod to f.litu' 
CreiilK. who spikeil the gun in the 1. le 

.\t about 12..10 r.M . while the trooi- ».- 
resting near the guns which they ha I c>V 
turned, tleiieral Xiciiolwui, wim h.i • ■-" 
'54 



.■rii.'t 

1:. 

llU'll 

■ 111 
In.fll 




'Tf' 



K^sH^;;-, ------- ;..c«^^^;^ 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



roconnoitiiiiR out«ac the walls, came up and 
.It-cidc-.l on an immediate advance thrnusH 
tb^ lane Bv th^^ time tlio t""fe "t l'""*^'* 
„„.„i„C nn ." tl,e lane ha,l bee.t strnnBlv 
.Kcuined bv t\,e enemy, and a screene,! sun 
,,a the rami....t^ wa- .till in actnm. 



SN^f^ff*^: 



•»»*■ -f 




Then Xichcilson. " measuring all r.; 
writes Sir Evelvil \V<.nd. ■' by bis "Wn .!■ ::.. 
des,.isinK spirit." sprang forward mt.. ::. 
lane, aiul calkil on the men to ("How In: . 

It was Nicholson's last order. A na-a. :.■. 
liter he tell mortallv wounded, shot tin '.•; 
the eliest. He was • 
thirty-five years old m:..:i 
he die^l, and his de.'th v. .- 
an irreparable loss l> ii- 
country, for he was a .;■. , 
bomforgreatachieveni ^ 
.\^ter^■ieh"lsonhadili:':. 
fjt Major Brooks tiKikcon.i' •; 

."! cftheeiilnmn, and, aliaii lin- 

ing the iinlK.ssible ta>k lt!l 
back on the Cabul g.K 

Major Keid's attenn'' to 
reach the I.aliore g.ii> 1" 
carrying the siilmrb in iMiil 
,,f it ended in failure I'iic 
Sipallis were l.fi'parein"r , 111 
attack on Kisliengaiij j:v\ 
when Major Rei'l, slailin; 
from Sabziniandi, leil In- 
weak column ag.iin^' tiit 
place, he fonlld the gnr.lens 
and houses full of ttKi]!' 

CallantlyledbyKei' «■'■ 
men made a splelldi.l . S'"" 
to carry the place, bat tli- 
enemy were too nniiKr'"- 
for them : anil, at the ii">- 
cal moment of the iitth- 
Major Keid, who h.nl i- 
.•(1 scot-free in tueiiti- 



;ape 



arnv.> 



LIKUTKNANT HO 



Captain Sevmonr lllane. Nielwl.ai - Stat 
:,lVirer, suggested that the iiu" should not 
break through the lane till lllev eould ""I- 
llaiik this gun N.ebol-on disse-nted, and 
ordered the Fusiliers to aih nice 

The men resl.al.led r .bh , but were soon 
forced to recoil under ihe slio«cr; d S' i •-■ 
iiid nmskel-b,ills .iitected ,d them. 



live actions since 

brfore Delln, fell «Aerd. 

woiniiled in this his tweaty- 

sixth. 

Captain Muter, "I «« 
Kings Koyal Kill.- «li. 
vucceeded to the 



ling 



then 



that it w,i- 
witlldrew tl.e 
of till 



covered 'i> t' 



-Ihl- vas.l moinelll o) a.me dang.-i 
til. ei. liy, who h.ul beaten Major 
colinmi immcdiaUlv wlieeled to 1 
l... ...i„l,l liive :--.vel,l along Hie 

the siege balbai- f ,n,d fallen on <' 



„k- 



Rii.l- 



bit'-. 

■II i 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 

. ii.™. uov-inp fired 



now de«:end«i from «he R'dg^ " 
assaulting troiips. inej 

city, >■"»"-■ -f,lf,'^^;rnTad cost the 

kiUiHl and wounded— about a qua 
"'n^l^SSr^-sspeedilyentrenched 

next da\ . u"'. ■ ^ jemoialised 

plenteous ^t""-^ "' '"'""', ;"„'Ug climate, 
hy prolonged l»bo"r " ^^ ^^^ 

they drank wthout «"' ■ ^^ J^^ „ ,«^„. 
lyth was the army m a ht stare 
mence serious work. 



,erenear; then, having A-d^^ -'J^ 

SortCor:.^-^--' 

'"^the 20th the British "- *" j;'';';; 

Msission of the city, every -ge bml. .„, 
TnXtM post ha^g been captur.l .. 
abandoned. 



The Capture of DelW 

That dav the I-elhi Bank house was served 
and a n,ortar battery made readv to bombard 

"1-r:rSLr=tstenedoutof 
Udh and hosts of native women passe,! 
"htVl British lines towards the camp 

"c'were indications of the palace 
J'ng beln desert«t, but the sdd.ers when 
hev burst in found there many S.pahis who 
they ™'J' "' „„rthv of the BnUsh 

iwtionless at the ■ Keady uii tnc -t-.. . ■ 



TaWni ol the KSnz ol D«1W 

But the King of Delhi was not yet » 
prteoner. He had found refuge m the to ,1, 
Kumayoun, and Hod..n asked or . 
General's ,«rmission to take a body of h"~ 
and bring him in, on condrtion that h,^ Im 
should be spared if he surrendered 

At first General Wilson refused, mt 
ultimately he yielded, though he deelnud ," 
holThimself res,x,nsible for the enter,.r,s. 

Hodson then selected 50 tro<,pers fron- b 
Horse, and set out on his perrlons nu.:;. 

The ruins of the tom^b were ^''^'^'''^^ ' 
townspeople and followers "< '"^ J"" 
Into their midst rode one white ma.r ., 
tended bv 50 faithful sowars. IMson tu.a 

hesitated , and the King surrendered 
''S^nfoUowedup.hlsdannglca,™ 

an adventure stUl more '"f "f- ^ " ■ 
and summary- execution of the I ^ncc^ »» 
tad Tu responsible for the murd«o.u..n 
British men and women during th. d,,^. 
the massacre. ,, ■ 

He called up Lieutenant Macdow. . 
ordered him to bring .00 men, Wu..= 
squadron, Hudson set out at 8 ■ , 
September a.st. In the y-^^;,,: ^ 

thousands of armed '■'=■'• '»''"°^*° .Ik i 
,is troopers outside the building^ an ^^; 
on the Princes to surrender. ,\fter s, ra- 
the Princes came out 111 carnages, and Ih'i'"^ 
:!;a^g them to get down, shot t.n,- 

his own hand. The bodies were aku 
the city, and flung down in ChandmU 



anil nu"f, "■-•" 

in front ..f the Kotwallee. where four 
before, thev had exp-sed the bodies 
„hite women whom they had slam 

Delhi capturfl, tlie King m captiv 
Sipahis rout«l oroken, and de.notal. 
back of the Mutiny in the north-" 



SECT/0\ /-Mnnc-o., 



THE SIEGE AND CAPTURE OF JHANSI 



he son of the British Ple„ip„t,„tiar>- 
in ,h ^ . Pnissian Court, was educated 
■n the cadet school in that citv, and enterS 
tlK- B„„sh Army. x8.„. He was e ™S 

Zr^f "* '"'"""■''^' ""' "™ -^ 

r'r:Lttr.::^^,r— i,i 



1858. and invested the citv. T.v t.a Ton! 
»^th .i,,Hx, n,e„. attemptclto r- ^^Z ^Z' 

ojan.i,!^'"^"""'^-"'— "'i^'X« 



»«• s P«. ^ Character M C«.«„ 

"» -lunng Ins uLsenee, where his ,i,«J^, 
J- ...roe of character were sreatK a, pr" 

'•mmiodwl the l>Bnn , I ^-n-ss. Me 

weak ,., ,1 Z '""" '^ ""^ ™t- 

In "'''^ "" ■'»""''^>- 'S-iS. he led a 

^ '..ree ,ri,,m„ha„t,v ,„„, the Westn 

W-her,ver Rose went he succeeded. He 
•' lie enemy at Barodia „nc of his 

r,or.r«"'f -'■'- '-r-hat': 

' lort .,t kahatghur. which, situated on 

Clrhlll"" ^""''^'■•™''>-"''" 
m ll„ hil ,s !,rec,,,itous on two sides 

N ■« " ;,T™'"'' *" "« B'"" river 

'7".™ side, of 'thelrt"^ "-'"""- 
* ""«'' l^fo'e Jhans,. Ifarch 20th. 



6,59 



T*« Am,„|, ,^ Capture of Jh.Ml. 

Jhans. f„nnerlv a Dependence of the 
I^w.. w,t„ . populafon of „„,„<„, ,„; 
t?. M "^' '1""'* ""l^-s "> BwKlelkhan 

* ,^'; "'r'T' ''■^" '*"' ""»""■*• '" -8,4 
« the. death of the last herchtarv Rajah 
,^ '■""■mment. w.th a parsimonious eco- 

A^Wh /'""fi '\^'"'' ''■^ ™l™-Pension. 
J. h ted to ,t her late husband 's debts. 

rhe Ran,. „ very brave woman of great 

J'kene. the resident Political A«ent and 
-hen the news of the .Mirath (Mee „ 
Mutmv was received, the Rani M a X" 
»„ through the cantonments, .-ducc'l ,"s, 
of the soldiers from their allegiance- ,„d 

rhtr^'"""'"'"^'-^'^^'-"-^''' 
and te family, wath 70 Christians, had taken 

The walled.in town was surmounted by a 
stone for, w,th a round tower as a keep It 

was sohdK built on a high rock of granite 
«'th three hues of defence. VVTien the 
n." .n«rs had kiUed all the Christians thev 
eould find ui the cantonment, thev marched 
-m the fort, but were „ warmlv reeened by 
the occupants, wh. had Ix^-n well posted bv 
(-aptan, Skene, the women assisting in the 
defence, that the Sipahis drew off 

riie Rani, imder the most solemn promises 
induced Captain Skene to capitn.ate. She 
undertook to escort all the Christians to the 
nearest British station, but q.,c.. .t. -... 'he-.i 
into her ,,ower she had all of them butchered 
She now assume.1 the government. coine<l 
money. forti(i„| ,he towiis, an.l six months 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



later fliw! in a iKrsonal c<nnb;it witli u Hritisli 
Hiis-sir ill ;ui action she foiii;lit against Sir 
Hu>;li Ros'-' (I.nnl Stnitlnminil. Jutk- l/tli. 
t\\v niilt'S fnnu (iwalior. 

Sir Huiih Rose had to fi^ht hanl in order 
to defeat Tantia Topi. All tliree squadrons 
rock' home, some of tlieni eharjiin^? four times. 
Sir Hu^h lca<lim; wtlt in fnmt <if the right 




squadron, and eventually st> thorouRhly 
defeated Tiintia Topi tliat when he nuehed 
Kalpi hf had of his whoK' force of 2u,oou 
troops «nl\ 2iy.> SijKihis with him. 

The bombardment havinf? deniohslied a 
l.irtit iKirtion nf w:dl. tht.- rebels uiilunched 
thv npcnini; uith a double mw of p:disadL=;. 
Thi'se were dcstrnvcd liv reddiot >hot, and .i 
practicalile bnach was relented on Apiil 
jnd. At daylight, April jrd. a false attack 



was delivered on the western wall ot tli> ;: 
When the noisL- of the firing was h..t' ,. 
>,t.'rmini; party of the 3rd EurojH-ans ;ii . ... 
forward. 

At two hundred yards from the gatw^.L; . 

hail of missiles of all descriptions snii>l. :!:>. 

column. Xeverthtless, the Madras N ■;;. 

S;>ppers, carrying the ladders, went oh i;i : 

planted them in three :>! .1-1 - 

The intensity of \\w '\v 
ft-iidirs' tire now increas,- ! inl 
(rum the lofty walls tlica • .■■■.:w 
cannon-balls, bullets sli'il^;"*-; 
iidVrnal machines. bouMi r-- ; 
stones, and trunks ol irii> 
The storniers, waverini^ ■"lui 
Icred under cover. Nf.i.rtlu- 
k-ss. tlic Native sappers .: 1;;; 
ated by their lit-roic •■u.'.-.-j- 
held the ladders in pn>ni,.:i 

Another company ol ilu ,1! 

r.uropean (.."nd I.einstk.T' R'^: 

lUfiit now aih'ance'l, ail'i ri::i 

niui; up the ladck-rs, \xw<\ :- 

cr<iss the wall. Some "i tin 

ladders were too short, m- 

thn-i broke under the wi-i^:!!' 

Lieutenant D.ck. Homb.iv I.:; 

^uieers. was the first 11 

and cheered on the '.r^ 

jieans. Some of -.'w 

spoufk'd. A imvatL- s"' 

lie I)ent f'>rwar<l on 1 

the upper rung of ;» 

was seized l)y a rebel \\mV.v. 

ou the summit of the w dl \\l\ 

held the man's head and. mt 

a sUcing blow, sevcretl 

and the men who wer 

im:; had to press clo-^ii 

the ladder to avoid bii: 

ilown t>y the falling ]'< 

dropped tothegnmnd. Xevcrthele^^ 

man went on. l)Ut the rebels were renilorccil 

and tlie supporting of the gallant imii ''!■ 

the wall was necessarily slow, l.i' .il>.ii.ir.i 

Mickk-juhn. Bombay KuKineers, 

ascended by another ladder, dmpp 

into a crowd of the enemy, was lari 

cut to inevt^., I.ieuteiiat I Brniu- 

lingineers. was knocked ot't a ladi 

struck in the face by a lug of wo- 



.,111 U|' 



] '.lit! Hi. 
1., I.Kt 






l|R■tK■^; 



hi 



iturallv 



.It tk 



Section I 



JHANSI-MARCH-APRIL. 1858 



moment when Lieutena,,. Dick fell .„.,,. ' "'^"" 



gromd a dyi„K man T "" '" "" 

s "Jingman. I.ifuti-nant Fi>x \I, 

.te Bet»a, when Tan.ia Topi wasd feTT 
«as shot through the neck' I.t ,o„t " 
stormcr, were now ascending ",'d'r 

=-."n^^.^'S:dr.cr-- 



•" ""K" X'ises casualties 



The Exploit o( Dartnell 

«li™ the order to a»5n„if 



Ro»-» Later Operations 

necissts „f this mdoniitahle s..l,li„ Hi< 
operat,ons were carried on throuRhou, u 
U .t«t weather without i„,ern,iss ,n H 

n»er„, nse again. i„ otder t„ win a com 






three other offi , ' *"" '°"™«i hv 

he nudst of a crowd of as'.onish^I Bundchs" 

-™. another slashetl his fore-r„, vid,';"'"',' 
«"*• sc.vere<I his wri.s,, r;,",;!" ^"^ 
agamst his waist, but th.- „„ ;« " h '' 

^'::*™ihrr"'=^--^'- 

"" '^"'"'^'- '""ght with d.s,«ration. 



=.:?:^:r^u::.h:r;h:t:h,s.r! 

.-'■r Hugh Rose personally con<luct«l ever,- 
r™,„„a,ssance during a march of a Z^J;^, 
mdestn the hottest period of an alid' 
Ittle ''••'T- "-^ "'»""«' "-n- 

™-'-rY-;;r;:-p;5 

mnwuterahle forts and a hundred can,, r^ 

,""'''' ">"">- '"^'J in tr>i„g to keep 
■ ''"""« '!""' l..ng marches. Ills s„S 
". ■ '""<■' '" ""--it f'-s, hut were sjen 

:t„, in'., ;;.; r"7'"' "' •■■ ''«•"■ '" 

ii.Vty ' """ """'■" '''i''lr<:n in 



'■• if 



<6l 



SFrfVO/V / MODERV 



THE SIEGE OF LUCKNOW 



THK flame of mutiny, tmce laudled, 
,,,re.i(l lapi.Uv tl.r..uKtl InJ"-' ="'"' 
it ll^ir^l up i" Oudli . and. by June 
I2th 1857, tl-e wliole province was m arms_ 
Lueknow alone remaine.1 m the hands uf 
the British. 



The Chlnat Disaster 

Sir Henrx- Lawrence, the Cliief Com- 
missioner, h.id for years foreseen the p..ssi- 
bUities of a revolt ; and. when he heard of 
the outbreak at Mirath. realistng that he 
could not hope for immediate sup,«)rt Irom 
any quarter, liad promptly taken step-^ to 
ensure the safety of the British inhabiunls 
of the citv. At first he occupied the Resideiie> 
and the'Machchi Bhawan. an old fortre^ 
commandini; the iron bridge over the River 
Goomtee. But, after a .lis^istrous reconnais- 
sance made on June jotli, he I. md it 
necessary to concentrate his tr.xjps around 
the Residency. 

Under his vigilant eye preparations for 
a siege were made with as mucli secrecy as 
possible. Houses in the vicinity of the 
Residencv were unroofed or cleared away. 
Larae gangs of labcrarers were kept at work 
upon the fortifications. The cliurch and 
racquet curt were liUed with gram and 
forage Civilians, merchants, and clerks 
were organise-<l for defensive punwsi-^ and 
had l»sts assigneil to them. 

The hilt was almost insuplxirtable. 
Cholera. small-l>.ix, and fever were rife 
among the ].eople in the Residency. Bad 
news came in daily from the surroundmg 
countrv. But the energy of Sir IIenr>- Law- 
rence despite his ill-health, never flagged. 

All this time the cmrts s;it ; busmess was 
attended to in the usual way, and some 
semblance to order maintained. But on the 
night of June 28th news of the surrender of 
Cawupore came through, aud on the follow- 



ing day a patrol rei».rted that the 1 
were advancing on the city. 

Sir Henry Lawrence decided to e> u' 
the cantonments, anil, at b .\.M. on 1 
joth led out a reecmnaissiincc 4J mil' 
the Cliinat road to meet the enemv 

The Britisli force consiste-d of 3!) ni'i. 
volunteers, ioo men of the 32nil lH"- 
Cornwall's Light Infantry) Regiminl 
equal number .,f loyal I. ".;al Iiifa.itrv 
120 native trooin-rs. with 10 guns .,: 
howitzer, four of tlie guns lieing "1" 
b\ Europeans. 

The mutineers, who had been erro.K- 
rei«irted to l>e merely an adv.iiice-.;i 
minibere.1 fully 15.000 men with 1,: ; 
Thev oi)ened the iction by a lieavv 1. 
canmin. tlie... . u.iding their wings 
down on liotli ii.o'Ws of the Britisli. 

The Volunteer cavalp,- charged wUli 
iletermiuation. Tlie native liorsenun 
liad failed to find a large l«idy of ril.> 
the uortheni flank, liowever. fled. ^ 
Oudh gunners upset and abandoiul 
pieces. 

Captain BaS-Sano. 32nd Light Inl 
tried to bring up some soldiers t - 
off Lieutenant-Colonel Case, wllo » •> 
wounded 011 the ground, but he pereir.j 
forbade him. saying. " Leave me. s 
rejoin your company." 

Bass;ino, lieing hit in the K.' 
carrieil for a long distance by 
Sipalii 



Critical Position of the British 

The iKisitioi. of the British S0..11 
critical in the extreme, for the m 
pressing on, succeeded in tummg tlL 1 
Thev repulsed the half-battalion 3-'' 
of Cornwall's Light Infantry) Rei;> 
iiii attempt to drive them out of 
which was strongly held. 






t62 



Section I 



M' . tliaii iMlf "I his ran, l,d„q ki;|„i sir 
H.i.rv .,uvr.„.v or,Icr.,l a rc-triMt, :„k1 the 
tf""ps kl. hack m a.mi- c.ndiM,, ■ ,-|"s<I 
l.ursiu.l l,v the nKitmc-cTs, A I«k1v „i th, 
eiiem> , ) ir«-:ueii triwi to cut them <>!i 
'lUt the \,.luiiteer cavalrv, careless „f „,|,'s 
•':"' «;'"""'ly lc<l by Captain Kadaille' 
charged i:id routed tlieni. 

.Mnu> ^, the Ddtish troops, iveak from 
want ol 1,«1 a,id aK....ised bv thirst, to, 
the w.,-er-carriers had desc-rte.1, sa„k Iron, 
exiiaustlon l,elure the coUniiii r,ache.l th, 
no,, bridge -eer tile river. Here .Sir |I.„. 
I..'"re,.ce, i, .t ,„ hand, rallied his hrok- „ 
1 ">ps. 

Hut by tl,iM„„e all ■ ae amm.m,,,,,,, had 
l"e.l expeiid.Hl. The enen,> . n,. r„,yer 
onluiue<l to press forward I reiiee 
therefor. |,a<I the guns brouKht i,„„ ,„„(: 

tlon. and ordered the s;u„„ers to stand v ith 
lighted ,..rt-lires. as- if about to lire. 

ri" lariii!! nisi, proieil succ-ssfvil. With 
those • .enac.i.g guns in front ..f tlieni the 
enen.v i,..,rivl to attack, and allowed the 
nt.sl, ,„ hie over the ImdKe un„,oles,„l. 
"M lhe> h..d lost jii men killed and 
wonnd«l. ,,,s Euro,Kans bein,« among the 
slur,, and four guns were left in the han.ls 
o! the luntiiiL-cTs. 



LLCKXOW— JUNE XOV. 1S57 



Mo 



■ "bout the si„- of the C.ieen I'.rk in 
!.■ Ion— on the cnmn of ulnch sto,,d the 
Kesidency, and. speaking ,:, general terms 

an liiegn.ir .s,|uare. the sides being .,„o vai.ls 
l""« li.e ground fell .sharpK to„,,rds the 
nver and .long the northeni lace ran ,■ low 
'■'"■; lit. «ith a ditch in front, and a loop 
P-jected to the northu,., i„ an angle 
l"rnu,l hy the (-.^.n.fee river. an,l ., e an ,1 
inii;,L-ig fr,„n ,i 



The Siege Begins 

-Vs a si-quel to this unfortnnatc engage- 
"»"l the .Military .Vative I'olicc- and a large 
""raber of the .Vative troops in I.ucknow 
'""""■"I It w.,s then realise-il that the 
iletaclnnents in the Machchi Bhawan would 
I'c iei|uire<l to defcml the Residency. Hut 
the enemy were in force i.etueen the two 
rl.ices. and no messenger could jiass. 

r-' o./icers. at great risk, rigged up a 
s<inaph,,re,mtheroof of the Residency and 
M^Tialled orders that the fortress sli.niM be 
e\,(enated. 

'I'hat night, while the enemy were busy 
"' tnig the city, the garrison marched out to 
II" kesidency. Just as thev were filing u, a 
tr.niend.ms explosion sh.wk the earth- 
-N ' barrels of powder and .s04.(K)o r.mnds 
" ammunition had destroyed the .Machchi 



The Defences 

The n. ih-eastern and eastern fronls con- 
sisted ol hues of l,„iMi„„, eonn«ted bv 

'•■'"'f^'-' a, anks „f earth. Here were 

'III' b. -,nal. the Haihy (iuard- a strong 
gatew.u well l«nke,l up with earth- I.r 

I-a.v r, r s h..nse, ,o,d .Major .\nderson s ,se 

wir r .v,is entrenched and fornierl the 
sou- , , stem angle of the positi,,,,. 

The v..,wn|«)re battcri . so named beeiu.s, 
It sweot the CawniH.re road. w,,s .,t the 
estrcn- south of the ,»,silion 1-ron, this 
pomt the line of Imildings treiidc-d in ., 
westerly dirci-tion until was reaclieil the 
house of Mr. r.uhlJns. an energetic ci,il 
servant, who converted his residence int.. a 
strong [Mhst. 

The western face of the .i.eh.sure w.,s 
fornu-d b> a s.-ries ,,f l,o„si.s connc-cte.l with 
the n.,rtli face 1>>- an entrenchment. H.hind 
th.' <.uter line „ere inner ,»>sts, s..ine ,,f 
which ..■.nnman.le.l lh..se in front .,n.l at 
suitable |»,i„ts batleri.-s wer.- c.nistruct.-.l. 
Hut the iletences were still incmplete 
■Mth.iugh they had been b.-gmi early in June 
there were still large gaps at some places 

Oio garrLson cnsisted ,,f the men ..f the 
,12nd (Duke ol Cornwalls I.i.,.ht Infantry) 
Keguuent. 2..,, civilian \-olunteer<. ;i,, Xa- 
tnes. and I. -..lo non-cnubatants incluiling 
W'.mcn ami chililrcn. 

The h.rce of the asailants v.irie.l from 
day to day between ,jo,ooo and loo.jo,,. 

The investment was cL.sely niaintainisl 
hut a l.nal Sipahi, riujur Tiivari, who 
c^-inccd maryell.ius ami persistent courage 
m the service of the British, passed out 
and returncil on four occasions. Twice he 
was captured. Once he was torture.1. but 
he m-.cr waverni, and receive.! 



piece of tableland Oo acres u, extent each of the journeys he completed 
663 



MiaiOCOPY RiSOlUTtON TEST CHAIT 

lANSI and ISO TEST CHAi)! No 2) 



1 1.0 !f"^ IS 

I 1^ I— 1 2.2 

1^ m 1^ 



^ ^PPLIEDJIyHBE jn. 



msmmilKKiUiKtiMtM 



m 



-f. ■'.'^- 











-f^^ 



INDIAN MUTINY : ■ HOW THEV 




I ol-gh: '3 Jt dow^j J^^^ revolt of Hindustan 

1 :yni 



mm 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



Within the first week of the siege the 
eiieiuy had established batteries on every 
Side. They also occupied the surrounding 
houses, whence they kept up so deadly a 
fire that it was only by keephii; close under 
shelter that anyone of the garrison escaped 

Even at night the weary defenders had 




VOLUNTEER CAVALRY CUi«:iDt; LUCKNOW. JUNE 3aih. 18S; 
From a picture by Stanley L. Wood 



no respite from their labours, for they were 
compelled then to repair damages and bury 
the (lead, not only their dead comrades, 
wives, and children, but cattle and horses 
that fell under the enemy's fire. 

Sir Henry Lawrence Wounded 

The Europeans had also to cook their 
own food, for there were few servants in tlie 



lines; and food si»m liecame scanty. I*ot 
tunately they had an abundance of guns in. i 
an immense supply *>£ ammunition. Tii. 
had, also, the principal tiling needful — .. 
stoutness uf heart that never failed, a (K-ut 
miuatinn to pi-risli rather than yield. Tin 
sick soldiers came out of hospital of th-i- 
o\vi\ accord, looking Uke gliost- 
of men. and when reprnvi 
and ordered back again, t. - 
plied. "Wen. sir. in th. ^. 
times u man must do lu- 
bc-st." 

On July 2nd, while Sn 
Henry Lawrence was rL-stin_ 
in the Residency, a shell bm-' 
ill \n^ riHini, and cumii!iti,-i 
shattered the lower i- rt <'i \>'-- 
bodv. The wound was cleari. 
fatal; but Sir ^'jn.y lingLU.i 
for thirty-six hours and. d. ■ 
spite tlie intense pahi he sul- 
fere<l. gave to those who \\<<u\: 
succeed him detailed instnu - 
tions regarding the conduct -i 
the defence. 

Death of Lawrence 

For additional security In, 
was removed to the veran>!,i 
of Itr. Fayrer's house; lr>it 
the rebels somehow lear!:i.i 
where the wounded chief li- 
and concentrated their iiu- ' i: 
the spit. But, though I'.i 
bullets struck all around him 
and many shells hurtled o\ « r- 
hcad. Sir Henry Lawrence 1 1- 
e.dm and mimoved. T!.v i 
feeling that death was ii> . 
he partook of the Holy C m- 
muuicn ; and. having diet it^'i 
his memorable epitaph, " Hvr> 
li:?s Henrv Lawrence, who tried to d<> !ih 
dutv," lie passed away at sunrise (hi Juh 
4th' 

A few hours later, four men of the ,-':i 
(Cornwall) Regiment removed and Innuil 
his bodv. None of the officers could 1' Jl'>^\ 
their fallen chief to the grave-side, for ;nt^ 
required the presence of all on the defi'A\> 
Just before the body was moved -u^.- 



Section I 



pnvate m,s«l i1k- cnvrl.t ; tl,,n ...cl, „f 
tiK- f„ur men roi-r.-iitly kissi.l iIk- ,1c-i,1 
|.u... f.,r^,™l. ..Tl,.y „.„ «,„ ,„„.. 
»ntis.s,r luvly,, «-„,„i i„ ...fi,^. j^^,^.^,| ,. 

„";,; '';'''' ''f"" ""''•-■' close, tir... sitti,,, 

vi? ;f "■";"■ "'"' """'' "Sl.tl.v c.sti,u..,e 
«li.it tiK-y and our country l,a,| lost " 

I |. to July ,o,|, th. ™omy made „o 

' tcnipt to assault tho Ilritisl, lines „n 

u nch |,„„.„er. they kept up an ineess.„,t 

li.e^ In the meanvvliilc tliev l.ad lieen hmy 

.mderKr.,und, and. as a result of their mmin« 
operations, made their lirst effort 
iiKamst the re^dan l,atter^ „n north- 
e.'it side of the enclosure on the 
mnnnns of the 20th. 

Advance of the Enemy 

Tlie mine was sprung but did 
'tlU.I,arm. " As soon as the smoke 
ha. cleared away," „rote C.,l.,nd 
■■ahs, who ha<l succee<led Sir 
Henry Lawrence hi the com- 
mand, "the enemy boldly ad- 
vanced under cn-er of a tre- 
UKudous lire of cannon and nius- 
Mry, with the object of storming 
the redan ; but they were rcceiyt^d 
»itli such a heayy lire that, after 
a short struggle, they fell back 
with niucli loss. 

A strong column advanced 
« the same time to at '- 
Iiaies's post, and came u 
"■'.""" "" .v-'t<ls of the paliside., 
^«"r,hng to Lieutenant Loughan-inh .Va 
,"■""'"' "n"»^"'<i"l the ,x,siti„„ 
nien of the [ ncoxenante,l scTviev. a few of 
Her ,a,estys32„d root, and the ruhv!- 
e Infantry, an opportunity to distinguish 
-he., which they were not slow to 
uil t Iienisehes of. and the enemy were 
"Inen hack with great slaughter " 
^Mter this struggle tlie old state of thing, 

"'" n'' "r"''' •^'x' 'l-Pl'--^^ watchfnl- 
""a Horrible monotony 

'->•< August loth the enemy fired a mine 
™ the south side, which enUrely destroy^ 

66 



LUCKNOW-JLME-xNOV. 1857 



.■Modern 

the defences for a space of twentv feet 
Sininltaneouslv a mine was sprung o„ the 
I- *t side, aii.l ,1 general attack was ,lelivere,l 
»l.icli W..S repulse,! only after ., long ,„d 
sewre struggle. 

''■- August z.S.h the rebels spr.i,ig a mine 
.1 the south-west corner of the enclosure 
^^tptam Orr, and Lieutenants Mechain and 
.>'!>l.ltt. who coinniande.1 the garri.,,,, ,t 

1«1^.1> fell to earth unhurt insi.le the en- 
cl"snre; a pri,.ate who fell „,„side was at 
oncedeeapi,ate,l; whilst Se-cenniei, wcJe 




SKETCH FLANS SHOWmo 

POSITIONS OK LUCKNOW 

1ND THE RESIDENCY 

l>urie<l mider the ruins 
and in spite of gnlhnt 
ctlorts couhl not be res- 
cued. 

Failure of the General Attack 

The general attack which followed this e-t- 
Plosion was easily repulsed. ,S.> al.„ wis ■',„ 
assault made on September ,tli. ,he enemv o 
l«.th occasions loshig immense numbers of 

Rut the glory of ,l,e defence di.l not lie 
"" >■ in these fierce combats, but also in the 
untaltermg fortitu.ie will, which the garri 
»>" bore the encni, 's inces^mt fire the 
<la.ly losse-s. the horrid stench. ,he abscici 
ot the common comenienees of life the 
rfq'ressing want of knowledge of events 
"ccurring m the outer world, and the ever- 
present dread of mines. 

Vet, despite thci. hardships they made 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



five sorties, spiking two of the enemy's 



mile to the west of the town of Uii 



heaviest Kims, 



an(i blowing up 



several li-cp *amp cove 



houses Til. •*• s.>rties were for the most 
part the result of individual etlorts. lor. 
owinR to extreme paucity of numbers, every 
man was encourased to feel and realise thai 
upon his own exertions depended, m no 
small measure, the sifety of the entire 
Ciiumunitv. 

Conspicuous amonK the many fightniR 
private sol<liers in the garrison was Bamls- 
inan Cunev. of the 32nd Resinieut. - Cuney 
writes Sir Evelvn Wood. " crept out of the 
enclosure many times, one niglit penetrating 
a battery and spiking the guns. On his 
return he was made a pris- 
oner ' for having quitted his 
]«)St.' but was soim released 
Wounded on several occasions, 
he often left liis bed to take 
part in a light, and was event- 
ually killed ill a sortie, after 
General Havelock's arrival." 



1 their right. Un. 
lilla 



SIR HENRY HAVELOCK 



Havelock's First Attempt 
to Relieve Lucltnow 

General Havelock's column, 
after much stubborn lighting, 
reached the cantonment of 
Cawni)ore on the evening of 
July ibth. 

Next day the troops visited the entrench- 
ment which Sir Hugh Wheeler hail so gal- 
lantly defended, and saw the house where 
tlie fresh blooil of two hundred slaughtered 
women and children lay in wide i«hiIs on 
the floor, and tiiaf awful well from which 
still pmtruded the remains of countless 
mangled bodies. 

Many of the men. we are tol.l, brought 
away with them a lock of hair, a broken toy. 
or a piece of woman's clothing ; and. pinning 
the fragment insiile their coats, wore it in 
battle until they had exacted full retribution. 
A few days later Urigadier-C.eueral NeiH 
arrived with a small reinforcement, and on 
July 2i)tli Havelock, leaving Xeill with .ioo 
men at Cawnpore, moved forward to the 
relief of Lucknow willi 1,500 men and 10 



icui-i. ...^.. left. In frrait was a village, 
garden which had been carefully entrenil, 
Unable to turn the i»isition on either !'. i. 
the C^neral ass.iiled it in front. 

The skirmishers of the 7»th (2nd Se.u, • 
Highlanders and Madras (Royal I'u! .: 
I'-usiliers soon drove the rebels from ■ 
garden, but were checked by the lire 1: 
the village, the eneny being well i>.,m 
liehind a wall. 

The 64th (1st Xorth Staffordshire) K.^ 
ment then came up, but no effective adv , , 
was made until I'rivate Cavenagh ran t i 
ward and jumptHl the w i!! 
landing in the midst ul 
dozen dismounted troop.! ^ 
two of whom he slew Itel. r 
he himself was literalK c ,■ 
to pieces. His comrades tl;... 
followed, and after a desi..!- 
ate struggle the village «.., 
cleared. 

This success enabled H;t\e- 

lock to interpose his f.-r..' 

between the enemy and In.i'. 

towards which towai the reb.!^ 

now were hurrying. WM' 

colours Hying and drums 

beating, their masses came nii 

but. uuable to dejiloy. owing to the sw.,m|« 

on either side of the road, were sli..t 1.. 

pieces, and Hnally routwl, lea\ang 15 ::'n> 

in the binds tf the victors. 

After a rest of two hours the llr.'i-h 
column resumed its advance, and ni.i.ei 
forward seven miles to nashirat.,;.Lnj J 
walled town, through which runs the t.i.i! 
to I.ucknow. Here the enemy had r.lli.' 
in force, but after a stern fight thev ».rj 
driven from the town. 




Havelock Retires 

Farther than this Havelock was 1 
to advance. He had hist nearly 100 n 
the 2t)th. A third of his ammuniti.. 
expended. Cholera was prevalent 
camp. Reluctantly, therefi>re. he deei 
retire. 

nrigadier-r.ener.al N'eill. disappro 



After a march of three miles he found the i...K"> .. 

enemy strongly posted three-quarters of a any pause in the advance, urged II.. 

668 



•-(■ition I 



LUCKNOW-JUNE-XOV. 1S.S7 




CAPHV.NO A BATTKRV AT ^UCKNOW. NOVF,«BK„ ,.„ 
fn, . „,„„„ h, Ch,..,i„ w. D™,„„ to ,„. vi„„H. Co.. -,..U„v, W .,„ 

1" ;'Ubl. f„nvi,r<l, and attonipti,! to .lictat,. l„ T 

".s.ilKmli„at. junior; then hrZ Tfe-, " "' "" •^"""'^' '""' "^"■--■''-*. »" 

"" -1^^- Krcun.I „f the action o , , ' w , I ,"■' "';""' """ " """'-' "■"^''• 

"" Angnst ijth '^ ^'■"' ' '^"'"'' '"""-' ■" "I'" !■'■ I'i..'«lf .le^rribed a, ",!;,e 

of tlie strongest positions I have ever seen " 
(>6<) 



■^"•^mmmm 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



\ still •h,)riiK- coiUi'Ud acti.m ^.iisucl. 
T'n.-u lliiviluck, haviiw L-i.u.l his luntli 
c„„s,ci;t. virt.>ry >%ith..i tla.c »«ks, 
rft.,r,H-,l t,. camp, whrtu h. Kanit that lie 
ha.l hf^ii sni.trscik-.l l.v MaJMr-LciK-ral Sir 
James Outram, K.C.H.. «ho rcadii-d Cawn- 
piri- St-plfiuliLT 13th. 

Self- Denial oi Outram 

Haveluck ami I 'iitram were- .,ld friaids, and 
„n llis arrival Outram issuwl an onk-l tu tin: 
cflcct that he c.msi.krL-.l ' tlio stri-nu..us 
,,,1(1 noble exerti.nis Ilaxelock ha.l alrea.ly 
made t(. save the I.nekn..w Karnsim entitled 
him til the lion.Hir <.f relk-N-ins it. and that 
he Outram. had <lecide<l to accoml-any 
the troops as Chief Comimssioiier of Oudh. 
scrvins ato as a private in the Volunteers, 
until the Residency was occupietl. 

■■ This deliberate, noble self-denial." writes 
Sir Evelvn \Voo<l. " has .iften been quoted, 
but comparatively few have realise<l that It 
was not onlv command, but a large sum of 
money Outram put asi.le. It wab know., 
that in the Resi.k-ncy was {iS".™'" P"''l"^ 
monev which would become prize money, 
and that the share of the Reneral m com- 
mand woul.1 probably be eighty times that 
of a ])rivate soldier." 

With Sir James Outram came up the 
last of the available reinforce.ne.its : ami. 
seeing that Colonel Inglis had reiK.rti-d ui 
cipher that he oul.l not h..l.l .mt after 
September 2ist. Ceneral Havelock reahsenl 
that he must move f.irward iuinietliately in 
order to rescue the u.ible I.ucknow garris.in. 
So. leaving 400 men to guaril the entrench- 
ment at Cawnpore. he cr.)sse.l the Ganges 
on September 19th. with 3.170 men and 
18 guns. 

The hcavv guns and supplies for thirteen 
davs were carried .iver the river on the 2..t' 
and on the 21st the f.irce began its march ui 
two brigades, the first under Bngadier- 
Ocncral Xeill. the second under Oilonel 
Hamilton. 

The rebels were easily .trivcn from their 
former p.)siti.>ns at Mangalwar and Bashirat- 
gimj; and next day. liavuig marched 15 
miles, the British crossed the River Sal by a 
bridge which the enemy, in their hurned 
flight, had neglected to destroy. 



On the 2.ir.l. 10 miles from the S,.i ■ 
lobcls were found Ul p.isitii>n at the Aim.' ' 
- ;, large p.irk. devised as a l.leasiu.ie.- i : 
f.ivourite wife of a former liing of < >:■■ 
They ha.l brought up io.».«) nien. in. i - 
ing l.io.) horse' from I.ueknow. and h. >! 
them many guns. Their fr... and :• 
was partly civere.1 by a ilee), ni..r.i>-. 
centre st.ioil acr.iss the r.i.id. the left \i 
the .Mambagh. 

Havelock immediately moved fonv... 
the .ittaek. After s...ne .lelay. cause.; i v 
the ditllcullies of crossing swampy Kt..u:. I. 
the 2ml Brigade turi.e.l the enemy's n;. • 
Meanwhile, the centre !iaving ben..,, lie.,-, ih 
shelleil l.v the artille.y, ."eill ..ttacke.I r .:: 
ft.i.it ami dr..ve back the rebels in .l.s..r.i. ; 

One gun. h.iwevcr. still reimlim.l. Its 
gm.nerswerewell-trai.ied Re(,ulars. .m.l il.ee 
st.i.id up by their nine-poun.ler with..ut lliiiea- 
i.ig. w.irking it gallat.tly untU 23 me.. ... ' e 
I2th Irreguh.rs. led by Lieutenant J..hi.>...;. 
cliarge.1. and cut them down. 

The Alambagh. which until then ha.l been 
firmly hel.l. was stormed and carried b. thi- 
5th "(N-ortliuinberlanil) Fusiliers a..,l ;-tl. 
(2ml Seaforth) lliglikimlers. 

The Mounted V..lunteers umkr Capt.iii. 
Barrow, with wh.nn r.ide Outram, c.t.vii.C 
for weapon o.ily a Midacca cane, then pii.-u. 1 
the fugitives up to the vicinity of tl.i Cli ir- 
bagh bridge, which spanned the canal ... thf 
south of I.ucknow, and which was founl t. 
be strongly held. 

Next day, the troops halted in or.l.r t. 
dry their clothes, f.ir rain had fallen . ...* 
santlv since the passage of the Cmwa 
September iqth. At the same t..... 
Alambagh was prepared for defence- 
the baggage st.ired within its walls 
a guard of 250 men. 



the 
.,1.4 
iialer 



Havelock Meets the Rebels 

H;rvelock was now in actual contact »itl. 
the as.saila.its of the garrison u. I..1. '»:!..«■ 
To ilefeat the e- .-my in the open li.l 1 l"'' 
been comparati . ely easy. The 1 -k "' 
breaking into Lucknow. through it- 
ous lanes and massive buildings. ' 
arduous. . ,, 

The General, alter considering caret, lie ■'. 
p,>ssible lines of attack, decided to c.i.iy tl.. 



W,.> lll.'te' 



LlJCK\0\V -JUXE^XOV. 



1857 



.\l.«ivr 




1 CAVALRY RNCOUNTER OUrs,„„ ^uCKm^^^^^ 
- Pico™ by Ch.v.,,„ L W D '•"<:«™W. NOVEMBKR. 



*.Iiarh,,'.l| hri.l.,.. 1 , 

^ast nl tile enclnsiire ' 

* -r!;;"? '*= ''7' "--'"y '"' ""^ advance 
* 'flips paraded earlv nn n 

■ Sq.Ur.,l,.,r ,„1, '7 ■ "'""""« 

«" "'clock n ''™™ "K'" "'»' 

clock ,l,e ,„, (.v„„,„„„|,^.^,^,,,„ 

6; I 



■ I'-ad, f,,ll,,„„l |„ 



rusiliers t.iok tl 
■Maude's liatterv-. 
Tl.c cemy, ,„ defend ti.e l,rid„, 

,.^j"""«^'"'™"f*.tata.ur„i, 

'"■"i. tlK- liritisl, ,r„„,„ ,,ere ordered ■,„ 



.Major 

lad 1 
l.ad 
"itii 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



lie ,l.,w., vuua th. «uns cnuM come intn 
ac,i..n, The n„rr„wness ,.f the r,»„l ma>U 
it imlKHsiljIe f"t 1""'^- "'■"■ '"" "' '"" " 
;Li;eK.:i, .n.l .,th ...- M.«..e had to 
ccntel.a ..i.ai.st the enemy s SIX. 

An Unequal FiRht 

I.„r I l.im «hile the unetiual llRht con- 



,i,„,ea. (h,;>nets fell rul.i.llv. I'.f^ntry 
s„Mietsre,.l.,cea.he,u; ««'" "" '"'l-^";" 

c„ui.i 1- ."-K' "■' <"^- '■"^■'">-; V'Z ^ , 

,„rn«l to Lieutenant H.velock. the (.en- 
erals aicle-de-ciimp. and 
called out : ■■ I'ol Hea- 
ven's sake do sune- 
thinj; '■" 

YounK Ilavelock 
niountini; his hotse. roile 
through a temi>est ol 
shot hack to C.enetal 
Neill, and urged him im- 
mediately to rush the 
bridRe. Nelll declined to 
advance without orders 
Havelock then rod. 
away; but, having 
rounded a bend in the 
road, waited a minute 
and then came back at 
a gaUol'- I'ulliuK up his 
horse on its haunches, 
he saluted NcM and 
said, as though bring- 
ing an order from 
his father ; " Vou are 
to carrv the bridge at once, sir ! " 

Iramediatelv th. order was given, Lieu- 
tenant Arn.ild and • few of the Madras 
(Roval Dublin) Kusihers charged forward 
on to tlie bridge, accompanied by Colonel 
Tvtier and Lieutenant Havelock. 

The first blast of the enemy 's grape swept 
down all the officers, Havelock exce,)ted, and 
he with Corix.ral Jacques, were the only two 
effective-son the bridge, but Havelock, wanng 
his sword, called on the I-usiliers to follow 
him The men responded nobly, and, 
dashing fo-ward, carried the bridge, bayonet- 
ing the gunners bef.ire they had time to 
reload. 

The entire British force then crossed, and, 
the 78th (2nd Scafcrth) Highlanders having 



I,IW1 left t.. h.ild the bridge lin; 
guard h.id l.asse.l, the eohlnin si 
t,. the right and pushe.l on thi". - 
narrow lane than ran liarallel to the 
The rear-guard passeKl, and llie Hlglil 
were .. .iving over into the canal th 
which ha.l been eal.tured on th- 
when suddenly tlie enemy (ell >m H 
great force. 

It w.is only with difficulty that the 
was reinilsed, the Highlanders lieillK v 
f..r three hours in a fierce and bl. 




SIR JAMES OUTIiAM, THE BAYARD Oh 
INDIA" 



Meainvhile tlie 
coluniu i'Lissnl < '■: ■ 
tween the canal .u. ■ 
city wtll comiMi ,■!■ 
ease until it r.,,L:i, 
tlie Moti Mahal, :!;-' 
large, contiguous p,.!,,.- 
0,1 apiirnaehi'ii: •, ,' 
M, ti Mahal the erili;:; : 
moved t(i the left 1,:0!,. 
westwards toward- l> 
Residency, and tin:-. 
caine under he;o v I'm 
from troops i" tiu 
Kaiserbagh. a n .. I Ik i 
palace. 

Major Ivyre. 'i"' 
brought his batti ■ -: 
.z4-pounders to bi-.ir ';i 
the enemy's gun- .i:i>l 
SfKin silence.' them 

The column Hh'" 

halted to Wi it l"r t':.t 

Seatorth) Highlander- th." 



7,Sth (illd . 

advancing along a cross 'ane whieh lui-ui: 
them directb to tlif gates of the Kais. rl.i;,, 
(Wneral Havelock, having thus i.umt.'^ 
his forces, pushed on and t.».k shelt.r li.«. 
the eneniv's fire tmder the walls ei;d"Sn.- 
the Chatar Manzil and Farhat biklw 
palaces. 

Havelock Presses On 

Davlight was now failing, and Sir Jams 
Ontram suggested halting for the a* 
Havelock, liowever. was eager ti> complete u. 
work that ..ay. So Outran,, hann..; v.Ju.- 
tarily suliordinated himself, assent..!, at- 
undertook to show the road. 

Havelock then ordered an advance, ir- 



672 



S'Ttron I 



LtCKNoW-JUNE-xoV. 1857 







;h^' HiKl.l.mdc.rs .,,,,1 Sikhs, «I,„ „„. „„„ 
'■'""It I.ucknow garrison. 

i.iv„ , :";';'" "^ "'^' <^"'™«'. k.-ic,i i,v 

rut iligjjianrlcrs. 



"itvt tlR-,„ nitli., i,,r,v,,(l , 

' ""■ l^''^-" '''^-'i".. '. ,K.a,l,, H„i,l 
1"^ cciiuradis: ■■ \t\ ,j ,„, ' 

1 IL- f.)r 11„ I- "UISIMIK-IRV ; I 

I iL^iDr t]ii, (.ovcniMuTit,' 

iliL- >,t.,]^. ,,,■ (xciU'mL'iit and r.i,.; .;,. ■ 

Tin- garrison had Inr li..],.,- ,i,, ,. , 

"> im-r. aii.VK- V. aad wi.ii I, i i 
J'''"'"' "' 1>HIIK rilifvc-d 
'1^'MI-.. ma„i„,i,,,,|i„.,j,f„^^^, ^_^^^^^_ 

can,,, " >. I "'"'''^"" ''■'■•» »"W--I into the 
, '■ '-'^ '"K. '•"ugh-huudi-d soldier," 
MTotf one of til,. r,scu.,| i ,,,;. , ■• ""':'^- 

'|'>^ little children out of ;,r ar^r^'"* 

;'--th tears running do>;; :;;:;; :;;::2: 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LANU AND SEA 



a„d tl.mki„« <'.".l lh:>t tlu-v luac.mcin 
time t„ s;ive then, fl...u llw h.tc- .>f tll..so .1 
C:iwnlM>rf." , 

Sir l.inus Outrun. «ho now assi.imd 
c.;„m.M,l, cm,l,n,ot carry "ff <1K- B^tn^m 

„„.ini. t.. tl..' lar«f .ui.ul.c-r ..f vvuK-n aud 

cliililrcu in the Uesi.lciicy 

lie theret..re. ha^ i.,« .livi.lcl h.s f-.rccs 

i„lo tiv.. pans, left C..l.,.lel I.mhs ... e...,.- 
,„;„„1 „1 the li...3 he had s., l.m« <le e...le, 
ll ,lireeted Havelock tc. estal.hsl. h..nsc.l 
;„„1 the re...ai..i.,? tr-I« "■ "'>-' I"';""' l"" 
,,„„,,s .>., the r.,a.! l.v .vhieh they ha.l 

•n„.-e arram:e...ei.ts «ere cari.e.l "Ut .11 
,„,„ .l.v- A1..I the .r...].", in eonipira- 
;;;: saietv, h,„ ,....rly ..,1, an,l e,,, n., 
tr.m. the rest ..f I..<Ua. waited S.X »eek., .n...l 
Sir O.lin Can.l.hell. the C..,....a,.der-m-U..el. 
arrive.!, and ren.ove.l the ;,-arris...i .n.d 
f.iniihe^ 



Sir Colin Campbell at l.ucknow 

When .he ..e^^. reaehed l,"..d".. that 
.•,..ner,,l Anson had <Ued .... the ruad f. 
l,.lhi the .ia...e ..( "Illy "'"^ ■""" '"•■'••""'■'' 
,„ the public as the s.Wier alJe to rec..n.iuer 
It^naal a.ld the N..rth-West Pro^■...ces. 

Sir L-..U., Campbell was offered the co.n- 
,.,a..d and. .vith el,ar,,cterist.c ^.^;..nr. an- 
„„„„eed that he would be ready to start ... 
twe..tv-f.,ur hours. luribarkinB at once, he- 
arrive;! at Calcutta on August l.ith. two a..d 
„ half ...onths after the death of Leneral 
A.isou. 

Campbell was the son of a workinK car- 
peter in GlasRow, an.l his career covered 
the whole ...ihtary history of Oreat Rrttau. 
fro... Corum.a to the Cnmea. He was a 
hard-i-..;htinK, though cautious and expet.- 
enced, soldier, and was undoubtedly the 
right ...an t. deal with the grave cns.s 
which had arisen in India. 

Sir Colin Campbell, o.. October 27th. 
hurr.e<l forward t.i the seat of war. He 
reaehcKl Cawnpore on Xoven.ber .ir<l, ^w' 
„„ the otl. set o..t to relieve l,uck..ow at the 
he id of 4 700 .nen. including a N'aval Brigade 
from H M.S. Shannon, under Captain Peel, the 
third son of the great Prime Minister, and 
„ne of the most enterprising and courageous 
men who ever fought and died for h.s cou..lr> 



.\s s..on as Cccral Outram learn.' : 
Campbells appr..ael. he arranged a e. • 

sinids. which he sen'. ...gether w.th i 
of'tli eitv and its approaches, to the \ ■ 
bagl. where, it will lie ren.en.bered. . •■ 
llavel.ck h.i.l left a p..rt of h.s tore. 

Kavanagh-s Bravery 

The ...essenger was Mr. Kavanagh. n v ■ ■ 
ber of liie Cncovenanteil service, wa.i .1 
teere.l to perlor.n the perilous na---: 
rl.vsicdlv. Kava..agh was siiigi.l.iil> -.:.• 
suite.1 lot the task, being a tall l.m 
with pale blue e>es. lint. h.iM.ig -■ 
his face, shiulJers, a.i.l l.an.ls »nl' ': .:- 
bl lek he crossed the lawn.tec at u\f.\.: it- 
co...pa..ie.l by a Native spy. an.l. cl '. .. 
llK gav .Less of an Irreg..lar iu.,iir,..r 
walke.l up the river, recrosshlg at I:.. '. ■ 
briilge. Thence he ...a.le l.is w.iy ti.' -- 
the heart ..f I..iek.iow. and e..).;ii 
reacl.e.1 Sir Colin's ca..il>. 

It was ....e ..f the n.ost daring .:e'- i .: 
f.,r...ed duru.g the Mutiny, ami Ka^ .n..:.. 
l.a.l his rewar.l. receivh.g the Vlet..n,. er.-- 
the sun. ..f t^.o."!. and ad...iss.,... t- '■:.. 
regular Civil S-rvice. 

At 9 A.M.. K.ivember 14th, S.r Clni e.i.i.! 
beU adva..ced. and, passing to the rear .1 1;;. 
Alambagl. directed the troops aga.iist t:.- 
Dilk..; . a .ace ami park. 

By swc-ping so far to the eastw.r ... 
tr<,ops av..ided the defences wlucl. h.il '..' 
preparcl around the bridge stoma, . 
Havelock. Here the rebels ha.l .laninie,! l.j 
canal s<i as to ilecpen the water ab..ve an 
in d..h.g so, they weakened their p-m: 
for the canal below the bridge w.i- n 
almost dry. thus affording an easy iMii.-' 
even for guns. 

The Dilkusl.a fell with, ait resist..iu-e r. 
a little later, after a short stru^'-'I.^ '■■ 
Martiniere. a largo school-house f.'i 1 -'- 
sians, was also occupied. The Br.l.-l. .v.:. 
now in iwsition fro.n the canal t.) the «... 
the Ililkusha park; and, arrangen..nt< 1,.; 
i..g been made ..ext day for the safety el '-'- 
baggage and the line of commuiucat..'.- 
Carnphell, on the ifith, attacked the e« ; 
position in the Sikandarbagh and a.).K. 
buildings. They formed a forn...!al* . 
stack, the Sikandarbagh. or ...... ■ 



*.-4 



LCCKNOW-JUNE-NOV. 1857 



MOJCT, 




THE NAVAL BRIOADE mOM H.M.S 



SHANNON- AT LUCKNOW. NOVEMBtR. ,Ji, 
lure bv W. i». Overetid 



Slum's Battery 

T!,. liritisl, tr,«|„ „,,„„t „j,|j 

Mor " ■^'*'''"/'"<J Sutherland) High- 
^" ■ •'dv^ncmg u, open oTtler, cl„se<l 4h 



the .Slka.i,larl,a(!l,. WI.en enough 1 ;ul I.een 
i.roken ,lo»„ to permit three „r four ,nen 
to enter ahreast. Sir Colin Cara,,heh sent 
forwan the gjr.l (,„,! ArKyll and Suthcr- 
and) Highlanders, the 5,;rd (,st Slirni,.sl,ire 
r.ight Infantr;) Regiraont and 411, I'unjabis 
to carry the place. 

*' Remember Cawnpore » " 

■« :>- »ea„.^i,e two ^-^L"' had "'S: C "ll'f ,""''^'' ""'"'^ "■"■ "- °'. 
- ■ -.^d tn hreaclung the ntain «„ „, pned" thj tr^ ^ w:S':::ir;flSrZ tL: 

l>75 



Section I 



enclosure, im ynrtls sqimro. «„n, hfame 
|i1l' of corpses. 

Th. rebels fou^lit ,Iesp..ratelv, „„,l ,„„re 
llrui .',.)(„, of tlieir numher fell before ll,e 
limish trc,.)[)s preiailed and tlie plaee « is 
:..w.IIy carrie,!. " There never vv.as a l,„Mer 
kit iif arms," wrote .Sir Colin Can.phell 
ISeynnd the Sikandarliasli 

<t 1 the .Shah Xajiif, a 

raausolcnni. This, too. was 

strongly hel.l, and the troops 

«vre unable to Ihid an open- 

ini; in the enclosure. The 

'■"■acral, therefore, called up 

til'- Xayal Uatterv. 



LUCKNOW-JUNE-NOV. I8S7 



.Mode, 



m..teri,dly assis.eil Campbell durnu; his 
ailvance mto the city. 

Preparinit the Final Assault 

The u,ess-,,,.,se of ,|,e ,,,,1 and the 
"Id .i.s standniK to ,l,e „«, of ,l,e .Moti 
.M.ihal were the only direct ol.sta,.|es now 



The Naval Battery 



Captani I'eel brousht his 
i'uiis in action within a few 
i.ifds of tl,e walls, and " be- 
liaied." wrote .Sir Colin Canij)- 
liell, •' yery much as if he hud 
Ix-Wl laying the .S7,„„„„„ 
alon.iisule an cneni.\'s frigate," 
I'or tliree hours the liKu-y 
■i":d guns ,>ounde.l at the 
iiLissne walls, but could make 
ii'i niipres.sion on thcin : and 
)ersoiiall\ 



leading 



nails 



an assault up t,, the 



on account of the In 
of hfe was forced at la.st 
ililit fai ure and retire. 



file nights of 
liy the 



il 



missiles set] 
rocket tubi 



e-iver the nithcl 
apparently 



Silaliis, fo 



rawal of the 
scared the 



llle l.iiij, 



"i.i; just as thetr. 



i'eiininina to retire. 
'< terminated the opera 
"'■ the day. Indeed, the 




in il.irkne 



of tl 



illu 



' closing 



lie guns, the rockets 



nly bv 



letneen the ga 



ie\-iiig force, 
.'.inipliell. iherelore 



Hli.le 
"■"si'le the liriti.sl 



the 



^■liiK waged 1, 



Il entreiichment the troops ] 



make 



id. I, 



prepared 



his I 



ivillg lirst tak 



hue of eomimniic.it 



>utram had cleared a part of 
I them and the relieliii" fo 
and. In 
^.liseri/.igh 



tlio road 



ic opened a heayy bombard; 



less-hoiise with t! 



.■ii.gagnig 



the 



and other Imild 



Hrig 
iT'h. he 



TIk 



liiiKs. tliey distinguislied 



he artillery ami tlie X 
about midday. X, 
■T C.l|didn \roI.sel. 



the 
leps 
lire, 
nelit upon the 
ival 
ibcr 
the 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



eight years later became Comraatider-in- 
Chief and ti)l<l him to lead forward liis 
comrany, Qoth Light Infantrj- (2nd Scottish 
Rilles), and storm the place. 

The Relief ol Lucknow 

Wolsckv's men. having scrambled over 
the wall, found the mess-house unoccupied. 
The ganlens. however, were full of Sipahis. 
S<> Wolselev sent Captain Irby to seize the 
observatory, which lay to the s(nith-west ; 
then crossing the garden wall, led his men 




PLAN OF THE SIEGE OF LUCKNOW 



uli the Residency road, and boldly made 
for the main gate of the Moti Mahal. 

This was strongly held, but after a long 
struggle, during which Wolselev was within 
an inch of being kiUeil by a fierce slice made 
at his head bv a Sipahi from an open win- 
dow the troops broke in, and were rushing 
through the buildings slaying rebels, when 
suddenly there was a loud explosion at the 
western side of the courtyard. 

As the smoke and dust cleared oil, Lap- 
tain Tilling, cjotl. Light Infantry, appeared 
at the heail of his cimipany, and g.eeted 
W'olseley TilHng's company had gone into 
I ucknoK with Hrivelock. and the battalion 
thus became dramatically reunited, owmg 



to the coincidence that one of its compan, * 
led the relieving column, the other a sof; 
of the beleaguered garrison. 

But between the Chatar Manzil and I:,. 
Moti Mahal there still remained an oi,. , 
space of 400 yards, swept by the enera> « 
lire from the Badsliabagh and the Ku~,: 
high Generals Outtam and Hayeli.>,: 
however, crossed this space unscathed. :i;; 
met Sir CoUn Campbell on the slope out-! ;: 
tlie mess-house. 

Lucknow lia<l lieen relieved, but at ,i 
cost of 45 officers ami -t i" 
men. 

The General's first t.^r, 
now was to withdraw l... 
garris<m and treasure. 

But to carry off in s.iu:' 
through the lines of a hi fill 
force many limes ir.iu- 
numerous than his "wii 
(xio winnen and chiMKi; 
and more than loo-. -ick 
and wounded men, u,;- . 
difficult undertaking. Sir 
Colin. however, aei.ni- 
I lislied it without a casn iln- 
or loss of a gun. 

TlieChief,ha\ingilirLxUl 

his heavy guns to breach tli-. 

Kaiserbagh, in order liii- 

the enemy might siii'l--> 

he meant to storm it ■"■ 

dered the whole force t-. Hi. 

through the pickets mi llv 

night of Xovember 22\v\ tin- 

sick and wounded, the women and chillrm 

the accumulated stores of grain, an 1 lli- 

large masses of treasure .all passing tlin.ns:. 

towards the Alambagh before the u.<il- 



Ilioved off. 

Off to Cawnpore 

Halting one night in the Dilkusha pai 
force, with its enormtms train, inarcli 
ami reached the Alambagh without in. 
tion. The enemy, were not aware 1 
hail left the Residency until three 
after its departure. 

On November 27tli Sir Colin, 1 
3,ooo men and l8 guns under Sir 
Outram at the Alambagh, started in 



linK' 



Section I 



tl.e rest of the troops to eseort a train lo 
"■>1<.S long, to Cawnpore. 

But before the Commander-in-Chief 
raarehed away the nation sulTere,! a very 
l.->-y loss. General JIaveloek, whose deter- 
mmed efforts to reach Lueknow had made hi, , 
tl. pnde of the whole Empire, passed away 

OT,en, accompanied by General Outran, 
he went out to ,„«t .sir Coin, Ca,npl,ell, the 

la tj. greeted l„m, to his astonishment, as 
s.r Heno-, and then informed l,i,a that he had 

n °f ? ,'^'«"' ^'°»"-"er of the Bath 

Havelock felt that he would not live to 

enjoy th,s recognition of his serv,ees fcJt 



LUCKNOW-JUNE-NOV. 1857 



Modern 
that he was already a ,lvi„R „„„ -„,„ 

of^tucknow had proved too much fo'r hi^ 

On November 20th the Genera] wis 
^•.«1 by cholera. He was tended bv" 
son and declared he should die happv , 
contented. ' ' ^' 

'■ I have for forty years so ruled mv hfe " 

hos:„dtoOu,r.a,„,"thatwhe„deah a„e 
I imght face it without fear '■ 

He spent a restless nijjh,, and at nine 
o clock on the .noruing of the 24,1, "Z 
quietly away, ^ passid 




HMti 



MO^UMKNT 10 Lost. CLVOE (COu'^ CA^ptES '"• 

679 



•jFCTION I.-MODERN 



THE ASHANTI EXPEDITION 



ON October ln,\. 1S73. Ma)or-Oener. 
Sir Garnet \V„teley, K.C.MO.. and 
„e 34 officer, who had volunteered 
for serv e in Africa, arrived on tlte Gold 
cLT after an uncomfortable passage in 
a steamship, dirty and insufficently pro- 
Wsioned. 
Sir aarnet Wolseley 

Sir Garnet, bom 1833. «■>'««! *"^/rf„ 
March l8=ii •, was severely wounded n 
Bnma iSi! ; invalM^ »<1 promoted; 
fand" inSrlr^a, December, ■854 I -ved a^ 
ALtan.-Engineer .;-->«' ^^?"';Ji"-- 
uarv iS-ii ; wounded, June, 1853 . danger 
Tsiv wooded, August 30th. 1855 . ---*«" 
the Mutiny ; highly distmgmshed at Luck 
n,«y Drevet of Major for Lrrmea, 1858 . 
B ev t Lieutenant-Colonel, 1859 . went to 
Lrai„:86o;se„ttoCana=h.^o,Brev^ 



at Dodowah, near Accra, by a Fant. l-r.,, 
led by British otlicers. and the AsH >" '- 
then sued for peace, renouncing all r..^,,.- 
to homage from Uenkera. Assm, and o ..v 
formerly subject tnbes. The treat . 
peace was not finally arranged, hovvever^.,1 
18 II when it was signed by Oo%er,,or 
Maclean, who had been sent out by a com,unv 
of merchants, to >vhom «"= P*"<=/^'-"" j 
mentson the Gold Coast had been translar,, 
hv the Imperial Government on hearin.; . 
Sir Charles Macarthy's disastrous action ,,..1 

"Governor Maclean's administration u.is 
successful ; but in justice to his less fortmut. 
successors, it should be borne in in... 
he assumed office immediately alter tla 
Asaantis had received a severe lesson I r.m 
the action of the Imperial Oovernnient ,,,,,1 
also that it is far easier to act as agent tn ., 



',860 ; sent to Canada, .870 ; Breve J »-;;;';„, .^an it is to represent tl. 
r8b5; led the Red River 600 mes ^ »«-/„, ■^,,,, Britam. , ,.,_. 



Colonel. lOO.T , i^u ".- -- \acist- 

to Fort Carry, now Wmnipeg. Was Assist 
ant-Adjutant^General at the war when ap- 
Dointed to command the expedition. He 
Sected M special service officers, of whom 
nine lived to become generals. 

Without going fully into the history of the 
Prot coratl yet, in order ,0 show the state 
„fanairs on Sir Garnet WoWey's arrival, 
is necessary to glance at previous matters 
which had reduced Her Majesty s subjects 
"the Gold Coast to a pitiable stale of panic 
From i8u7 to 18.7 the country adjacent 
to our ports and trading stations was over- 
run continually by Ashanti arrnies whenever 
the Monarch of Coomassie ran short of slax s. 
Governor Sir Charles Macarthy was de- 
(ea ed January i.st, 18:4. !>""« abandoned 
by the Wassaws, the Ashantis kilhng them 
and his white companions. 

The hordes of savages were repulsed on > 

„„ the coast-line, until, on Sel.teinbcr u,th^ 

8-b an Ashanti army was totally defeated 



(Jovemment of Great Britam. 

In 1843. it having been ascertan ul lut 
the existing authorities favoured the -l..'.. 
trade the Crown re-assumed the chai^. 
our stations on the Gold Coast. 

In 1852 the Iml>erial Govemmf ■ .ipl"">"' 
of a poll-tax being levied on the tuoes "t tl.i 
Protectorate. " in consideration of tl.e ... 
vantage of British i,rotcH:tlon ; and .... 

this time, the lesson of 1826 being ..IT^' 
entlv forgotten, the Ashantis reconn,K..c.i 
a course of vexatious an.l insultmg co... ... 

M was met with the only argument l... 
could appreciate— Force. 
An Unfortunate Expedition, 1863 

I„ i8(.i an unfortunate cxpeait.".. ■.; 
vanced to the rrah river, in order. It i-t.,u-' 

that we might reg..in the conhdeiic; .. 
Fantis in British protection : but U' 
maining for live months inactive on th. n. 
bank, the guns were buried, »t.... 



oSo 



Section 



ASHANTI EXPEDITION-1873-1874 



.^...munition <k-str„yc.I. an,I the tro„ps „cre 
«,tl,drawn, ,„„re than 5,, ,,„ c«,t. bring 
sick. ^ 

Ahdut tins time, Dntch an.l nritisl, s ttle- 
■nctits hrinK inters|Krse,l. cntiiiual quarrels 
■imonsst .he natives arcse-, ami the t>v,> 
r.ivers, f.ir the convenience <.f maintainini; 
]ie,ce. carrml out on Janiiarv ist iXoS 
.... ex-chanKC „f territory. In the exchanse 
the natives were not consulteil, an.l in the 
u.nvention ,lated March jth. iS..;, the whole 
'• the country east of the Sweet river, up to 
t.e .\shanti frontier, is spoken of as " Her 
Majesty s possessions." 



MoJei 



Elmina 

.Two miles to the westward of the Sweet 
nver is Elmina, inhabited by a small tribe 
lylucl. peoples also the surroundi.is villaKes 
I-r more than half a century, while Ashantis 
and Fantis were fightins. the relations of the 
Katcli and Elminese with the Ashantis coi.- 
mued on the most friendlv f.Kiting The 
Uatd. wanted recruits 'or thdr India.i 
Colonies; the Ashantis had plentv of slaves 
"' spare, and wanted ammunition, which 
tho Dutch supplied. The Elminese profited 
co..siJerably by thesj transactions 

It IS. therefore, plain that the Fantis 
"uuM naturally dislike the Elminas ■ but 
'" '**-<")-70 they had special causes of 
"...plaint. Atjiempon. an Aslianti chi-f 
ge..erally. thouj;!, erroneouslv. described as 
J 1 mice, had. in marching through the 
"toetorate, committed many atrocious 

".cited at Elniina. 
The Fantis at Commendah, whom we 

ansferred in :8(,8, refu.*d to accept the 
""•;>. flag, and captured a b^'^'cre: 

■ their new masters, who l«,mb.,rde,l 
a destroyed the town. The Dutch and 
,„"'"f ''™8 ™ amicable terms, tl.rir 

.ter,,s were co„si,lered to be identical, s, 

.. tis laid waste the country around 

men" "li '"■™^' "" ''^^"""i"" of Com- 

The |.;iminese are so far superior ,0 the 

nte ,;,"""«' a-'l discipline that, in 

them, *"'■„'"""""'"■'-'■ ="!'"'"' """■''"s. 
*= mutual v-illage burning and crop desfrov: 

'» ■•\..its. in which the war consisted. 



might have gone on without anv deci.lcl 
success had not the Ilenkeras assisted the 
Fantis. who ha.l blocka.led Elmi.ia. 

The Hutch, disgusted with the trouble 
arising from thrir new subjects. esp«iallv 
at eomniendah an,l Hix e\ne. determined 
to transfer all thrir |«sse.ssions t,. us, I luring 
the negotiati.ins it tr.inspired that the Hutch 
had for ages made a yearlv pavmeut t.) the 
Ashantis ; but the Dutch Covernor led the 
Enghsh ( Jovernor to believe t hat the Elminese 
had no treaty with the Ashantis. who more- 
over, had no claim to the territorv or ,,eople of 
Elmina. U'e were further assured that the 
timines... if treate.1 as heretofore would 
raise no objection to the transfer. 

Nevertheless, about this time the Aslianti 
King hearing of the prop„s„l arrangements 
put forward his claim, stating that when 
his ancestors conquered Denkera he paid 
the King of Denkera 's debts, amounting to 
faooo. to the Dutch, who in return gave him 
Elmina. 

It does not appear that the lUminese ever 
heard of this transaction. 

Eventually the Dutch, having sent an 
Agent to Coomassie. Coffee Calcalli was 
rei»rted to have withdrawn his claim and 
the negotiations went on. X'erv soon how- 
ever, he wrote to our Governor, making 
various complui.its ; and in the same letter 
he urged for the Elminas claims for com- 
pensation for .laraages ilone bv the I'antis 

He was ilesired not to interfere in the 
affairs of the Protectorate, a.id was also 
informed that until peace was made he 
coul,I not be alhnved access to Flmiu, 
through our tribes. 



A Divided People 

The people of Elmina were separated into 
two parties, as much divide<l in their feelings 
as they were i.i their dwellings, which were 
situated on either si.le of the Lackwatc- 
U^rah. The King's party, consisting ..f about 
half the po|)ulation, resiiled cm the s.intli side 
of the Ikyah, and though not si, aier.se to the 
nritish rule as might be ex],ected when we 
consuler how much they had sutfered from 
the tribes protected by us. vet preferred the 
Ashantis The nati,es on the north, or 
garilea. side of the water consisted of mulat- 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



toes and the better cilucatci! classes. They 
were quite ready to accei)t the British flag, 
agreeing with the King's party only in detest- 
ing the Fantis. 

Througliimt the negotiations for the trans- 
fer the British Oovernmcnt showed the 
strongest determination not to accept any 
territor>- which might in any way give rise 
to trouMe with the natives. The Dutch 
were, however, anxious to quit the coast, so 
they arrested Atjiempon, whose continued 
residence at Elmina was a menace to the 
Fantis : and. as he declares. dei»sed the 
King of Elmina, who had objected strenu- 
ously to the transfer. This individual was 
present at the formal cession, April bth, 1872, 
but denies having sixjken on the occasion. 
A month later he was reinstated, without 
any pledge of his loyalty bcuig requireil, and 
very soon he wrote to Coffee Calcalli begging 
tlini to come \o his assistance. 

The King of Elmina Complains 

This Monarch had been correspondmg 
v.ith the Unglish Governor for some time. 
In 1809 Adoo Buffoo, an Ashauti general, 
carried off from Kreepee, east of the Volta, 
to Cooinassie, four Europeans and one 
British subject, Mr, Palmer, of Accra. 
For these persons Coffee CalcalU had de- 
manded a ransom of £6,000, which was 
afterwards reduced to £l,coo. 

He complained that the Assins were an- 
noyuig Ashauti traders, which was probably 
correct ; for the tribes . : the Protectorate 
had not been attacked for ...me time, and 
tile Fantis were becomhig insolent, not only 
to their enemies, but also to us ; some in- 
ttiguhig black politicians resenting our dis- 
approval of their hostilities agauist the 
Elminese, proposed to set up a Govern- 
ment independent of Great Britain. 

It is evident that at this period our policy 
should have been firm, craisistent. and suit- 
able to the comprehension of savages. 

I St. The British Government negotiated 
for the release on payment of the captured 
Europeans. 

2nd. It stopped the passage of muni- 
tions of war, and later debarred the .\shanti 
traders from the coast till the captives should^ 
be released. To this measure Coffee CalcalU 



replied by declaring there should be no |,i ,c 
till the ransom was paid. 

3rd. The Government in April, 1872 ■, > 
" show our friendship," reopened the k , S 
to the Ashantis : offered to pay double 1., 
stipend paid by the Dutch at Elmu.a, ,.r 1 
released x\doo BulToo's son, who by el.ii.c 
was a prisoner at Cape Coast Castle, p.ui: .; 
his expenses back to Coomas.sie ; and al \h 
same time undertook to send to th; 1! '.. 
Mission £1,000 for the ransom of the capti , ^ < 
seized by this youth's father. This sum v, ■ 
repTescnted to be the "actual" exiK ■. • 
incur- d for the prisoner's subsistence. \\hK\ 
at an ,iitside estimate could not have x 
ceeded £200. Impartial people will prol-al.h 
agree with the Basle Mission, that we tri.„u 
the Ashantis better than the Swiss. 
4th. The Government sent back t 



massie. hi " a manner becoming his r.i;;k 
with 700 followers, the monster Atjieui;- ::. 
who once flayed a Fanti alive, and 'ol. '.;i;i 
to look at the skin of his back. Atjieui; .ci 
reached home just ui time to coimium'. •■<:■: 
of the invaduig armies, and Adoo Bi; : ■ 
on recovering his son, gave his vote t li.i 
war party hi Coomassic, which he h:v\ I u- 
viously opposed while fearful for his > .; - 
safetv. The language of the British O"', ar, 
ment was, <l fjossible, more concili.itor> Ui.in 
its measuie.i. On learnhig that Colte. l .1- 
calli would accept £1,000 for his ciptn.- 11 
" hastened to thank him lor his good i.atli 
and friendliness." 

Meanwhile, though it was knomi e.iiU m 
November, 1872, at Cape Coast Castl. tin 
Ashauti army was assembling, the Gowiii- 
ment took no measures to guard asaii:~t i;.- 
vasion. 
Asliantis Cross tlie Prah, 1873 

In Januarv-, 1873, the Ashantis crosscl tlx' 
Prah, killing the men, carrying oft the «nnit:i 
and children, and burning the Fanti vill !■:« 
Nevertheless, on February I2th, the repoit 
of the invasion was discreditetl at the 
seat of Governmen Sierra Leone. ^; 
Elmina, however, the full significance i 
the new.s was understood, and the r.^t^K' 
King became joyous at the approacli '-i 1"' 
friends, while the loyal Elmmas wiif I'l"" 
portionably depressed. 



(.82 



ASHANTI EXPEDITION-1873-1874 m„,„„ 



Section I 



In and about the t,.wn wore tl.rco „r four 
hundred Ashautis, who had remaiued there 

^l, '/rr'i.' ''"^'»"''- and on February 

h Chief Esserve, whose loyaltv never 

faltered ,«„,n,g „„, t,,^^ j,^_. .: ^^^^^ 

paity had no confidence that the British 
Government would supi^rt them if the 
Ashanti!; 



joined with tlie 
Kiiij;'s party, 
should attack 
llicm, begged 
Iliat ail oath 

uf allegiance 

iiiiijlit he ad- 

nuiiistered to 

aU the Chiefs. 

and that tlie 

Ashantis miglit 

be remoxed. 

Both these 

ip]>arentlv 

rensoiiable re- 
quests were ri.-- 

lused. though 

it was known 
amimthearher 
that the King's 
partv Iiad pro- 
"n^l to join 
the Asliantis, 
itud a fortnight 
later the King 
«-as de[>orted 
f " Sierra 
Leoiic. 

'Hr- Ashan. 
tis, moving 
snutlnvards. 
attacked t h e 
P^ntis who 
|;..J l.ee,, i„„,,ced by SurReou-Major Rowe to 
™ .. camp between Vaucoomassie Fanti 
;■ J Ilnnquah. The Kanti army r.un.bered 

f"' the Prah were present. 

ma, , „ , ij , ,^^^_^ ^^ 
tattle described in the official report as a 
^"""C fisht. lasting many hou"^" Cut 
f «i |n the boldest spirits on either si 
-^"-".6 to the thick jungle which eove^^ 



thein^rvcung valley, firing away c„orn,„u, 
quanmes of ammunition, and retiring; 
nerthe army would advance up to ,he 
cleared gr.mnd. ' '"" 

The Fantis are said to have lost about one 

wounde,!. ] hey never fought so well again I 
On April 
14th they 
were again in- 
duced by Dr. 
Kowc to open 
lite, but "his 
brave sulxjr- 
duiates Messrs. 
I.oggie and 
Mc Kellar, 
could not suc- 
ceed isi " ifog- 
Kiiig " them to 
the front. 
■Ve.vt morning 
the Fantis re- 
treated and did 
nothing more 
for the libera- 
tion of their 
country. 

The .\shan- 
tis remained at 
Ilunquah till 
-May 14th 
when the 
nio\-ed \-ei. 
slowly, though 
quite unoj). 
poseil. ti> the 
westward. On 
June 5th they 
drcne a Fanti 
T , force from 

J'oquah, and sending emissaries to Hhnina 

»' Ivanced a forceof al«mt j.ooo men to the 
hills near that town. 

"n June ,,th Lieutenant-Colonel Festing 
with 100 Jlarhies, having arri^ed. it was 
cmded t., disarm the King's partv. and 
the f..llowing arrangements were made in 
conjunction with Captahi Freomantle the 
ienior .Vaval Officer. 

M 6 A..M. on June 1311,, ,i,e „^^ „, 
land on winch the King's party lived was 




SIR GARNET iLATF.R I.qrdI WOLSKLEV 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



gardin, wlieii. hcarini; tlm liriiiK, lit \v 7:: 
up and arrived so opixirtunely. 

Tlic few Aslwntis in tlie Harden ti: , 
and ran back till they reacheil tlie ni.,-- t 
Asliantis, now about 100 yards from t\w v. 'A. 
There the chiefs an<l their followers st, . , 
a confused column, scarcely firing, an.l ,1] ; : 
ently undecided \ hat to <lo, while our |., 1 
from under cover i)oured in several \i.'l. . - 
Presentlv the Ashantis turned and fell l^ci; 
yet slowly and in (jood einler. Col.nel I .-t- 
ins saw the crisis was past, and adv.i!;i : : 
his force he pushed the enemy for tw" nui.-. 
across the plain. When the Ashiv.ttf 
attempted to re-forra near the bn^li !ie 
dispersed them with a few volleys ' lur 
casualties were one man killed and I ar 
wounde<l out of 330 of all ranks enu,::e'l 
The Ashantis had, il is saiil. over 2,0(iii inai 
kUled. but had the guns in St. Jafi.. e mi- 
mand-ng the plain opened fire, as C<i v.tl 
Festing ordered, the enemy's loss woull ii i-.e' 
been much greater. 

The result of this action appears tn li:ve 
influenced the Ashantis immensely, .ir 1 i:i 
the campaign which followe<l they never is 
sailed fortified positions with the vigniu • ly 
showed 50 years before, though they cen iiil;. 
exhibited great bravery in withstandii- our 
attacks. 

Oordon's Reconnaissances 

For three months and a half our only 111. hl- 
ments were the reconnaissances nunle ')y 
Lieutenant Gorilon, r)8th Regiment. »li" un- 
assisted by any of the Marines then 011 tlie 
coast, approached the enemy's cam]' cut 
roads, and built the redoubts at N.q.'leii:! 
and Abbaye. It is worthy of observ ,«".'. 
as showing what a man may effect U l"m. 
of character, irrespective of rank. th,tt wlio: 
the Ambri: arrived off the coust. " Lim- 
1 on ene leie e..= tenant Gordon" was the answer v. acid:, 

or;::^i:r.;:";;^.s';:i:.u4:r ti'hM «:■ oamet woisceys arriva. ; fe. ..«, 

t)84 



encircleil bv the Ilaussas being sent along the 
beach towards Fort de Vere. the llcet's iKiats 
being sent up the Bcyali. while as many 
soldiers of the 2nd West Inilia Regiment as 
could be sjiareel connected the sailors in the 
boats with the Hauss.is. 

Martial law having been proclainiBl. 
notices were issued that all arms were to be 
brought to the Castle. At noon, as it was 
evii'.ent there was no intention of complying 
with the order, the town was shelled and 
destrove<l, the inhabitants passing out to 
the westward under cover of scnne palm 
trees and scrub. 

Colonel Ftiting at Fort de Vere 

It was now reiwrtcd that the ejected in- 
habitants, joineil with Ashantis, 'verc ad- 
vancing, and Colonel Festing moved tii Fort 
de Vere, and after a skirmish drove back the 
enemy, capturing a Hag. Onr casuahies. so 
far. were but one killed and three wounded 
out of soo men employeil. The fire from the 
bo-^s must have been extremely well man- 
aged, or it would have been destructive to 
our owni people, as it was nevessarily directed 
towards where the Haussas were stationed. 
In the evening when, as it was suppised. 
the Ashantis had left the neighbourhood, 
and all the boats except the Bamuotil-i's 
had gone off to their ships, Mr. Hamel. the 
Dutch Vice-Consul. ran to the Castle with 
the news that a large body of Ashantis, 
estimated at 2.000 men, was movhig across 
the plain towards the loyal part of the town, 
Ciilonel Festing at once got his troops under 
arms, and having, from the top of St. J;'go, 
viewed the enemy's advance, himself re- 
liaired to Java hill that he might be near the 
troops, which he placed as follows : 

The Marines under c-ver of, but outside 
the western wall of the garden which gave 
its name to the loyal side of the town. Next 
to them the Haussas, and on the left the 



Section I 



ASHANTI EXPEDITION-1873-1874 



r... nttack n„ ,l,cir c,„„. was ,,r„pose.l, ,l,e 

to undertake so ha^ar,l„u3 an.l . f,»,l|,ar,lv 
™ npcrat.,,,, wi,l, ,1,0 rc.s„urc« then at ,,i, 
o™n.a„<l. H,s dc-cision „as a,,pr„v.,- ,,! 
.■" l"s su,«n..rs. R.a,ii„R ,|,e c„rr«|,„„d'- 
™ce tlmt passci „„ ,l,is sul.ji.et and al„,ut 

t.L..„„asMc„,tl, tl,e li„l,t „f sulL.uent 
vx..cr,c-„ce, ,1,. 3.,„„d ju,|«„,c„t d,spl',v„ 
I'v ti,e so„,.,r „,ili,an. „,iie„ appears t,, 
great aihantiKc. 

Sir Carnct W.Jsck-y havinj; a^ri^•c■,^ („. 
stantly set,,, work. He had M, , wo officers 
.t Merra I.eo„e, wlio raise,! al,o„t ,,„ „„,, 
An ol),cer sc„, to ti.e Oan.bia reen.ited 
";™. "«" "■•l>-. tli""Kl. using everv possible 
«.mon. It was .leeide,! to raise tivo native 
-rps, know as Russell's an<l W,„<rs Reri- 

"■"", i'"' ,*'"''• "^'"^'^1 gunners, who were 
namiil Rai, s .\rt:iler\-. 



.Mcxiem 



An Intelligence Department 



Ollieers were dis,,atel,e,l to all the Fanti 
l^-fs to draw out their men. while the Ilead- 
quarter StalT eon.meneed the ,.rg.-.„isatio„ 
"1 -in Intelligenee Department a,id tl,e 
"rrangenient and improiement of „ur to,»,. 
Sraphicalmformation ; and this was essentid 
or.,u,s,dearadiusof,oori2milesfrom 
»r orts we apparently had no military 
uiowlcuge. 

, ^"''^' ■" Octohcr Sir Game, W„ls-ley 
Kfs of the Ashanti army were fed from 

!^i™?^ ;'" ;"''"'"" ""^'K«- ^'■'"■"^1 
■nh,, \\„„d. the officer conrmanding at 

Cta„a,actrng under instructions, .summoned 
»'^ head men to attend before l,i„, „.ith 
l'"»mse of sife conducts. 

«-ntten notices were sent, and n.esse .gers 
Jose,,^. the King's party were drspateteJ 
t ..sure the sumn.onsc.s being u.iderst,K,d. 
.. trtude of these chiefs was character- 
'■'^"! therr eo„l.de..ce h, the safety or 
■"">..« of ,|,ci, „spectiye positions ' 

lain" H " ""-■ '"'"''' ""■""■■ °" 'l.e 

fJ. Come and fetch me; white man 
C,re go bush." From Ampee.ne no 

™tilat...g, decapitated a loyal aatiye and 



exiw se,l the body „„ „,e beach. The chief 

••f .W,ua,,a sent word. •• I have smdl,x 
t"-.h..v but will con.e to-morrow." He '1, 

-e wiute and'-;L^r;.'r:der':i 

the ;^^ *''<''"V"^'rela-,l on i;s.,„nan in 

Haussas. u,.de, I.ie„te,.ant Kiel.mond 

te^mn-r' "■""■""■"■'"'■ '-'•- 

Tl.irt.v a.xemen. u.ider Captain n„ller 
l-lltv sailors and marine artillery, with --lb 

Zr '-'-''-- - --'-'- 

The U Tines, under Captain Crease. 

2.idHest India, under Captain Forbes 
Ammuiotion a .an.n.„ct-b,..,rcrs 

^ -I Ues,„.diarear-g,..r„. under Captain 

-;:d:i:afl;r ■;--:- -:;:;;;: 

;;:t:;:;;:r'"^"""^' ak„ewti.et.ner.:' 



Difficult Country 



lor an hour the path f wed lav across , 

m .r.shy plan, ..ft^n covered with water ; once 
the eolunm had to wade kneckep for „„ 

>™^. On either ha,.d were „- L| „„,,„: 

.. tns. and ih, shrubs on either si.le .f ,he 
''■'"', "■"'^ '^"••""1 "ith beautiful ere,,,ers ■ 

I'fn.k. red. and bright yellow co„v„lv..l!n.et' 
t. e eye e^-ery .noment. barther on ,l.e bush, 
winch as yet was i,. p,,tehes o.,l,-, beean.e 
dense-r. an,l oeeasi.a.al.,- ,l,e ,r,.ek tra, ers.d 
■lehles which. If held by an e,.e,.,v. must I, „ , 
cost us many li,-es. The path was but ,s „r ,„ 
niehes w,,le. though it ha,l been generally 
cleared of undergrowth for :: or j feet 

Near Es.saiiian. at 7 .a,,,. ,he column or 
string of men reeeiied a yollev fro,,, in- 
visible enemies, generally i„o\ards dis- 
tant, but occasionally from braver spirits 
l>l"gm bushes close to the path. One of 
liese, who mortally woondc! a l,au»,,, n,„st 
have almost touched him, so little had the 
slugs spread in the Haussas body 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



Tl,ccn.mv»cT.onev.rysKkvhutvvouU 

hm,.k. «""<-■ '"Vr-ractf""" "1.. 

and l"»"™'■•''^ :' 'tr The .lull, hcvy 

sharp crack ci th. . i" 

the rnckcts, the shout . ' ;^ ,.,„, 

,„„erea,.y.hetrum,,.ha^. .^^.^_;^^„^. 

-N"";:^h'^;hM:^^--"-''^ 

7f:^!::1tUi";,...-Me,ule„ua.a>t„ 

depict. 

The 5pecial Service Ollit.-rs 

The special Service ..fficcr.«^-v„,« 

auder the imrachate eye "' "^' ' '"I ^^ 
.vhose ch..ice they apparentU wishul to 
;]S;, for they veuturcl the rhyes^V 
'-i .•..,„-ril left the comniau 1 ot tUe rrocM'» 

to oC \W^ -"1 "- """^^" "f ."" 
to Colonel M ilcftuite duties. 

the enemy in provisions and powder, which 
big kept in the houses exploded continualU , 

"Ha'vtas' rested an hour the troops set out 
for Amquana. distant about hve miles. They 
were seareeK- in motion before some few 
Ts antS opened fire, -d 'he Haus^- - 
smnded by a reckless waste of amuiunition. 
Fortunate y there now were a few Mafnes in 
X„ce who. walking quietly along - ■ 
their rifles " at the slope, pie»ei«l, uu 
Ipp ared round a bend in the path, and the 
Haussas. suddenly perceiring the absurdity 



.■ l.iiui 



„f their r'<>««»"K'' '""'""■"' ""■" " 
companions. 

The Work of Lieutenant Oordon 

\iter leaving the ruined village o; b., 
„„r, destroyed by the Denkerus m 
\s.„;7„ war. the tr,K,ps entered «.me.. 
and hftv bush. The trees were hm.e 
teker than in an English eopseMn, 
ike those farther inland. One could, 
allv see about JO yards on cithers ... 
path, which Uy a f.«.t or s.. below the - 
,f tbe gn.un.l. an.l was olten several ., 
;',J„inbbekiu,ld This made the., 
slow and painful, and all were grean 
when we reaehcl Aiu.iuana. sitiutul . 
each. Its small-pox stricken ehu I 
Ids Vople. bad deserte.1 the vdl.i.e 
was desttoyeil. 

It was now i; noim and the h..L 
i„t™sc.. as indc.,1 It had been since ^^ 

wherever the sun reached on 1 
, „el..ck Colonel Wood, vath .i" l-U ■ 
'and ..V> Natives, moved m to Akim. 
\rapenee. which were bunu. At tl 
place onlv was any r,;sistance ollere! ..,. 
that not of a serious nature. 

The British casualties were 2 me.i k. .. 
^„d 21 officer, and men wounded, a,; ',, 
'entire distance marched «-«;:-".rj ";:.;. 

We have dwelt longer on this jll,ur tl.,i,i 
actual imp.irtance warrants; 

tst Because its beuig our hrst siu.. 
light in African bush, the cxperieiK. « 
very valuable ; and 

2nd. Because, great as was the 
the Ashantis, the moral effect on th. . -, 
was far greater, , 

For mouths the Government had Kit J- 
tribes under its protection almost ent.r. . ■ 
themselves till they had c=ase,l t" '^' : 
our courage or ,H>wer to op,x,se the « 
It is true the Covcrnmcnt had sent an ( • 
to Duuquah to give " every """;"'.,, 
the Fantis. and he was to succour th. .\ _- 
If he could -.but later he had been -;. 
.. not to make any movements um . 
Haussas endangering their direct ana- 
concentration." Such extraordinarv - 
are not unusual in Africa, for we learnta.. 
the campaign that a """^''^'l "J" ^ll'i 
contingent of fighting men stnctK un 



iect "- 



686 



Section I 







BUSH FIGHTING !N ASHANTI. :^3-:i 
From :i picture by R, C.nlon Woodvllle R.I, 

their mmmaiuler, his I,r„,l,er, ,:.,t to .-enturc 
"KliTfireon any account, whatever the white 
nncers might say. 

The present gcneratiim of I'antis liad Ile^•er 
■*«. a fighting Oovemor, one who himself 
'"' troops. Cowar.lly as thev are they 
l-ppreeiate courage; and the'Klminas, a 
inucli braver race, ;vere won over that clay 
f'-y m September it was reix,rted officiallv 

not a man in Ehnina has taken up a gnn 
a,am.t the enemy," On October i.th 
no chiefs wath some followers guided the 

»"I's. and never left Colonel Wood, whom 

turned to England. Esseive was a remark- 
^>>l man about forty-two years of age He 
"M a Rreat number of children, and brought 
«1. Inm 22 over 5ft loin, i„ hei;;ht and 
™™ty vears of age, whom he cuffed and 

'^•- Jpartlally when they did not advance. 



1 lie enemy now began to move slowly 
m.rth^vards. and Lieutenant Richmond (,oth 
Regiment), of w.^i's Regiment, wil 

through a long line of , amps near Kssiam 
on (3ctober ...tli, fmding but few .\shantis, 
wlio fled on his approach. 

Kroni this time tlie operations were carried 
on ,1, dense forests of gigantic trees, often 
-"><> leet high, laced together with creepers 
5up,K,rting foliage so thick as to shut out the 
sun. Ihere were few flowers, but, e.vcept 
around ^iIlages, the undergrowth was not 

SO thick — - " 

close ■ 
occu- 
cultiw 
eiiumics. 



6X7 



near the cast. It was. however, 
-s that most of the fighting 
ere the system of African 
afforiled goo<l cover to our 
Clearing tile groun<l by fire thev 
sow m the ashes, and when th^-' soil is ex- 
hausted they abandon the spot !„, another 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



ckarii,B. on thc-s<: .lc*Tti-.l lkl.h tlurc 
rises l"ttv vegetation, imiienettalile save t" 
nakiil s-ivat-es. wh.i crawl thtuusl" " "" 
their faets. 



FestinE at Escabio 

11-, Oct'.lier J7tll C.Amel l-'estinu mnveil 
„„t fn.m liumiuah, .in tlie llannted 
Kni.l with twelve <illicers, a Kun, rocket 
tulie a'wl -.») natives. So of <vhom lK-l.mge.1 
to the inil West India Kegiment. 'n 
,. ,rtune an.1 very heavy thnn.krstorin 
, '.■,! him to ainifiacli nnheanl a con]! 
al -^.-ahio. three miles from IMnquah^ 
The .\'.antis were su-;.risc4 c... king, ami 
IU,1 in confusi.ni int.. the bush, where. 
h..wever, they lay. liring ..n onr l.e..,.Ie 
n..twitlistanihn« the r.mn.ls ..f K'ape l-.nre.! 
int.. their overt. They <lare.l not venture 
out even while their camp was liemg 
,k->tr..ve.l. hut their lias.sive courage ni 
sustaining lire was remarkable. Ihe 2n.l 
We-^t In.lia men an.l the Anainab..es l.e- 
have.l -.veil -all the ..tlier natives .hsgrace- 
fullv ')ur casualties were .me man kille.1 
;„„i ,,. .v..un.le<l. most of wh..m were but 
slightlv .jure.l. 

Next y Major-Ceil. Sir (.arnet \\..lsele> 
ksl a rev uiaissmce of .V>o me". '■ '" ''''"« 
Kuropem.-. from .\brakamp.a to Ass.nchi, 
Jircctiiie CoLmel I-'estms t.. move t.raar.ls 
him at Ihe same time. L'olonel lestmg 
however, c.ml.l n.it in.iuce his allies to nr.ive 
oi and Sir C.arnet found the .\sliantis ha.l 
ra.iveil from Assanchi. 

()n > .vember jrd reconnaissances were 
made from all our a.lvance.1 jKits. that 
from liunquah hi force nn.ler C.lonel 
Felting who had witli him I. too men. <k! 
belonci.ig to the 2n.l West India Regiment. 
This time the Ashantis were on the alert, 
and but little progress was made. Lieu- 
tenant 1-ar.llev Wilmot. Royal Artillery, was 
w.iun.le.1 in the shoulder almost at once, but 
with devoteil courage continued to lead the 
a.lvance till he was shot dead, the foremost 
man. After two hours' lighting the Ashantis 
threateneil the rear, and Colonel Testing re- 
tire.l. with the loss of two killed and (i.s 
,^.„,„„),,1, tlie Commander being hit by a 
slug as he was bringing Lieutenant Wilmofs 
body from tlie front, towards the rear. 



At l-lscabio. on the J-th. the alh. 
.Iriven into acti.in by blows, im lla- .« 
sioii three trilH.-s ran back en iim".' wh. :i 
liring commenced. 

Meanwhile smaller parties were m 

from Abrakampra ami lleuhih. Tliat \ 

Alirakampra. comlKisc^l of llauss,,> 

Winiiebalis. came im the enemy, wh. ' 

not in great force. Nevertheless, an.l .1. 

the noble example set them by l.lei.tLi. 

Cor.lon an.l l...r.l Cilfor.l. they ran .•^ 

so territie.1 were they, that the oliicer- 

kiiocke.! down anil trampleil on the e.. 

T'.ie liartv from Heulali. un.kr comm.ii 

Colonel Woo.1, wa induced by the g. 

K^aruig of l.ie"teu...it Kyre (.».tli I.n;h 

fantrM. A.ljutant Woods Reg.nieiu 

alwavs marchiil Ul fr.illt of all. to a.l- 

to the enemvs cam]i at l'.ssecro..m. . 

was (..uii.l to 1»; .leserted. There the 

of some .lea.l and .lying Ashantis s.. al,: 

tlie CaiK- Cast men. that they coul. 

be f.irce.l past the corpses sa\e b; 

greater terror of a l.iadeil pist..l hel.l t, 

liea.ls. 



-i-iit 

■luol 



■.1 



An Affair of Outposts 

Two (lavs Liter the natives ap).* 

greater a.ivantage in. f. them, tli, m-a 

congenial task of lyuig beliiml entreiicluu.iit' 

and expending amnmniti.m. Aniamia"-" 

was anxi.ms t.j strike a blow before U-.,vnK 

.. I'r. . -toiate. and about three otUt 

on'\-ovi '-r ith. a day of g...id ..men 

for i;nKlisi..nell im the .le(ensi^■e ilnkeniuii 

lH=,A) the Ash.antis drove in a J.ieket ti. tin 

west of Abr.ikampi-a. and. with tunmltumii 

shouting, enileavoure.1 to break out ■•t tli. 

bush and a.lvance on the villa.ge. I"'; 

tunatelv f..r the .M.ras. a most .letei.niMi 

saldier. Major Baker Russell, w... u 

the .^ttlc mi-i.mary town, liavrog n"k. 

him bo white men. loo Haussis J." 

of Ru«ell's and Wood's Regiments, an.l 4,v' 

alUes ,„alll..»-men. The bush ha.Uw 

cleare.i for loo yards around the li''i»^ 

shelt.r trenches had been throwai ur . ik 

h.mses were loophol«l. the angles .. t.i. 

town protected by abaitis. and the cliun- 

oflere.1 a good citadel, .^bout live .. cW^ 

i the firing slackened for a time. '''■*- ""■; 

to recommei. with renewed vig.ur. l-. 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



"K... i.«t -"■""' ^1 :u:, ";:; .1,.,. ..".. 

.vml.K-a in an aajaccnl val 
,sb, canK' out iKTformnn^ ^ 



tliL- 
ni tlnir 
,nlv iUa 



the; 



on ui 



ciiniL' 

havin;. 

k-v in till- 

"■''"''■"'" Ml. at c,.nccalolir..n,tlKani.ya 
It clianevd I .at, I.. Y ,,_ 

1 IV a cinipaiiy "I tlK -"'■ 
,„;■..• niKl'.T Cal'tain '"-tant. 

,lWv at i"> 
at the As\ii 



hack inh 



>t4s an,l 

iti-;, who, 

the hnsll 

,ni.l 

On 



1 rins; ni •> 
ciK-nl.iW. <•>'■•>' ' 
hrcakin«,.ual.k>'-1 ,,,, 

;:i;:\;:-:;!^.':r:.:-th,.owint.n.n,n,„. 

t\R. ilect. arrna.-.h 

A Strange Battle Array 

1 , -th I OHO Caiw Coast men. 

On November /th I 'H'o *.ai .,.,,. 

„h hul heen .lirecte.l hy Colonel \\ «"! 

: , tnatKs^eroon,,atriv..at.U,n. 

L,m„a, in --l^T. - "-■>■ -''' '" ''-" 
"'t ""i^Ml'^tlli^^te pannlea, facing 

- --' tneLr rrs. 
':::;r"^,:^-::^r,:the„o.non..n 

'r,ri«uLws.heV.int farther 

,1,,,, oj -Mhvarl men, hlgRer than 
,11 well arn,e.l "ilh I'a.l.eM 



remo 



the Asl 

"'''■''' tl„.ir ehief-i witl' 

Hehiml them were their elnei^ 

, llelhn.l the rant, chiels were k"- 

" ''-■ ■, in wonls. When or.lere.l to 



aavance tin 



i,a then stopl 



l,;i,onrea all withi'i r^aeh 



..,1. The chief* '>' 
ana the K<> 



verbal l.er™a«on,'t.qnote-r 
.,ais,.ateh; anainaee.l..neK.ftea.lhe.r., 
t nn-ch ,.ersnas,on towanU a clnel ., 
s,„il a stroni; nml.rella. 

'rheCat.eCoa.tn.enaavanceaastlK. 

L- «,os closed on them > 

S,erty, mn, «,-""'?^,f-„:^- „ ', , 
\l,ras pass t" inert nsllt. Ihcseo, k 

h,« Anisnraal, the Ashantr can,,., ■■ '~ ; 

the last of .\nian<iuatsia s arm> 

""sot anticipatinc an attack, they h . i ■ 
,„:,d, spoil ana many slaves mcamr • 

.vvcral fell mto ..nr —'''■ "'"■;'„ 
were sluwhterea in slliht of the Ahr, 
L'r;tin«shotwlnleactna,lv-,,a. 

.1. r'^ throat Ll l.al.v hem;,; o,, . 
vonnn nu.ther s tliroae 

i.ack, , , 

OnNovemhcrSth Captain Hromheaa.. 
anctc-a a reconnaissance with tire H,. - 
K 's ,s ana Cape Cast men, ami con, 
!; ;,ear.Bnaraof,heencmyatAu.s, 

lahlctoarivefhemhaek, ReUrn,.. • 
pnrsnea, an.l left the Cape Cast • .. 
cover the >n..ve„,ent, ■"•>-•>■ •■■' "".' 
of this. ana. panic-stricken, they ne 1 
,,ch..ther.k.llinK..vertwentv..fth 
people; then rnshins "ver the 11,.. 
Iho were crossing a strean,. .hev a,,, 
one nran l.v trann-Ung '"'n n aa . 
Thev never ceasea rnnnmn tai the 
C,„e Coast i.. nnles .hstant. where 
ais„erse.l .\s Sir Carnet Wolselev v 
■■their anphcity ana cwardice sn,,.. 
aescri|.tion," 

The llritish officers now U.st s,g 
.Uhantis fo^ three weeks, l.-r 1.."' 
,„„o of .mr allies were coUecte, 
Dun.piah ana Mansu. they al.s..lntely.u 

to appni.ich the enemy. It "as^ 
!,scc!ta,nea fron, stragglers that A,n.( 
sia was retiring "" paths he was 
; p,,rallel to onr line of aavance. 



;,,e most backwara. inch.aing manv ^^^^^^^ ^^^j,, Advance 



ol the chief- 



In tinn 
siglit. 



11 lint the kings were 



The Ashanti 



nd the 



shoWe 



the bush, till some 



looking oil, having 



ollicers liy Maj" 
:n for- linginee 



t^uWen to gi 



furward, " used mure 



than 



approached the m 

■here a redoubt had bee 
, Uoliu. the Coimnaildl 
He had hut 4.1 "•'" 
.ith only - 



,qa,.t- 
;ttiu>: 



eUrtol 

Koi ;• 



him. untrained Fantis. 




THE 

ASHANTI EXPEDITION 

1873-4- 



GULF OF 



GUI N E A 



SKETCH MAP Ol- THE ASHANTI EXFtDITION, 18rj-IS?4 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



■11- „ *-,. itt-.rk the redoubt, were loiLui 

^':-;.:^^:::^^^^^^^-^^- 

Next momiuR jn., men. lo„ l«" S/'*"^ ^^ 
,, „„1 West ai.d the ranamder \\<.<kI» 
kUmrat la. Sutah for I-ai*mah, whore, a. 
Re,,imuu j„„„ler< o.llv «""•■' « 

t was behewd. ^tras,gii.i- ■ . ,1,0 

found. Still, all 1'"-'^»""""%""V' t ,„ t 
„en of Woods Rcgmreut be„ the -t 

-rtSrw^'H""^-— ' 
S::vs taUe,, in previous -™---- 

;:':;;Sirf:o;;:iirAssinca,„psinti.e 

"f'C:;-, that A,uan,uatsi.'s .ar- 
euard of 400,, men ha<l been ren.foreed on 
?he ^ h bv ,,000 troops from Comassre, 
"ho'had been sent down with orders to re- 

take the oltensive. 



carriers coming up with loads, and the F ... 
conrpanvof Woods Regiment arriving - 
teinforcement. beeame pan.c-stricken wu .. 
coming under fire, Thrown.g down .,. 
loads, they lied, .md tins so '^^^' ■ 
greater part of the Kossoos and HausM> l . 
thev hurried along eleven m a row, ■■:. 
lappi..g the path, which as the troop, 
vineed.wasbroadenoughforonen.. .. 

The Elmina cnnpany only, under l.i. * ■■ 
Richmond, kept. ts ranks, allowmgothei,- 

rush by it in headlong Ihght. 



Driving the Foe Across the River 

V, , ,, M W..o.rs advanced guard was fired 
on^ii nnloson.hofFaisoo.a„dtheAsh^ 
rear picket was driven across the river and 

from the open ground of ^'"---^;^'^ 
K„ss.,os and the lUmina conipanv were lx 
tended into the bush on either side of the 
path, whence thev fired h,to -.■""•- 

amp, and, as 1. afterwards transpire , w . 
considerable effect. Sever,.! '"^''^'^ , ; 
„ere well aimcl by the three Marmo art lerv 

,uen, whose cool, en„r..geous bearmg it was 

;. pleasure to witness. 

Colonel Wood h..d..o reserve anumnut.... 

for at that time .10 carriers had been allotted 
regilicits, and when he h.,d held the open 
.round for over h.,11 .m hour, observing t^he 
Ishantis were eU.sing in to the rear 1,^ 
flanks he .lirccted the Haussas the. m 
teCc to extend, while the Kossoos .and the 

Elminas passed thr.mgh them, 

.•oramiletliem.,venieutwascarr.o.lont 

i„ excellent or,ler, but south of tamo so,i.e 



A Dilficult March 

Lieutenants Gordon (08th). VVoodgateUu 
Reghnent), and Pollard, Royal >-T^,. 
so,ne men together, and with then, We, 
the Ashanvis. who followcl the litt e for 
three miles. The casualties were verh, 
being one killed, eight wounded, an, . 
misstig, men who fled into the 1.,.* .> 
e ventmdlv rcppeared, o,ie a mo,.th ..... 

Aslnmtis, fearing that a large orce » ,- 
ressing on them, retired by torehhgh. :■■ 
,1 November ...th began to cross the 1, 
Inthewordsof.mofl-.ci.ad.,cnnient,P .- 
bv the Mai,.r-Oe,ieral in January Jhe 

residts were well known : ' -» '; 
caused the wlwle ..f the Ashantl ar .i> 
Xit in the utmost haste and c,......- 

L'ving their dead and dymg everyul.a. 
along the path," 



Road-nmki.ig .ind bush-cuttmg ....» - 
carried on vigorously, and on Decern, ...^ 

W,.od's Regiment beg.m the l^' " f 
Prahsn, being icuned a week later ^K.~«; 

natives under the never-ceasmg snp ■> 
d two or three Kngineer oft.cers, int; 
huts, all provided with bamtao , 

''t:,"tt,tnet Wolsolev and his St.fl - 
at Prahsu on January 2nd, lS74^ an . 
this time learnt that Amanqnalsia - 

b93 



mk 



Section I 



ASHANTI EXPEDITION-1873-I874 



li.ul lifcn (lishanclcd :it C'liiiiiassiL' .>ii li,- 
ivmlier I2xu\. y<, ,mu will c^x-r kiimv, j)r.,l,- 
.i!Jy, what liis losses were, hut ime „t t|,e 
l-:iir<i|)ean capth-es eounted ;,, l,(,ses cimtaiii- 
iiiH the hones nf chiefs earrieil int.. llie eitv . 
mA it is siipiwsed rather mure than luiK 
ii tlie Asliaiiti army perishe,! in the I'r..- 
teotorato, Diaiiily irom •l\-,s«iter\- a[i,l siiiall- 

IK.N. 

The ilay liead - ciuarters were estahhsheil 
"a the Trail, a messenger came frimi CiilVee 
C.ilealli hut it diil not ajipeur that the 
Ashantis would accept our terras, tliiiugh 
iK-^. tiations were cutinued up to the time 
>'t our ' St li^'ht. 

The Plan of the Invasion 

The |>lau of the invasion of Ashanti now 
iiicaine known. The troops were to cross 
tlie I'rah on January lith at four |H)ints. 
'in the circumference of an arc of ahout -o 
miles, and to advance coiiverniiif; on Coo- 
inassie. On the extreme right stood Captain 
i'.loier. whose hase was on the \'olta ; next 
*"«1 Caiitain Untler. who hopcil to imluee 
;,u"o Western Akiiiis to cross with him 
•'l«'llt ,i.i miles to the east of the Jlajor- 
iWlieral. Captain Ilalrymple was to urse 
liie U'assaws to a(l\ancc from the Denkera 
i-iniiitry. 

save future reference, we will anticipate 



Mndci 



i;ladly seized the excuse of their territories 
l.eliii; invade.1 to dinmiish their eoni„n;eiifs 
ordered up to defend the capital. 

Sir John lllover narrated the hi~torv , 1 
the expeilition he so ahly comiuauded. 'and 
so we only allude to it. 

Ill chiiuK so it is ueeess.iry to express tlie 
hi.nh adniir.ition lelt for him hv those ollieer'- 
who, havhl.i; led c.imparativelv sni.ilj l,,,dies 
of natixes with se^■eral Pairopeaiis. can 
appreciate his many .lilllcullies when the 
pro,x,rtioiis of ollleers ali.l men were 
re\ersed. 

It is improhahle that the present j;e,iera- 
tlon will see on tlic Cold Coast any equ d 
to Sir John I'dover. whetller we consider his 

•letermined cournKe. his ahilitiis. his i; 

experience of and iminelise inlhience ove? 
the liati\es, ,,r tlie iron constitution which 
With an illdoniitahle will, ellahled him to 
withstand the e\il iiilhienees of a detestalile 
climate. 

Captain Glover's Force 



-■1 ents 

■No efforts Ciinlfl move the \\-,issaii-s, 
^'.il'l.dll Ilutler, after hearthreakiiiK delavs. 
ai„-ed the I'rali with three liuropeaii ollicers 
'»■! one l-'anti policenian. i;veiituallv he per- 
■'Jaded ,soo Akims to follow him to Vancco- 
"ussie throuKh a deserted and dewistated 
"Wiitrv. hut at uiRht their couraKe faileil 
tiMii, and Icai-iiiK the I'airopeaiis. tlie\^ lle.l 
'"ck across the Prall. Wt the .\kiins were 
"I'l 1" he the most wailike tribe ,.( the 
I'fteet.irate! 

^ It Would he a mistake to value these ahor- 
'•"■e 'lenimistrations. ami Captain Clovers 
■;-'ll.iiit and successful ad\-ance. aceordini; 
""ly to the numher of Ashantis detached to 
"■•iteli the threatened roads. 

J'lie Ashanti Monarch was supported In- 
i'nverlul feudatories, and the war lieine 
"»l«'|Hilir with those chiefs who had fou.ulit 
'SJiiist white men south of the I'rah. the.v 



l)n lieccmber I4tii, i.S;,. Captain (di.wr 
reporte.1 to the Major -Cener.ll that he 
would, as .lirected. he on the Prali hv 
January i,,tli; and that the force with 
which he would c • i ininlit readi to jo.oo,. 
and w.inlil not he less than K.iioo iiien. 

I In Decemher jjml he rei)orted he feared 
there was no possihilitv of his reaehiiii; the 
Trail lor ,o d.iys. i e, the lirsl week in 
I'ehruary. 

The S|)eed;- withclr.lwal of the while rejii 
niellts from the coast heillj; essential, the 
Ceiieral was constrained to ilireel thai tlie 
inv.Lsion should he eoiniiiemed o„ the 
appoiiiled ,l,iy, if with the ll.iiiss.is and 
N'onihas only, who iiuniliered .ihout Soo 
effeetiies. 

C.i]itaiii rdover utterly disappioied of 
this, and piiiiitinj; ,.ut how niueh his usi'- 
fuhiess would he impaired if lie erosscl as 
ordered hy Sir Cariiet Wolselev st.ited he 
could not he respoiisihle for' the result 
.Nevertheless, he loyally carried out his 
instructions, and cros,se(l the Trail at Ij 
noon on January i.ith. As.suniinK that the 
chiefs ke]>t tile:; promises for the iilst lime, 
perhaps, on record. Captain Crlover's cross- 
iiiK in I'ehruary. as lie proposed, would have 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



■uu\ the Jual.in cl.KL who w»^ '"RW^"; 
l,..n ul.W to aW O.hcc e,,talh m .,^ -m, 
(VTL.a WoK'K'v'* .k-ciMo" aiTwrs to have 

1:; ;:, th. i..st r..uit» for uoth -..!>.«...>. 



Captain 
with tlio 



t ilariiii; 
s niarcli. 



It is inipos^ihU- to alh,ac to 
(■.l,.vcrs force witlioiit iiot.ci..s 
.k-cpest aJmiiation one oi the in" 
,ctsofthewari.lCa,>taiuSartorva: 

1,- rlo\rr to LonmasMe ttt eom 
Sent on Ijy (.loMf to V- r.irnet 

,„„„icate w.th Major-.Vueral >^ '-^^^ 
\Vol^.k.y.amHaihn>;to„nainn,, e - 

„ith .o Haus*a, 30 nules tl>r,.ush tl»- -^ 
of the enemies' cotmtry. until he o ert. ok 
Colonel WW, who was in comnuutd of the 
rear-snaid. 



Disembarkation ol Europeans 

On January 1st. 1S74. the .lise.nibarka- 
,i,m o the Europeans was ;""•■>-""; 
hIu a battalion was to ntoye forwar.l eaU. 

"' -.-.rtv^^r^ni^ts 

rLXer:;;tt^;arr,:rsae.rtin.not 
™iv neat the coast. ImtalouR the km t 

set nea that our aavance must c.me to an 
^,a Ve neea not so far for the explana- 

St The Afncan is sensual, "ul"'-'^ ;" ; 

cowaraly. The white n,en «ere al t J^^ 

cross the I'rah, where there w..nia l.e k.. 

fooa ana more danger. 

Tl.e results of the liritish pnhey haa re- 
,„oved all power from the kinss, who ne^he 
conia nor apparently wonia move a ngr to 

help u^. 'fl'"^ ^ '^■"K "•" "■'*^'"'' ■ 1 
tes as a useless black n.an. who re,iu,rea 

fooa but who wouia neither .i«ht n.,r carr> 
' CMibo ana inki, when oilereai-uropean 
„,to, t" train their subjects the Assms 
"ela "No! our hearts are m.tbtw enough 
;rSiit as your oihccrs wouia recpure 

Now a chief at l>muinah »;'\;'"^-^';^^^ ' ,[ 
ineitiug carreers to aesert, in the wr. 

a .lispatch: 'Too cowar.Uy to "gbt tl ur 
own battles, and too la.y, even when we 

paid, to help those who are r.skmg . 
l(-es in their cause, they were (luuc been) 
deserting by whole tribes," 



The liritish soldiers, wlnte ...a M,.e . 
behaving very d.fiereatlv. lhe\\e., . 
^,,,1 \V„o.Ps Regiments became . 
marching ■„ nnles a day. carryn.g ■ 

,„H ,he aist,mee. The wlnte s,daes , 

., noble spirit. ' Ine regnnent dul a.- ■ 
,,rrvloaasforadayortwot.l!thei..i ' . 

hearing of it. though fnllyal'l"-"-:';;- 
"((„rts Crbade the exertl.ms. wine.) » . 
,,,ve destroyed our lighting l.owerm.. v.. ~ 
The other batt,aionsv.edw,theaeho,.,,. 

oderiug to carry loads, an. subs.st , .. 
„„ons. if allowed to go tot, elront. 
„,llv. niainly by Colonel colkv s >k,ll. . 
Majuba. tSSr) exerl.ons. the rnnaw.,>- ^>- 
recoverea ; other labour was clket. ^ 

force and the advance was coutmuea 

Pral,: the white soldiers cnjoyu-g ■ 

Inxurions comfort as was never beloi. ... 

in anv campaign. 

In each encampment there «erel..^. 

. the officers and men. all provdedwath...: 

fortabkbeds; fatered water, pumps. «,,• 

ing places, latrines, cookmg l-laces. s.,a 

,„!;es. control stores, a hospital, and sn,..T. 

At Mansu greater aeeo,nn,<,dat.on w.i-yr- 

vidcl for the effective ami the sick .4,iu 

With a force of 1.300 Euroiieans. ,0 p, r l. 

passcHl under the care "f the n.edie.a -.1, 

so many had to bless the never-eeasmg U....- 

ness and attention bestowed on then, 



, khiibus 
(,d's K. 



.ul I"*'- 



Hard-Worii'.nf! Officers 

The .■.', thor of this narrati^ 
forget the more than hull 
Kentleman* attached t" W 
who ever in the front i" aelloii, 11 
,„„,\ nor l.iid down to rest till he V 
to the weU-being of all those serxui- «■ 

"tIic two senior officers who were ... -. 
eession in chief charge of the Amiv Mo 
llepartiuent, and their subordinate- » 

uappy in P"-cssmg that -....-;;;- 

aeti.m which is so reassuring to 1 « 
a„a cmsolatory t.i the dying soldle 
Major Home and his olhcers had 
smooth road, varying from S to ■ile.» 
had put up =.i7 I'tidges; had l..." ^ 
,„„u'i..-.' over imuiiuerable sw.iinp^ - 
of which re<|iiired three tiers ol i '-' 
• Surp>>....-M.U« til-"'"' »'"'"■■ *- " 
69.1 






BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 

. • 1.1.:,. .^;.. tivM iiiilcs 






f,rcl,mn-c.Vl«buusk-.twon.te™est,l.,. 

u;asnuwa«:crtam«lttatthcAs^..: :. 
„erc c..Uc.ti„« .t Amoaful wink Or - 

ine company airtl I--us.he«. and tic A „ 

alx,e con,,any of Ru^-lV. ^^^"-»^J ''l "; 

was but httlc or no resistance at .rsl ,. 

"jri advancing in the centre, not liavi-.,_ ,. 

Sm hnrt; partly, perhaps, because X,. 
Xi were Wi^a. and p^^-- 
their chiel wished to jom our P otcc. r„u 
We learnt later that Clfee Calcalh lud -o,' 
„uqnats,a to w:.tchObin, whose v.«, 

„erc vvcll known at C.Kiniassie. 



The Work of the Scouts 

t.iS^^v:;:U. Lieutenant .;..rdona,>d 
t Se Lieutenant Kyre, who dum,.tf 
,,K.scoulinMr".ntheC,-astupt^ulra^, 

it should be born. .u.nr,j.Mhat_^.>_^^^^^ 
no scouts properU so ^'^^ . jj ,^, 
and had to '~'""'^;"%,,r" ,„< The 
""" ""!"irSSs:.w mo.!:: forward 

were As.sms ^_^^_, ^^.„j 

up the party. ^ , 

Covered'bythis'partv. Russell's Re^imc^^ 
1 ♦!„. Vrih on January ,itli. juu, 

fiKhtin/. Olnn. ""^ '^"'^ ' 

,„ ten davs' rations, thereby rd>evn,«tt^ 

been opposcl. 



On Tuuiary 2ith head - quarters were 

,„ F.nnn nal,-. the sconts on the Bahrein 

ve? the rear of the f.el.l-force was 

^^r-, .fvr— :y"— 

t^tircthdewfrequiLdtinretobrn. 
"•rr'Sirarcc .oitring party bein« 



The Death o« Captain Nicol 

On the rinlit of the vUlage Captain Nlcol 
colanding the Ananiaboes, a br^-e , . 

e«,erience<l officer, approached a Rmu , 
Xcrs who were standing quietly near . r 

r:-';:xufTmt: 

villagers lied. 

It has been said that the orders issivM t- 

ave bloodshe.1. that our people sliouH n- 

fire first, caused indirectly this brave oll.M^ 

life It is clear that the men whom Cartel- 

Nicol approached knew notlung of lutenn. ■ 

'treachery, or they would not have reuunj . 

so qnietlv before the Anamaboes. whu . ■ 

MX as thev bed in all directions whe,. p ■ 

Nicol fell. Neither conld so 1"^'" ' 

humane a m.in as Captain Nicol, w,tl. ^ 

without orders, liave fired nito a cruu.l ■ 

unresisting men. . 

Our people now halted to breakfast .v_ 

the news was sent back by a p.-> ■ 

Anamaboes. who were waylaid one ..r t.' 

beiuK killed and three wounded. 

\(ter an hour's halt the column raunu- 

followe<l bv the enemy, who were ilru>.i ■ 
however, by the siUors acting as re.ii-|:"- 
with a steadiness worthy of veteran ti. :■ 
Three sailors were wounded. 

On the evening of January .loth l.-V 
anti armv under Amanquatsia and ^" 



ir 4^ 



Section 1 



ASHANTI EXPEDITION-1873-1874 



great chiefs was drawn u|i south r,f Ani.nful 
with its main l>«ly ,m a swan.pv stream' 
winch crnssc-s the main ,«th. (x'.o vaMs 
north of KgRinassic. 

The Black BriRacle. consistinR of Russell's 
R.ufs. an<l Woods Regiuients, was at 
Ijuarman. i,o(k) yards south of ligginass^. 
and the white men were in and about 
Insanfoo. 

The study of previous battles, and the 
esptrience gained in the minor actions of 
the previi>us four months, showed plainly 
that the Ashanti tactics arc ever the sinic 
fhe centre is refused, wi.ile swc^eping turning 
movements arc made on tlie tianks There 
;s lor naked an<l hanly warri.irs in thick 
forests httle of the danger which in Europe 
«"uld he incurred bv such tactics for 
unclothed, without baggage, thev can aiwavs 
retreat on their han.ls ami knees through 
the tangle,l unilerw™,-! ami re-form. alm,>st 
unmolested by Europeans. 

Arran;;ement of Troops 

«y the following arrangement cverv pre- 
cnntion was taken by the llajor-deneral to 
en«.re success, and, back„l by the courage 
"■lis soldiers, his triumph was complete 
^^1 he troops we.e .lividi.l int.i four cora- 

f!ic front colunm con.sistid of- 

Tivo ;-|)ounder guns. | '^rigadier-Ccneral 

TlH- -i-'ikI Highlanders I ^" -^ -^''^m. 

' li irt.. C.li. 

!.ii) Citliimn. 

"«> .„c„ of the Naval Hrigade,-, Colonel 

Ka~.lls Kegmient. ' jj^.j ^,,,,1 

l»" rocket detachments. I ' c.]i. 

Riliht Culumtj. 
";""«■" N'aval lirigade. , I.ieut.-O.lonel 
"•"■Is Regunent. ].;>.elvn \v„o,l 

'"■'if. ikct detachments I " \. |^- 



-Modern 

The front and ll.uik cohnnns were acc.m- 
pann-,1 by .-iierra I.eone labourer- v,h,. i„- 
spircl by the darnig courage of the i;„..;„,eer 
olhcers leadmg them, contuin.d to cut the 
bush in the very lorefr.nit of the li;..|,l till 
their oHicers were struck down. "( if the 
thr so employul, „ne was killed, one 
was wounded, and the third escaped onlv 
''"■'»* "lii» 'l^i.v of llestuiv w.is not vet 
come. " 

The Plan of Battle 

The front column, having met the enenn- 
was to e.«en,l. if possible, joo yar.ls ,m either 
side of the path, on which the guns «ere to 
move. The Hank columns were t., cut paths 




SKETCH PLAN OK ASHANTI 



Kcsm- 
. "wc"iiiiiany2jrd Regiment.' 



I.ieut.-Colonel 
M..st^u. 



J . '^t'lC Cohftiiit. 

■■;■ i-u.dion Riilc I I.ieut.-O.l.mel 
Uriij.Me, I ,,. 

' Warren. 



6,7 



diagonally outwards, and then to advance 
parallel with the main path, keeping ui> 
the connection with the 4Jiid il lea>ible. 
The rear column was to maintain the line ot 
coinnnu,ieatioii,s. guanl the .uinnnnlion ,ind 
"■,.un,lo,l, ami reinforce any pomt uheu 
necessiiry. 

,\t 7.J0 ,v,M. ,,n J.muary ,11st the ^jnd 
Ilighlaiiders marched through Uiiarman lai 
ligginassie, with lie.ids enrt ami shoulders 
thrown back. The other column closiil up, 
but our rate of progression was sIoh , as each 
eoiiiinand was followed by its hammocks and 
ainimulitiori. 

At .v o'clock I,ord C.illord ran into l-K^in- 
assie, the ,\,shanti sco„ta firing and fiiiing 
back on the main b,,dy, ThrcH! com|iaiiics 
if the 4Jnd now went forward on the main 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



„u the tt.i'.-k lea.iiuK to 



till- 



path, anil twi 

W.tcl, »n,K.l K'"""^' " , '' '■„ ,,,„u,„ 
,, „„i,,,. .,„, „„„.o„nnus*. ol ^K- 

,U. chain ..i r.„.."Ml.n.ty » '""^ '' \ '"^' '; 
.Uk-M,.thth.-.Wu„.i.lKW."t"M J'Y: 

--:r:,::r'::^;-.^-- - 

::::,:u.a„.,ih..«ht„i.h.^vh,.c,n. 

cl,.i„.a,,„.IWath.,nm..rvtta,.th. .t 
In tlie* movuiKnts the M'"' 



liri- 



wliicl 



,1,. n^sUtcl bviiiiei.L Kail's KU"* 

.a,U„K me... .•.au,i„„Kr-",.lt«nty>.r 
U time a,»l c...ni..K ..>t,. a.t.o... <■' » 

swe,.t away tlR h,., « m 
HiKhlaivlLTs. rushuiR h.nvar.l. secu 

Vh,.ut ,...o,. the c-.K-niy were shelle.l . ut t 

r^tt"L;tt^x,r:s;f.- 

,„,,,,, plavin.^ ahead ..f tl.e teB.ment. 

.n,ele(t*enl.n.^marriyinsatUK«im.s«e, 
n,„ye,l to t\,e westwanl, .... the track ,.rc 

™;:,:,e .......we,. hy the two -;;m--, ; 

the jMi.l a...l hayi..B ma.le a clean. k 
t.t'of the y>..a«e, h. se.:..ria. w^c^Jh 

Rcwnieat ...a< e ■' J^ , j,, ,,.g,,i.. t..«ch 

„„rth«-ar.ls.a...le...leav....rc 1 t.. r ., 

with the 4^.ui, ■!■'>- --"■•"'•', ',;;,". 

„„<sihle- ai..l after sustaii.ms a h.av> i.rc. 
:^::lth Ca„ta,., l<..cUle wa. ^.W. J.^e 

e„c„uraKi..R his labourers to *•■'*- ;'*; 
this coh...... reKai..ea the ...au. path J..st 

A.uoatul was take... 



ac-tach..,e,.t of Raits Artillery, or Che a^ 

,,„rtio„s.,f \V.....rs Ret:i."™t IW'I I"*" '■'■' 
south. .fKuKi"assie.wl..le the best CO...,., 

the Uhuinas, ha.l bee,, sent to the we.,» 

t„ s„l.l»>rt the left c.l....,,.. 

The 4^.,.l i" tl'"' •'^'*'""« "'''""V 
l„t „„ their rii;ht ilar.k a c-o,.s.ae- ~ 
,.,,.lll.et ..f Ashantis. ,iia„y ..1 who... .a 
;;l.e,l savages. ,.e.,etrate,l into the .u,.l. . 
„,.c..t bush, betwee,, the "ran. lath .. 

Colouel W Is track. l.y-nK »-'^ "" '' 

Krou.,.l, thev were as i.,vi;.ible as a har. .;v 
her for.., t.ll they ,lre,l. The Naval 1 r,. .. 

„,eu were f,.rther e,ubarrasse,l by the .. 

,„ i„i„ti.,« our „eo„le ou the n,au. .. .. 

[.ro^ress beiuK arrestc.l, O.lohel W..... - 

wo.u.,le,l ... the chest, an.l the m< '- •;. 

tl.e riRhl e..h,„.u au.l the 42,i<n--'"-- "-' 

Ll was mW evctually by a e....,.aa: .. 

the.,r.la„.laeo„„,auyot he,<Ukl^U 

each beiuR war.uly e.,KaKe<l l.>"li ^' 
vasgah.ea, however, till. „V..'M,wl.e.,t 

Ho.,nvs a,ul Kossoos of W,«..l s Ke«,aa 

charircnl >,,. the hill east of hKK.nassie 

:Se<l I'v the Naval and RrHe .ir..a.. 

ilroye oft the e.ien.y. 



The Naval Briicade 

The head of the r,Kht c.,h,n.a folW^a t^;| 

4.„dfort,oy,.>Ubevou.Wjj.,^-_v^>... 

1 Dath was cut lor loo >ar..s m 

aS; drr^tiou, "ere the As .ut^,s el, 

their sroun.l .., s:rubb> undcrsrowt,, of 

,sed plantation which was nnusu alh 

■ek ( ur force at this poi.rt cons.ste.! - 



Serious Attacks 

\t -. o-cl..ck, wheu, complete success ..,,v- 
i„. bJen atta„,ed in front, all fir„,s ta^ 
ec^se.!. the ene„,y ,na,le a serrous ... 
fro,nthesoutl,-west,.nUuarn,an.a,., U. 

on a stroniily e'sc.,rte,l c.nvo- rth , 
lusanfoo. , , ,. 

They were repulsed, however Iron, 
,„an r.y the Rurrison 7'';l»'^\"|.. ,;, ' „.; 
U.,Rineers an<l sonre of the 2, d V\ s^ •- 
Hed.nent re.nforced later by th. 1<>' 
S ,Cr ,.n,l ab,.ut nightfall thev „» 
^:: off the line of our e„„,n,u,.,e. » 
chiefly owh,K to the detern.,««l e„er,> 
Colonel Colley. , , 

Two thousand men were enRase,! a 
ottieers ■ an.l seven or eiRht were k,ll .1 
:!;^:;„v hurt,.! ..meets and ,7" -;- 
wounded. The 4.nd sulTcred most - n^ 
. ,„,i„, „..,e omcers and rob UKU k , 

wonn.le,!. Sexeral nat.ves shg ,th ■ »;^ 
l,,inK treated by their comrades, va 
returue.1 in the l,st, .„,„.,, ^la 

It is difficult to compute the end 



boS 



I,,,:;. 



,0. 



,1.1 »,.■ 



|Kmy "■ 
sif -iii'l 



cess :iav- 
IS ;itt.itt 

nil ■■: 

I. Ill Ijll-lt- 
i: K">.i'. 

l\.st :ii''.:. 

x\k Uii. 

tht\ wit 

unk'.itii'ii^ 
eiKTSiy "^ 

ed 1111.1 >jf 
:i. kilU'il '« 
mm l«ir.( 
,st ~l'^^■I* 
m kill"l -I 
Iv w.ivimli-' 




"^^HT.NO A KOAD THROUGH THE FOREST 



0« THK WAV TO 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 

*"^ . , I. „r„vcil the w 



in one trench .mtl.cl.Wum ^^^^^ 

cnsidcrable -•1^; j^the b..*. till next 
„„™i„K a« olhccr ">" "B ^-J „^.„ „,, „ut 

camel ..ut ini h j j,,^ ku.b 

^'^'i:::..«rroMpe„et...c.lwit.,^.^-';- 

„„supp..rtc-<l into tl.e .-"■ <; ^«-Xcr, 
dining to g.> f..nvara ''■"'.f^,f,"',j,,„,,,. 

'•"'^: '" VSinot c«tai"lvun,iUheyare 
language, be "-"'^ ..".^t enterprising 
"'l''w^ru.ry an.l hea<l-qnarters m<>ve,l 
lltXnSrt:^ an>bn.b. —.1 

^■^?;'"^:- air s::^..-^^ -''':' 

"' ■ , nt^^L "n l-mmanah, the Rarr.- 
.letermineJ attack on i ^ , ;„ N;„rth. 

..,„ belna ciinimMilol b> Laptam 

- h RSnent till he w.s severely wounJed 
^'^uSl-uncan, Royal Artillery an. 

S bv Colonel Colley, vvho managed to sec 
earlvevervt.sl.t north of the rrah. 



and the result proved the wirfom .. 

'1::"tr,.n- -ept.l ioyfnlly f..nr 
,,«,UorsiK days, and carryrng not.- 

r^^^v^rrr^^^'H.: 

'"Xhc ^even-mile march l.-M>eeni. 
t,v the Ashant,,. a little north o. A ■ 

„h^-re, as indeed through the day, 1 
RegmrentisrelK-rtcKltohavedonc^e, 

The previous day they had l^en 
ithl advanced guard by the ML 

on account of their «astelul expo 
ammunition, as «ere the Bonnys, 
Regiment on the followmgdav. 



.b! ;■■ 



i: 



A Position of Dilficulty 

-"-.tri^Suir "^^^^ 

-Ct Senerals ^^ ;.« -tC;v 



The Native Reglmenta 

there was a tcnderrcy in the nun : 
officers who had just arrived ... 

'--."•r ;r;ano-dorh. 
rt.rr;ad'u^-- - -;:: 

r°,ads. into comfortable camps, ." - 
what the so-caltal native *.ldiers n,. . 
:'l„hitemen. The Knr.njean re 
had glorious traditions, perfect r.uu. 
s" em. experienced no" -™" : 

officers, and one officer <- f " 

and never taking any mg!'.- Jntu 

enioved their full vigour. 

The native r.^ments were com,-; 

(our or live different "=>^^' "";;, 

under... "-"B «-^- '""B"""':. 1' ,N , 
„earto.t,anduomens,»akmgth - 

„, „,ir officers, who were rn^he 
of on ■ t.. every fo men. I'-NCept 
Artillerv. there were no m;"-^""-;!--',, 
„ffieers: Raifs -^"»'f >• "f ^ ' „, ^ „ 
In justice, however, toother, w 
renimber that the artmery h^l > , 
„f all the Haussas. that the>ncsu. 

proneer work, arrd that bemg .■ '^•; 

Lied by Kuropean non-cm,,*; 

officers, they had m action .> U. 

officer to every lu natives. 

Russell's and Wood's ReginK-n.~- 

a, hght infantry duties jn" 
C5pecially were never dr.lM 
Repiment marched incessantK 






;,,|. 



Section I 



ASHANTI EXPED1TION-J873-I874 



l.irin.ituin till it was disbanded, k,,din|{ Ihi' 
aJijiice /.)r 75 milts, that is. up tn tin.- 
I'r.h river. After U-mn at tlic lie,,, I „f 
tliL road f.jt six «ei-ks, tin- ,lay i, .,as 
riliiAi-.! t(i ttach the men li.m t.i lire ulT 
thur ri/ks tlie wli„lo rii;iniint insteail ,,f 
iMiiu drilleil hecame carriers. Thus the 
DMmiv ei.uipauy of \V„„rs Re«inieut, ivhieli 
k.l the advance at Ordahsu, had ne\er 
r..,lised tlie a-lvantaRe t„ l,e gained l.v 
.ilatuiK a rule in the shouMer before dis- 
tli.iraing it. 

Wlien our men were athauciiif; „n the Dali 
S"rii, uiore mes.senKers arrived duriuK a 
ttiriporarv cess.itiou (jf lire, crviiijj out 

Mercy, oh! " as with l«.,lies bent forwar.l 
ti i-sc.ipe chance shots, they r.ui up to the 

It «,iS night before the rear-«uar,l .eacheil 
tiKu l.ii.iuac, and as the sun went .lown 
tile >ky clouileil over, and till > ,v,m, t„r. 
rents of rain (ell on the ollieers and men, 
»li" had neither sreatcoats nor shelter of 
■my kind. The troops sho%ve<l on this 
'K.c;ision tlie s.ime noble endurance as a 
smaller but more severely ;rie<l detachment 
j.\-uice.l ..n the same ground two ni.ulits 
later. \ convoy of In wounded Europeans 
KtuininK front Coomassie under the com- 
man.l of (.olonel W.kkI reached the llali at 
S r M Scarcely was the bivouac arranged 
when a tornado burst on them, and for i' 
li"ur~ e.-:pended its fury on the unfortunate 
iillkrv Water ran out of their hammocks 
m ;treams. The incessiint blinding rain 
Ktmamshed the llres which the officers lit 
I'T tiieir men ; but throughout the night not 
J t'iiii|i|anit. not a murnnir was heard. 
■*< ".;o .A.M. on I'ebruary 4tl, the 
wlio.se arrival had been promised 



(l<15t,li 



Modern 

Kgginassie at 4 .a.m. and led the a.lvance. 
They were followe.l by two companies of the 
KUle Brigade anti a 7-i«)under gun. 

W.Kjds men were scarcely in motion when 
the Ashanti pickets lire,l. and m ten minutes 
the advance was hotly engage.l Thouidi 
the .\.sliant.s never jiresse^d close up as 1: 
Amoaful, vune brave suages were ambushed 
close to the path, a few being killed within 
four yar.ls of us whose- presence we nev, 
det>-cted till they lired. s.. easilv were tliel 
ilusky bodies concealed. 

Lieutenant .Saunders brought a gun to 
the evtr ■me front and lired into the enemv 
at very close range, but the .\sliantis stood 
fast. 

The patu. like all tracks on soft s<.il, was 
w-..rii down a little below the general surface 
of the ground, and the rise on either si.le 
alfordetl cu^er to men crouclnng down at 
full length. .Some few lionnv men were in- 
duccd by their officers and L'liiel l-lsseive of 
I'.limna, who beha^•ed ^•ery well to lire 
steadily from the knee, but most of them, in 
spiteof much " morethan verbal persuasion " 
remamiHl Hat ..n their faces, firing in the air 
without daring to raise their heads from the 
ground. 

(In the right Hank, and about 500 yards 
from the rn er. a gulley ai),.roached the path • 
crawling up this an.l firing in sifetv, the 
Ashantis mfiicted on us some slight loss till 
a mmjiany of rillcmen. going through the 
bush, drove them off 

Clearing the Bush 

The achance was now continued and 
about <) o'clock the village of Ordahsu was 
carried by the Rifle Brigade with but htlle 
resistance. 

The bush was imniednitely cleared around 



"y tlK- messengers of tl,; i^;^ ZTZ n,Zl' Za 'r"''"""t 1""' "'"""' 
»"t arrived, and our last daVs fi.hti„„ "' Z;",:'"'.".";" "'■" ""^•"--""" 



ni't .irrived. 
betian. 



fightuig 



Colonel Woou eads the Advance 

^'"IiiiKl Wood had been sent back wounded 



was taken, for in an hour the Ashantis, who 
had been making partial attacks all along 
the line of advance, enveloiwd the clearmg 
on three sides with a steaily lire. 

At half-]ia3t eleven the head-quarters came 



"' l««.,ilal two „;;;,;: ;, , """"T '" •■••'"-l"^' '-■1"«" '!>'-■ I.ead-quarters cam 

"" J-u,,, V 3 St 'Self' his ; f "T "''■ ""' "" '"■"'«"«^- "-"^ "'^ '"■■" »" 

"1 l-- ■,ruarv ■, , ^' '" '"'" '"™"S'' ""= '''''^' "P '" the viUage 

>-,> .'. ,V ' ' • ■"""""« ""'" ''">• F" 'he next hour there y,J a -on r,n roar 

^^pai; V of ^\ "'?"'"'* '"^ ■^"""^ '" "'-"^'^V- "- enemas sC«Z 

Pai.v of Wood s Regtment, came up from us, but not with sufficient force to do Z 

701 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



injury, th. M.,jor-'-"«^'' '-« "'' "" "" 
'" v'L ......... O,l..nonkl.c...l '^l'"'."!*- 

i,,, tVJ en.,,.. ^....H.f. be- "1-i' "'«-'- '^■- 
j.toUl,.- Ill..ck Watch. .V1..01..V.,, to ,..-» 

,K „,c:-.. U,t .. .■..„„.:,„>• .." -"•^' ^1 

„,..„.« f.irwara .vi.l, a cl,c-.r. a„.l .1.. 1 ■!'- 

U ilr^t »l,ik- tl,e ,.i,,«.s.t.".. "..i- '"" 
.i,l>:ral.l.-, tl.c *ir,..isl.u.K c.....l.an.«J,a^>.-.. 



v„. nf the- .\sl,a,.t.s. a,..l tl.i' '"l';^ 

i::;;;....... ,„,„..,. a.... „,..i.a,u- a,,..- 

,,athctic alUa.,cc .v.tli .. cvtrt a„.l - 

.■ ,„ an u,,v„ cu„„t.y ..„r ■.*!,..- 
aUavs ,...■. ".l.N «*"' ^' '«'" '"^^■" , '' 

i, „.,ii I... ..s ti,.v >t.n i«"*** ""■ 

I.c.pl Scat 



til. 

I>.i1>fl!a, wlici til 
scrilic-a the... as ■ 
they an- litatci. 
imr s,...lt ('""■ 1 



time "f rer.hi,..,!'! 

Slia..ish chinnieUr 
n.„ sl.iw to I'u.'l ""1 " 

*rilt>^' .luahties ell..' 
niaintani a steaily h. 



thti'i.Bh 



,ch iitiier. KamuiK i" 



tils at 



,i,„e.'\Vhe,. the village .vhe,.ee the k.a, 
ha,lUsi,e,lhis„Me.s.vai.earne,l ,h - 

ante ei.i \.l,.iiitis c"I.t.l..leil 

capital Meanwhile the .\>ha,.t. e 

Vcir attack ,r,l.il.~u ..h •« e-icWeil „l 

a dramatic a.id rei.iark.il.le ..«....«. 
Vxrcn«,r,havi,.«l,.e..re.e.ve,nt....,S. .V 
Mis,,, wl... ha.l s....e •>.. "'.tl. the 4-" ■ 
t t the ei.e...v were tlyi,.K. l.a...c-str.cke., 
be 're the UiKhla,.,ler. a Staff o.hcer .vent 
rt, to i..i"ri.i the corps ,lele,.,h..B the 
vC who presently rai-.l a v.Korou 
Xir The .fri..s cea*.l .is 1, hy ,..i,g.c. 
the ci.cn.y witli.lrawin!; m silence 

■n,e whole force n.ove.1 on. ami at ... clock 
S,;;L„etWoMey.tak,l..o«h.s e,n..n. 
themarket-placeofOiomassie.cllc ™tc 

Black Watch, forn.eil m .Iressed r..,.ks n 
para.le, to Kive three cheers tor 

''t'now .,uote ^erlKifii. froin a lecnire 

given by Colonel Kvely.,W.o.l.June;.N 4 

before the Secretary of State lor W at . 

"1^1 conclusion. I wnnia br.efly rec-all the 

first BCi.eral aspect of the eampa.gn as cou- 

traste.1 with its resnlts. 

••The failures of the past threw a. leeper 

shallow over the untro.Wen sloom of the 
est There were no .mmmuents of acl..eved 
vietory to encourage the successors "f 
Macartl.y. 



a.,,1 aim in the front of that harassiiu,. 
„.l,ose- s.ren,^l. lay in hl^ .nv.sih.ht 
whose- hiihlen aim was p.o.ecte.l \- 
stre.i.."us forces of N.itn.e, 



HewinK a Way Through 

■■Our small army had ti. l«w its way 
throush density deep as death, and u ,- 
tTof its decay, to the ^-harneWiouse 
calle.1 Ci.o...assie. llalana fought m the 



A Cloud of Evil .\ujruries 

.. We should 11". fo.Kct the cloud o, 
ansunes under which the expeil.t.on - 

Success w.is dcen.ed in.l»,ssll.le . the 

who were insured had to pay prenuuia 
,, per centum. The Secretaty of St.n. 
War declined to allow a s..ld.er se-...ei 
accou.pany hi,- ■ — . "».''- '^"■;;*, "' 
se-aso.. was t.«. had v, ..sk a pr,. aK ■ 
Critics differed, it is true, as to the . 
„( anticipate,! disasters, but uearU .ill 
dieted failure. 

■■ How dil-ferct ...is the tesillt ■ 

attai..i..« such a result, so,..e of the .: 

c-st bravest spirits of our t....e w... 
dere.1 up-not KtudKinRly. as by meii 
,,„ ,,„ u„,,alatable duty. no. re-ck e- 
bv those to whom life offers snrall .: 

..The l.iei. who are nl .n> tl« 
„ow. and whose e,iitaphs are wril- 
the memorv of their country, save 
pleasures natural to the.r ye-a.s = 
ambition to se-rve in a gallant e ,., 
The campaig,. which at once saer. lo 
in..,.ortalise-dsuclimenas\\.l...ot.a 
\,col ICvrc. and Buckle, and oth.i- 
bright host who live in the .na....e. ■ 
death, coidd ...>t have been n.gl"..'" 

in frustration. 

• That it did not so end ...ust be 1 

attributed to the sp.nt .vhich aium. 
forces a.id rmdered them, bke red-1. 



702 



ASHANTI EXPEmTION--1873 1874 



Section I 

(m-e„t l,ut pliaU. in ,|,, ,,„„|, „, , 

"f Ik- master w,.rkma„. „f wl„„„ J,y .' 

«..» ., s..vi.ruig,i am.mR siUk-rs.' 

The Achievement oj Sir a.rnet 
"oljeley 

His n.i.-a,is nva- li„„,„i |,v , ,„j, ,„,,.. 
™.„s,a„c.,,„,lhal,u„,l,uJ,„„„,/|,, J: 
"iu.ml ,„ ac-c„m,,li»l, a l,i,l,,r,„ „, 

"""!'- (vut. i„ .i, ,„„„„„ ,,^. ,,,,,;■'' 

r. cstal,l,,h .,„r rq,ut,,ti„„, l„„.a-,l l,v s,„.. 
^v»,v.. l„„,„l,ati,ms a,„l f.„l„rc, aiul to 

"■"' ^ '^■»"" i" I'-'ttcTs ,„ lir. .,J 

-"Ka,,. a,„l l,l,„,„u„,, ,„^, „.„,, 
;l^;l.«l us », long by thdr ,vi.a,„„s , 
'istaiKv. lliseasi., aii.l Trcacl.cTv 



M.iJ.-i 



■ IS was 



ll i- IriR. ,,1 SirCanut W,,ls,l,., 
^■-K.>v„„.„,„a,l.f,.„,.,„i„ak„,„„,|,.„ 

rc-.i,ta„«.. " "'^ '"■"■ ''""" ■" 

The Secret of Hriti.h Success 



in 



■ in llllf ,,lir ^1,,., 

ack,„ml. "'".■"■'' -"l...r.li,ialc... „!„, all 

tt.iiiia.H (Ic-tLTiiiiii.itic!: ,., t,!,.. 




KING COKKERS UMBRf.l.l^A. TAKKN 
DURING THK ASHANTI CAMPAIGN 




'" a 






Hr'^' 






THE 6TH DRAGOONS AT THE BAT 



:>'0m. 



f^0^-K^(, 




4ir 



:TLEOfI»VSE, LED BY WILLIAM III., JULY 1.,, ,»„ 

om i p'CVjn^BCjion WoodviUe, R.I. 



[^i^m.- 



Qcrr/nw ll.-EARLY 



THE BOYNE 



THI-; Kins i.f F"'":^- ''■"' (""■■*''' 
JaiiKS with a licrt, with which he 
sailed to Ireland, landing at Kmsile 
March J.lth, il>*(- Tyrconnel. the I."nl- 
l)ei.utv, was .me ..f his most devoted ad- 
herents and receivol him at the head o 
nearly 40,000 men. lUcept Ilerry an<l 
KnniikiUen. all Ireland .kclared for Kmg 
Tames. l>errv was I.es.eKed. but the in- 
hal.itants held out till the city was relieved. 



Kinic Wllliiim's Force 

Marshal SchomherR emliarked for Ireland 
August 12th. with lO.ooo men. With him 
were luanv newlv raiseil corps which now 
form a i«.rti..u of tile Hritish .\rmy. .10.0. 
nien in all 

//„„,.._Sir John I.aniers. now 1st Urafioon 
Guar<ls ; X'iUiers's. now Jud 1 >rasoon Guards : 
Coy's, now stli UraRoon Guards: \-isc<iunt 
Hewitt's, now ()th llraK"on Guards: Lord 
Caveiulish's, now 7th Ilrasoon Guards. 

;)r,iKMiii>.--CunninKliain's now 7tli Hus- 
sars: Hayford's. now 1st Royal Dragoons: 
Leveson's, now .ircl Hussars. _ 

Infmlrv. Ileaumoilt's now the Kings 
Liverpool Regiment : WlMrton's.nowSntTolk 
Regiment : Hastings's, now Somersi't Light 
Infantry : Karl of Mcath's now the Royal 
Irish : Ilainilton's. now Lancashire Fusiliers : 
Duke of Norfolk's, now Cheshire Re-giraent : 
Charles Herliert's. now Royal Wel.sh h'usi- 
Hers : Sir Edward Deering's, now South 
Wales Ilorderers, 

The Marshal, Duke de Schomtierg, was of 
a noble family of the Lower Rhine, He 
had offered iiis sword to William, and 
ol.taine.1 the highest rank in l-aigland ; he 
was created Marquis of Harwich, Duke of 
Schomberg. K,G,, Master of the Ordnance, 
anil Colonel of the Scots Royals. He was 
now in his eighty-fourth year. 

After reducing Carrickfergus, and driving 



tlie Irish loyalists from Newry and Dundalk, 
the army liassed the winter in quiet quarters. 

taking the fiel.l in the spring of o. when 

William HI. came to commanil it. He 
brought with him the Scots Vm\. Guards, 
several Dutch tr.iops : De Ginckel s Korsi 
Solms's Blues, .'.ooo strong: . Danish 
llrigaile nn.ler the Duke of Wuilemburg. 
an<l other forces. 

(hi June .10th the troops marclimg m 
three lines, the advanced guard of horse, 
irader Sir John Lanier, halteil on the banks 
of the River noyne. on the ojiposite side of 
which King James's Irish forces were strongly 
posted, for James ha,l resolvcl, though his 
irniv was inferior in luimber. constitution, and 
discipline, to put all to the te.^t of the sword, 
l-larly in the <lay King William, wearing 
his feather-bound beaver and buff coat, 
rode slowly along the river's bank, recon- 
noitring the position of his father-m-law, 
from which he was little more than 70 yards 
.listant, Schomberg, Solms, the I'rince of 
Hesse, and others, were by his si.le 

All that day a cannonade was continued 
acros.s the river, and Wilhani watched iiar 
rowly the effect of tlie firing on the newb 
raised Knglish regiments, 

" All is right," said he : " they stand l.rr 
well," 



" A Sprtg of Qreen " 

After darknes.s fell he made a torchliglil 
inspection of the lines, as the passage of tli. 
river was to iie forced on the morro» 
■■ Ivxerv in.iu was to l.axe a green boueh 
or sprig fastened in his hat, to distmgm- ' 
him from the Irish, who wore bits of wliu 
paper"; and by daybreak on July Jst tin 
whole army was in motion. 

The Irish neglected the fords of ' '^ 
Boyne, which they ought to have protc'. 
by artillery, 
:o6 



Section II 



THE BOYNE-JULY 1st, 1690 



The scene iif 'lis great Irish conflict. 
which was for so .mg a bitter party word 
in Ireland, is somewhat changed now from 
what it was then. Tlie usually sluggish 
Boyne, wliich rises in the Hog of Allen, in 
its passage seaward, jjasses generally through 
a plain ; but in its course through Meatl;. 
and between that county and I,outh. it iias 
J delightful yariety of scenerv. 

(Preparing to Cross the Eioyne 

William's resolution to cross the Bovne 
n,is disapiircned of by some of his generals. 

Count Meinhart yon Schomberg. vrith the 
ni;ht wing of the Knglish army, was ordered 
t<i cross by the bridge of Slane. to menace 
tile Irish left. King James, in antici|>ation 
ol some such movement, liad already occn- 
I'ifrl the hriilge by a regiment of llragocms 
under Sir Neil o'Xeil where barricades and 
cannon would have been more effectual. 

Tile Knglish artillery were superior in 
iminber. and the Irish had only 15 lield- 
pieces, which were badly ser\ed. 

I )Xeirs I Iragoous resisted the pa.ss;ige of 
tlie bridge at Slane. " expo.sed to the fire of 
I numerous artillery, r . rges of ca\alry 
gre.itly their superiors . nmntier for 

in hour. Tyrconnel's rker's regi- 

ments cliarged several tii. ^s with the utino.st 
'iraver>'. and drove the Dutch C.uards and 
Scliomberg's regiment back into the river. 
«itli Ihe loss of a great ])art of their olticers." 

Sir .Veil behaved like a brave Irish gentle- 
in.in till he fell from his horse mortall\' 
«'nui(k-il ; on this his men fled, leaving the 
•■'■"TOW passage ..r the briilge half-choked 
iritli dead and dying. Then the English 
nsht wing crossed the river, and formed in 
C'ihniiiis on the opixjsitc side. 

Tills movement, which King James wit- 
nu«.l from the hill of Ilnnmore, made l.nu- 
Ziiii, Ins I'rencli (leneral, uneasy, because four 
ailis south of the Boyne, at i>uleek, on the 
Niinin Water, was a narrow pass, and if 
nil' l',iiglish succeeded in occupying it the 
Mrrat of the Irish would he impossible, 
'1 iire\ent this, Lauzun marched instantly, 
«ftli 



Karl)- 

The village clocks were now ,strikini; ten, 
when William put himself at tlie head of the 
cavalry of his left wing, and prepared to 
cross the river, sword in hand, not f.ir frcnu 
Drogheda, 

His centre, consisting solely of iiifantri . 
which he conniiitted to the care of .M.irslial 
Schomberg, was formed in columns ,if regi- 
mcrts oppo.siie (lldbridge. wliere tiie whole 
Irish amiy-Sarsrield's corps alone excepted 

was in array ; ami now. under the bright 
July Soil, the wliole Meatli bank was glitter- 
ing with iiikes and I>a>ouets on snajili.ince 
muskets. The Kren ,1 engineers, the further 
to protect the river, had thrown up clo.se to 
its bank a lleld-wor:;. formed of materials 
taken from the nearest cottages, cil.ins, and 
enclosures. It was lined by cannon anil 
musketry, and there were Tyrconnel, Ham- 
ilton, and .VlcKinder .Macdonnell, Earl of 
-Antrim, 

" Eorward ! ' cried the aged I-'icld-.Marshal, 
wa\-ing his baton. 

The Crossing of the River 

_ Then the Dutch Eoot Guards, known as 
Solnis'.. Blues, marched, with the Orange 
colours (Ijing and nil their drums beating. 
steadily and doggedly into the river, ten 
liles abreast. Then the drums died away, 
and the noise of the Irish musketry alone 
was hearil. but their shot did little execiit'on. 
The columns of Londonderry and iMiniskillen 
next plunged into the current, on wjiieli their 
great .siiuare skirts and ammunition poiielies 
floated ; and with muskets upheld to keep 
locks and priming dry, and with colours 
waving, regiment after regiment followed. 

On the left of the l-nghsh. the ford w.is 
so deep that the refugee battalion of C.iille- 
mote was up to the annpit in water, h'arther 
down the stream the red-coated Danes were 
crossing, and in a fe.v miniiles tlie whole 
course of the stream was alive with plumed 
hats and bristling with uplifted weapons. 
Many a head and hand ro.se and fell wildl\- 
as their owner sank a corpse beneath the 
stream, to be swept past Droglieda into the 



all the trahied French troops and sea, 

ISarslieirs Horse, in the direction of Slane, The crossin;; troops were bareK- niid-ehan- 

I'mini; the fords at Oldbridge to be de- nel ere the diflieulties of the attempt were 

=«J i.y th: Irish alone, perceived. The undulations of the grmind 

707 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



tod concealed the slrenKtli ■)( J^'" " - 
armv ' and n.™- stan.brd after standard 
nj to .tart fr.,m the earth and rank 
Se rank of musketeer, and, nkemen a. - 
^ared. with .ild yells of dellanee, on the 
'''t!t:n;:::i;re.sedbythesi«ht,t,,edo««ed 
Dutch nines, ten men abreast. le.l the xan 
T^M ol.lon« colunrns: a,,d. dr.„ay d 
bv the steadiness and resoluti.in ol the.r 

the whole Irish line gave way . 



Panic Amonirst the Irish 

Then a cry of despair escaped the Earl o 

Tvrconnel. He was a rran of und,, tu 
braverv. but his skill was small, and man, of 
,,isbe;t..tr,cers fell wlrile gallantly attemp^ 
inn to rallv the fuR.tives. Hanulton ordered 
r bodv of Irish to attack the bat tahon. 
who wx're still strugghni. i.r water »yl'-^l '^^ 
to be incapable of rel.,a.lmg after they ha 
fired ; and sword in hand he le.l the wav to 
tlerver.lmthewasleftal.mebyl..smen. 

Elsewhere the division of Antrmr ran 
like sheep at the appr..ach of the Engh. 
column. Whole regin.ents Hung away a - ■ 
colours, and cl..aks. and scampered oil to t..- 
„ills without striking a blow or l'""K ";"'^, 

Richard Hamilton, at the head of a bo 

„f cavalrv. ma.le a gallant but futile attempt 

?„ retrieve the fortune of the day by mam. 

taining a desperate coiin,et with N.lms s 

Blues in the bed of the river. "-^^^"; 

ceded in hurling the Danes back into the 

B,nne He then led them against the three 

Ereiich Protestant regiments, which Were all 

musketeers, wit Viut any mixture of p.kenieii^ 

but to the former force the art of recei mg 

cavalry " was as yet unknown. I-a Uulle- 

mote fell mortally wcmmled. and was borne 

out of the stream to hi. tent, whence he coii- 

tinnedtosli.mtencou.aKementt..liismcn, 

who were still lighting desperately up to 

their armpits in the Hoync. "A la i;lo''-. 

,„„.„/„«h.' a ;„f/».>.'.'" was his incessant 

"seeing the struggle was becoming dcmbtful. 
old Marshal Schomberg rode forward o ra^l N 
the French Brigade, whom the fall of Colonel 
La CaiUemotc had dismayed. 

■■ £„ av„nt .' " he cried ; " come on, gentle- 



here are your Catholic perse-cutors . b 
,!,«, were the last -.ords he sj-oke. 1 .^, 
moment the Irish horse- were around u 
and when they drew back he had fallen r 

his saddle, and lay by the margm oi i 
1 wl leith two sword-cuts in i 
stream dead, witu iv%< v ,-, . 

headandapistol-sli..f.nlnsneck. A I re. 
capt.iin who rushed to his assistance v, 
st'Verelv woumled. 

King .anies-sKegimentofHorsi-.con,!,..- 

f eaiglish and Sets, charged the regm. 
of I.a Caillemote so furi.msly that for . 
them broke through its ranks, and n<,t b, : 
able to charge back, they 1™' '" '"- 
village, where they were all shot 0,. 
save six or eight; and "it was neat 
village tlie IHlke of Schomberg was k.. 
bv a mortal wound." 
■ This conllict between horse am. \M l.»' 
,,aH an ll"ur. and the tide and strean, v 
rimnmg fast. s. much s. that ttilha 
liis sword in his left liand. ami ins band., 

arm managing his bridle, bad to swuu 

horse acros-. with the water llowmg.n. I 

UoUt.rs; ami his arrival on the oilu-, 

,,,cide.l the fate of the battle, t loum. 

Irish, h.nse. long since aban.lone.1 bs 

infantrv. continued to resist < <--Y™ .' 

Ill, IJinckel. afterwards harl ot -M . 

being outnumbered by the Irish ma Hi 

lane, his cavalry gave way. he l r. - 

„f Cunnuigham and those of I.eveson 

the hedges, and with their carlmi.s em,. 

inanv a saddle, drove the Irish back . 

k,l liv C.eneral Hamilton and the 1 'n 

B,.r-,,ick. their cavalry made ten suee, 

e!i '.rges. , 

William was many times m l>eii. 

ball struck bis liolsters. another tor. 

the heel of .,is jackboot and then k. 

horse, near him ; but inspired bv his . 

and e..cample. his troops now bore all 

them. 



Last r.tand ot the Iri.h Horse 

\t a place called I'lottiu Castle 
ami a half from the heU the In- 
made their last grand Stan . an,l 
William's Enuiskillei. rs with the 
,0 men ; l-ut were ultmarely c 
to give way and By, while tUei. 
;o8 



leaJa. 



Section II 



THE BOVNE JULY 




WILLIAM in. 
From a poTnaix in Ihc N.nion.il 



Portrait Gallery 



I.i«it.i,;i,it-(;oiier:il Kicliiir.l H:imilt,,ii w.is 
«"iiiiil,d aiiil tiikon imsoiier. On Ikvih; 
';'"U..;l,t l,ef„re U-iIIia,„, ,i„, ,,,„„ ,,,|.^,,, 

Is 'His Inisinfss piuU,l ? Ii„ v,,i, think 
»■ Insli tro„ps will niiikc iiiiv further ri- 
Mst.uico?" "Vcs. sir" „|,|j„i iiainiltrm ; 

upiiii my lionour. I bcliovi.- tlicy will," 



^^Olls 



lircssioii a- .,ile,i Williiim ol prc- 



treachorous toinluct 



tjf this otHcer 



ill ii mwili.itioii In- l,.,,! iiii.h.rtiikfii („r hint 
Willi the liiirl i.f T>Tci.nin.-l ; he niivt him a 
I"i'k I.f ilisl.iiii. " Viiiir hiiiiiiur ! " siiid lie : 
"ymir li.iii.mr ! ■' and tunic-il fn.ni hini 
without iiniitlRT word. 

The hiittle Wiis ii.iw oyer. The wliirlwilld 
of smoke, a.-d din. anil ihist that had swept 
aloiiR the southern shore of the Boync had 
all passed away ; but the dead and the dying 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 

, . t. iiiil misi 



„ ,t *i ..11 iiimi^- ■' '^'"1"*' 

""" ';■'";:, c^ta" thus «..,,. nauB 
Talbot. Earl ..f Tyrcomiil, ulio was 



i„ rt,„g„ hut weak aiKl inisillanimou. .. 

'"tI^ Kum reached l.uhlhi on tl. dav 

%i:'*t.at „< the in* was c,.v«.l '. 
the Ueuch. will- had m.ire tliau i.nce to,.,-. 
toi.thet„rrei,t...ni,ia»ay.ton-- 
cnward to the narrow I'asb of Duleel-. ,. 
r heir masses and terror threatened 
Lak the formation of the division. 

The loss of the co,U|Uer„rs was ah.-.. 
5„„ men. 'That, .f the Irish exce^e.U^=^- 
„ltaln.mK.hef.mner^vastheaK. Marl 

Sel,..in1,erK, the first warrior It e a^. 
waslmrie<l in St. Patrick s. '»'■'"', 

M^„v of the Irish deserted 1.1 the .n.^.l 
•ind returiie.1 to their homes. 

.\t sunrise Julv ,!"1. KinR James 

':^^ would he trust Ins fate to an Irish 
iirmv- 



,;::::;:■"■•" 





mimN_IL~EARLY 




THE ASSAULT Ot ATHLONE. JUNE 
Froi.i ,1 piciure hv W B. Walieii. I 



AUGHRIM 



AT Ausl.ri,,,. cmnty R„scomra„„. was 
h\ "u«ht tl,c- last l,attk. b.tvv«..„ the 

of jtrr"'"'"''^"" '"•-'' ■'«'-'■ 

^ " . m the. „fhc.. „t C„mmander-i„-Chi,f 

a. „ss,,nu-,l the k.„,k.rship „f th. armv 

' ". . wh.,e. n„tv..i,hsta„.li„K the vic- 

^ " the B„y„e and the witlulrawal „f 

»-"^' J.imes to I'rance, the state of the 

lums authority: the great mass of the 

l,.e,,,«st,,noyal to the H,,usc.,,f Stuart 

"17;;;" ™"';"™-'^ 1--".^ arrived 

' 1 ranee under St. Ruth, an officer of 

'"sn rqiutation. 

At 'l,,s tinre William's army in Ireland 

'■ 'ti'.i.s, under their own native generals. 



Tlie cavalry and infantrv were rcspectiielv 
un.lerthe„rdersofMajor-(;eneraldeSehr'ut 
more and I.ieutenant-Cenerai the l.nke „f 
Uurtenihurg; the command of the whole 
l.-.,hcWuHk.neraltlK.«aro„de,;Lkel 

hon,e hrave exploit., and stirriuK "per.itions 
preceded the deceive nattle of .vUrin, 

he Irish were in considerable force at 

Ballyniure, a long. straKKlinK town .„, th.. 

road between .Uhlone and .Mnlhnsar. Clo.h- 

ins had been re, aived fr.nn I--rance, so tliat 

every |,rivate s.,ldier couU boast of a p,i, 

ol oreechesand a pair of broKues.' ■ th„„Kh 
their clamours for food were ince,s.saiit Thev 
were devoid of discipline, and the arinv that 
was to oppose them was in good order' Td- 
mash and Mackay were two of the best 
nlhcersm the nritish Isles; and the .Marqui, 
de Ruvigny. el.lest brother of Colonel I.a 
Cadlemote. who fell at the Bovne. was also a 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



ot the Guards." 



The Assault of Athlone 

rtin wr The atmv ,.! St. Ruth, 2S,<h.« 
:;^^^t^"uca,n,>e,lwithi,. a. h.,rt distance 

"'■L English B..t their Kun.m^M«^it^- 
„„1 opened lire on the 2«th. for lie ( n.k 1 

T'-''t-:n:':tt:::ns»t,t 

tl>eath,oURhitwitl,tunu,ltnouscW. 
:^., the hi* fled toward, the .ndBe.n^^ 
Shannon where many were ernshe<l to death 
tLtheflercepn^ntt^--;--; 

•nul others torcccl ..vct the- par.i] tts i 

i".:^^arr.;rorth:Kn^.„..-. 

with the h.5S only of (.o casualties 

Between him an.l the Celtic riuurter 
nowe the Shannon, the bridge o. winch th 
SI broken down in their retreat, and 
hew'avtow.hiehwassweptbythesnn 

the old castle. Se'veral .lays were spent m 
^^^on of batteries to cover the passage 

"the troops, and in attempts to repair he 
tZ. T'liearran«en.entsbe.ng conclude 
„,, sit o'clock in the monnng ' > 2" ; 

;rbro;:.yty a ford hardly sufficient to 



a,lmit twenty men abreast. ^ !»»' "' ' f 
from the steeple was the signed ,^tu^..: 
the forlorn hope consisted of («i I. "u 
i„ breast-plates, led by Captain San,h> 
two lieutenants, the corj-s which Kd . 
wav on this occasion was compisj-l .a . : 
.oth Regiment, under C.ustavus Haimh ., 
ami Mackays own regmient o the ol.K 
Brigade, led by his son, Colonel A.-. 

'"-General Maekay. having statw^u I 
an aide-de-camp on the bank to re,K:a „- 
instructions to each regiment ^'^ " ' ^ 
the ford, plunged into it himscaf, un.U, 
terrible lire of ronnd-shot, grenades. «r v 
and musketrv, which beat the stream l.k 
rafn The .'.renadiers Ufte.1 the mt. ^ 
Wurteiuburgontheirsh.mlders.andcn..o 

at a place where the water was so deq. t .t 
it rose to their cravats ", 50 pieces of cm, 
and mortars were at that moment hnn., ^n 

"'tamcliatelv on gaining the opposite l;.,nk 
Mackav f..rme.l the troops in t"'' > ■;'^" ;"; ^ 
„e led one to the right and Sent the ... 
,„ the left. The ramparts were sr...l,l. 
s,,,r,ned. and se.onre.1 with bayonet a,,d,. 

Mackav he. r<l his Scots swearnig ..ml ..... 
blins as they stuniblcl am..ng the ...11 .. 
„a«ry and rubbish ,.f the slnitteredl- 
and rebukcl them even amid the upr .,. . 
the assault. ^ «V huls." said he gr ; 

Higl.l.....Wr. ■■ y..u "^- '•'-■•= '^■"""^, ,; 

„„tswe..r. «-e have ..!.,«. rea^n - 

,-,„df„rtheg..od..esswh.chHelia . «. 
to ns this day than to t.ike His ......^ 

vuin." 



The Army Crosse, the Shannon 

The Sets Hriga.le an.l Hamilto.i's r.......... 

„„wpl.ice,lpl.inks over the bridge.-'"-; 
,„„to„ns was .Irawn acr..ss the m _ ;■ 
whole army began to er>.ss. .ind w .;^ 
,,^ of ..nly 42 -" killed an, w, 1- 
so Kipidly was the m..ve,nent n - ■ 
troops ..f King William force, tl...r- 
bevo.id the Shaim.m an.l eiitere.l ^'"--^ 
Of the Irish. I...OO were sbm by t.. M..- 

troops, who tur,ied the guns "P'"' I'-;; 

„fSf Ruth who ;is little expecte^lth. t.!" 

„f 'the town as the passage ottl.e.-^^^_^ 

" Taken !" he exchmne-d . at,.«i.i 



Section II 



il 



:ile I was close I»y with ;iii arinv t.i 
' It cannot be." 



AUGHRIM-JULY 12th, 1691 



klVnd 



Kclirement of St. Ruth 

lit W..S now CDmjKlloil tci retire, tcwtlier 
null the fuK'iliiv Irisli. uiiiler e.ixer nf ni«lit 
a.i.! (mm the hirfier ,i;irts nf .\thl.,iie, at ,huv,i' 
ii.xt tlay, the Klea.n „f steel sliuiee,! ^vllere 
Iu> rear-Kuar,l was ,lis;,,,|,,.ariiiK into the thni 
ail': (hstrict tliat lay hetween the waters c^f 
tb.i- SliannDii and thu .■ ,,i [In Suck. 

.■^t. Ruth retireil in t'..- ilirecti.m i.f DaHiM- 
aslue, and took up a striinn IH.sition near the 
villase nl Aii«lirini, where lie determined tu 
make a last stand. 

He attempte.! to rouse- reliuious ardour in 
ins * ildlers. .Masses were solenuilv celehratwl 
ITI eami). and heneath the uiilifte.l liosf the 
silhers swore to stand l,y their col.mrs - 
,iTid he haranKued them in jierson. 

I'.eneral I)e (linckel liavini; Karriso„e,l 
.\tl.].,ne. and li.wd his head-quarters at Bal- 
liiK.sloe, July nth. rode out with ).is Staff 
t" reconnoitre the position of St. Ruth four 
miles distant : and on liis return. Inuins 
i;i\eii the neces- 
.-.iry orders, hy 
'' .IM., July 
■ -'th, the whole 
■'tniy, iS.ooo 
strong, was on 
tile march for 
-Vtlghrini, where 
^t. Kuth had 
JiiMoo infantr\- 
.md 5,000 horse 
■" order of 
l>attle. 

He made no 
preparation for a 
wreat ; hut li-ft 
i'i^ e.imp, si\s 
'■"■eral Kane, 
^taiidin,i; with all 
the bai;i;age to 
iatluce his army 
"' '■ linht for 
i their all -an in- 
! ihcatior, of his 
ileteniiiried reso- 
i 'atintti.;c(!nf]uer 




I <'r (lie 



PLAN OK THE BATTLK OF 
Irish ihown on the leli: 



Kr.rly 
The tr™,ps of KinR U-il|iani after some 

delay cause-d !,.■ a thick foK. which till , „ 

InuiK oyer the marshv v.illev of the S„ck 
came m si^ht of the white-coated hatt.,!ions 
ol St. Ruth, .\nother ,lelay was caused l,v , 
skirnush which to.,k ,,lacc between the Irish 
"Ut,«,sts and Iiranoons. who ha,l he,,, thrown 
forward to ,lislo,l„e them from «„ne Karden 
Ktoun.ls. ahout a mile .listant from the 
enen,>- s r,Kht. which it was deemcl expclient 
to occ„,,> l,y ,|„. Mt „-i„^, „,■ ,1,^. „^.,j^|^ 

,'•'";'■'■ ,"''^« ■•■"-■an.e up as s„p,.,rts ; l„,t 

the Ir,.sh n,ade s, stnhl.orn a r.s,,sta„ce that 
ult,n,atel>- the whole left wi,,,; was ordered 
to occupy the .lisputed .«round. 

The Armies Face to Face 

\M,en the two armies confronted each other 
m the afternoon, they had onlv a space of 
l)oK and a few Rarden walls hetween then 

The ar„,y of I,c C.inckel wasforn.ed in two 
hues. 

He consulted with his principal ,,i|icers ,s 
to whether the attack shonld he niadc then 
ur ne.xt n.orni,,^, .As a Dutclunan he was 
constitutionally 
slow , hut .Mac- 
ka\-, a res'^hite 
and ,,cti\e l.'elt, 
was f,ir attack- 
iuR instantly. 
His ojjinion ],re- 
vailed, ,ind at 
live o'clock in 
the e\eniii« lie- 
gan the uiemor- 
ahle battle of 
AuKhrin,. 

.Major-C, , ^al 
Macka>, n:ih 
the fo,,r battal- 
ions, drove the 
enc„i>- Iron, the 
lines ol hed.eis 
in front, and 
fro,n the rinht 
and left of the 
Castle of .\iigli- 
ri,n, but with 
dithculf\- ;,s the 
t,ooi,s had to 
advance o\er 



AUCHRfM. JULY ,,,„,, |t9, 
KhKlish on the rJKhl 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



sU,.w-rv :ma u,H-v>..n ktoum,!. wIktc at ««>• 

t ..i the wav they s.nk d..,. u> .m.,1 "■ 

;^„a the walls an,. hc,l«.s w.ro v«-- 

ouslv .Uien.lcd. " The Irish were never known 
tT'n;htwithn,..re.es..lnt,..n,"aco>ra.nst„ 

"'C":,:;"tnn the Kn«Hsh infantry 
wJu. iriven hack; hut asarnandagarn they 

re-(.irmed and renewed the attack. 



The Tide of Battle 

I„ this conlhct0.1..nel Charles Herbert ..f 

,1, K al Welsh ln-.liers. led Ins hattal,.,n 

tl „««h a part :i the !"« where the men 

r" the kne... and drove the lr,shfr,nn 

ne hedges; ,,„t he was taken ,.r,.,ner 

ril.arl,an,uslvslan«htere,ll.y them m cold 

"lod, when ,hev saw .he re«mjent connnB 
to ins reseue under Major tohvPureell. 

Mackavs division was re,.ulsed , Imt 
Tdmash and Stuart came up m support , 
vet when evenn,«wa.. ^ -„«, the advantage 

I,e C.mckel hesan to nu-drtate a retreat, for 

s,x 1-att.dions were so iiUermmnled that we 

were .It a loss what to do. 

U this in,.nient St. Ruth shoute.l : 

■ The dav isours. my hoys." wavmB Ins hat 

h, the air ; '■ we shall dri^■e them hetore us 

to the wallsof llubhn! " 

B„t even as he spoke the t,de of battle was 

turniuK against h.nt. Oneral ^^yj^ 
,he Mar.,ms de Kuvi«ny at the head of the 
Roval Horse Guards (Ulnes). and the rep- 
„,,„ts now numbered as the =n<l an>l ,ird 
Dragoou Guards, succeeded m crossing the 



1k.k at a place where only two f.les couV: 
abreast : and St. Ruth laughe.1 at wh 
deeme.l the raa<lni-ss of tins proceedniK ' 
. heavv lire, which every mcnnent en,] i 
SiuhUe, and se^nt a riderless horse' to 11 
in terror ami.l the quagmire. 

■ What do they mean ? " Ik- escl 
•■ It is a pitv ti> see such line fellows iv 
on their own destrnction. Let lliem - 
however ; the more that come the m. ; 
shall kdl ■■ 

H„, -he slenilet tiles came lai, t.. 
man- : 11 ; from ''"Ic" ""^V ''"■"'"'' 
tr,',,.,,, .Old from troops into s,|U,,. 
;,nd wheeled round to the charge 
ringing cheers. 



Death of St. Ruth 

St KuHi n.iw reinforced his cavalr; \ 
a cainion-shot took his head aw.i> !■> 
neck, as he was in the act ol si,, i; 
Thev are beaten 1 " , , , 

Wien he fell the crisis of the b.iti) 
arriveil. -\t the moment 'hen M 
made the Hank movement at the head • 
Guards and l.ragoons. Talmash m,, 
vigorous forward movement, and th> 
whole of the Irish gave way, and a h 
massacre of them ensue.l. m cm-o, 
of the relK.rt ..f the murder ..1 1. 
prisoners. 

Of the Kh.g's troops boo were k,lK 
1 oo.) womuled. The vanqmshe.1 u.i 
unburied, a str.mge and ghastly spe 
4.OO0 Irish corpses were counted on tli 
of battle 



,rnl«- 
iii.':'.L\ 



1, Id: 

t.ick 



7'4 




BATTLE OF AUGHRIM, JULY llih, 1601 
t'Tom a picture bv W. B, Wollen. R,| 



sFrr/o.v II -Euv.Y 



CAPE BARFLEUR AND LA HOGUE 



4DMIRAL I,1C TUIKMU.. .Ictaul 

iVlMiU- Intl.. Il«l". '«" t'"^ ™«'"- 

K.,i,K-.l l.v Willi^im in, over his sm-.n-u™. 
J.MKS Il„ at the M,.y,H. ,K« ,Uv, July ist. 
L„t h.m as a fusituc t.. Pans, whcr. l.c 
,,..rsua,k-,l I...uis XI\-. ... ...akc .,..c ..... ^ 

'a,t«..,.t t„ i,ua,k. K..Klan.l a...l pla.c 
,^,U,lRlativ...l..."tl..Tl.r.,.a-at;a,i., ...... 

ha,l 1...., assurol that f..lly t*.-th.r.ls ..1 

thu 1..-..I.K' a.ul all tl...- lu-Klisl. sia.,.v.. wcrt- 
„,.lv avvaitmB a fav,.urahl. u,,,..,rt,,,...v ... 
,„s,,lav thc-ir L.valty a...l tl.c.r f..k-l..> 
Thus encurag.-l, I,"m* «■-. to «'f t" >'- 
par. f..t a .uisWy and, as he hoped. crushmB 
ilivasi.'l.. 

Cape Barfleur, May lOth loth. i6»2 

Vews of these preparations reached Kng- 
,a,;,l very soon. and. in or,U.rn..t to be taken 
bv snrpris... Admiral Russell conce.ltrated . 
lleet t'. ..ppose tl'>^ I'''^-"-" ^" »""■«*'"' 
were his eft.irts that within a short t.me 
l,e had asse.«l.le,l together his ..wn. the 
Red Snuadrou. ..f ;,l sail. 2.220 guns ; the 
lilue S,,..adr..n. of .1^ -"' -•"'> ''T' 
„,.,ler the i..int c.n.nan.l ..f Carter. K..oke^ 
a,.,l Sir Joh.. Ashl.y; an.i a p..werful 
Dutch Siiuatlr.... of .'." «'il. iOi4 Suns 
Tier .hi i..int co.un,a,.<l of .he l.utch 
Aa.,.irals in all. ... sail. 7..44 Kun». jj"' 
,,7.. men. n..e-cu Mary. k....w.ug that 
a„.„ng the ,.«icers there were -n'^' J-'^" " 
ites at heart. in.Ule,! to the licet a clcNcrh 
wonle.1 letter, i.i which she statc.l w.tl. ...- 
genu.us tra..kncss that she utterly .l-'-;!''-™ 
certahi sca..dal....s run.ours. to the cKcct that 
scnie ..I her brave sean.en were partisans ..I 
T uucs II. She ,.lac..-<l implicit conhilccc ... 
he... o..e an.l all This n..ss.ve was rea.l 

al I bv A.huiral Russi-11. stan.l.ng ...1 the 

,,uartcr-.leck ..f the Hnl.„w.i. to t..e as- 
iml.lcd li..g-oir.cet., and as the c.ncludu.g 



w„r,ls were reacl.e.1. a great cry aro-^ 
the... ..If .'i l.'valty. dev..ti..n. an.l l.l.I 
The i.lhccrs ..f ..ne .iccor.l agrecl to .. 
in replv t.. her d.spatch. ,, sig..c,I a.l.li.^ 
pressh.g their lirni dcter.i.u.at...n t.. 1. 
;hefree,l..n.ofi:..gla...l- They e..,l. ■ I 
direct v..ur counsels, Jireserve your p. 
a...l pr.isiK.r y.,ur arms, and let ..11 
pc..I>le s;.v .\.].en ! " 

In I ih.ise mist, which hung ..v, t 
Ckinnel on the i;th.lay..f May. the . 
Ik.^ts ..f la.gland and Holland put ■ 
se.l. 

The Enemy's Fleet 

The eneiliv s fleet then in the CI. 
with the R.'.ehefort S.|uadr..i. cms.s- 



„., -hips an.l ........o men. A,l....r..l I ...- 

villes ..r.lers were that he shoul.l .1 >- 
sible av..i.! a c.nbat. an.l cover the -1.- 
embarkati.... of .he troops alrea.lv .Irawr. u;« 

in readiness t.. be carried across th, Oun- 
nel up..n the llrst fav.mrable opp ;.!.....>' 

S,„m after his fleet Iwd been signt. i "!' 
Portland, thereh.re. he st,«.<l acr.- l... 
L-;ipe I.a H..gue. where James s ..ri.i. « " 
embarking. ,,_ , 

S,»>n after sunrise. May irjth. the All.... 

fleet, the largest that had ever been .:. t..t 
Cl.an...-1 su.ce the days .)f the ^"'1 
-\rm.«la. sighted Tourville s flagslup / ■ " ' 
s-,i/,-i7 at that time the priile ..I the It.n.r. 
nation .tanding up Channel before .. >"i.t" " 

«est wi.i.l. . . 

The .Miles formed m hnc ..I ■■.■"- 

.,t ^s \M,, the l.utch Snu..dron I.miiJ i" 

'tl.e va... the l'..Rlish Re.l S.|Ua.lr.... ... tli^- 

centre the Blue in the re..r. By mnv cl.*. 
the ene...vs lleet stretche.l al.m.st ,.* .'; 
snuth as the Allies. an,I by . I '■ , 

l„,th lleets were engaged in their -n- 
„,,,.. ,[ ,....;r...-tion. R....nd ..ft. r r.- 

,H.ure.l alternately from the oppos.: -'. l'".^ 



W.-M^.- 







m 


!•■. 






S- ■ \ 










''^ 


\ . 'ur 






Aliio! 




^ 


■ nl to 






haiiiR-l 




^ -; 


stol ill 




i' '^ 


1 TnUI- 




*^. ."a 


if IKIS- 




^^ 


ll,- .li- 






awn Ul' 






(.- Chan- 




fe^ 


rtunltv 




■'■''';al 


,l,,| „li 




■■ **^ 


,,.< til 


1 


m\ «is 






iv Alli.'l 






n .:i tlK 






Spaiiisn 






1, /.,■ R"i 






f '■ruiich 






.1 >'>i:ti.- 






,f l.jtti'. 






iKitii; 1" 






oil in t!i^- 






n,,,,l« 






St ..s i " 
1 '- ■ 






,r ■ rnliiv 






tt-r MUnu 






jsi:.-; l""* 








BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



of vessels; and. as the sm.ike lifted at 
intervals spats were seen hanging by the 
board, and great shreds of rigging hung 
useless across bulwarks and gunwale. 
Sliortlv after noon a dense sea-mist dnftcd 
across'the fleets, completely hidmg the oppos- 
ing lines from rme another , but within an 
hour it passed off. and once more the rattle 
of musketry and the roar of the guns boomed 
out over the waters. „ ,. , „ 

Kichard Carter was the first English oth- 
cer to fall. A splinter torn by a round- 
shot from a spar ripped open his side 
from hip to shoulder, and he fell back 
upon the deck dying. Imme<hately a little 
group gathered round him. anxious to take 
him below, but he ordered the men aside 
For three or four minutes he sat propped 
against a coil of rope, watching the fight, 
encouraging his officers, cheering his seamen. 
Then of a sudden he sank slowly forward, 
and then, with the faintly uttered words, 
■■ Fight the ship, my lads, as long as she 
will swim," he expired. . 

The fleets continued to fire their guns with 
lound-shot ; chain-shot, grape, and musket- 
baUs rained upm the decks, causing death 
and disaster and havoc indescribable. Masts 
and spars fell crashing overboard into the 
water The scuppers of many of the largest 
French ships, we are told by an eyewltnes.s, 
Uterallv spouted bloixl into tlie sea, and, 
despite the excitement of battle, " the sight 
turned hardv seamen pale." 

The fog which had hung over both Beets 
during the earlier part of the morning was 
dispelled by the steadily increasing wind, and 
The .lirection of 



to post themselves three ahead and two a,t 
of Lord Russell's flagship, from which j, 
tions these ships filed at the Bntanmu y- 
after round. Thus our Admiral had to en:: 
five ixjwerful ships at the same time 
for nearlv an hour it seemed that he »■ 
be forced to succumb. Towards four o cl 
however, the wind dropped, and so d.i: 
fog came on that no vessel could i.i,. 
even its nearest neighbour, so firing 
suspended. When the fog cleared, T.ur 
was sighted being towed away northw. 
The order to " Chase " was signalled 
was continued steadily until morniiii; 
which time the enemy was weU aw;i 
the west. 

What we are now about to describe w,i> 
seciuencc of the battle fought on May i 
when frimi various causes, mainly pe:l 
owing t.i the fog, at sundown, thoui;!. 
loss of life had been terrible in the Ir. 
crews, none of their ships had surren.l. 



the 



the 



wind veered 
north - west. 
The English en- 
deavour eil to 
" double." that is 
attack on both 
sides at once. The 
French Admiral, 
realising the in- 
t ention, dis- 
patched five of 
the largest vessels 
of his squadron, 
with instructions 



.ALDEKI^t 



^ 



SKETCH MAP 



Battle of La HoEue, May 23rd i4th. '<>«' 

Under cover of night some .i5 of de T nt 
vine's fleet sailed westwards assisted bv the 
ebb-tide. Twenty ves.sels under .Vlniiral 
D'Amfreville, with mar\-ellous courajje n.iI'I 
down the Race of Alderney. ll'Amlr. .ilk 
despairing of carrying his fleet throinl, ti.c 
Race was giving orders to his capt.ini< t.i 
limch their ships, when a pilot named Il.rv, 
Rielsaid: " C.ive me your largest sluii .ui-i 
I win take her into ixirt. and all Hk k-x 
can follow me." The night w.as d.irk ,uin 
a thick f.)R hung on the boiling w.u.rs "t 
the Race as the sliijis, with all pl,Hn s.m1 
passed tiiroiKii 
the surf an,l rotk- 
surroundiiii: t'li''" 
and ah .irri\'i-l 
safely at St Mai" 
/.,■ R,ii S:>\i' lu'l 
been most 'KIlT- 
minedly ii'ii^iil"i: 
May loth 111"":'- 
she was stitiniii'l- 
cd by eneiiiu- -I't 
continued liH -'i''' 
set to li 111 '■'" 
struction'.i"in''" 
104 B"' ■ ■^' 




OF LA HOGUB 



Section 11 



LA HOGUE-MAY 23rd-24th, 1692 



nightfall, with her scuppers Hterallv p<,ur. 
mg out blood, she stood over for tile Nor- 
mandy coast, the Admiral shifting his Hag 
to rAmhlir„x. The Allied fleets, haviiis 
no local iiilots, had not ventured into the 
Alderney Race. 

Le Roi Soldi and two other three-deckers 
readied Cherbourg in safety. Ijut nere closely 
cliased by an Englisli squadron under \,i- 
niiral Delaval. He found them 
hauled up in shoal water in the 
bay, and sending in a flotilla of 
boats, burnt all three men-of-war. 
capturing parts of the crews. i)art 
escaping to the shore. 

Admiral Tourrille ou board tjie 
I'.lmbilieux, aud n other line of 
battle ships. t,K)k refuge in the 
Hay of l.a llogue, on the heights 
of which was encamped tile armv 
"f James II.. intended for the in- 
vasion.of England. There de Tour- 
ville imagined that his ships were 
perfectly safe, for tlley hud been 
wariTOl i;ito shoal water uiuler 
protection of forts on either flank. 
King James II. .suggested to Ad- 
miral Tourville that the sailors .m 
b"ar.l tile sliijis sliould be re- 
inforced by sonic regiments of the 
Army of In-.asion. Tlie Admiral 
rejected this advice as implying a 
want of ccmfidencc in his sailors. 

M'hen the British fleet arrived in 
the afternoon of May ..,,rd. Admiral 
Kooke was ordered to destroy the 
■ 2 men-of-war. He as.sembled all 
the boats of the fleet, over 200 in 
number, sending with them some ' 

^'1 llie lightest draught men-of-war. 
Tlie Army of Invasion was marched down to 
"le beach, and several held batteries sup- 
I"'rted the two permanent forts 

"'lien all was ready the boats' crews 
cli.eriMg heartily, pulleil towards the six 
""■ of battle ships, which lay under Tort 
|-i-»et. Admiral i'our\ilIe orilered his crews 
"ito their boats to advance against the 0,1- 
ccinmiK English, but they turned and n.we.l 
ti. shore ; the crews of the shii.s fle,l ; the big 
P."s from Fort I.isse-t ,loing no execution. 
"^ sut men-of-war were burnt to the 



Karlj 

waters edge; then Rooke and his men drew 
off. 

At 8 .4.51. next morning, with the flood- 
tl.le. A.lrairal Rooke pulled in lo .k-strov the 
SIX remaining Erench meu-of-war King near 
the fort of .St. X'aast. Then some attempt 
to defend the vessels was matle. and the 
batteries caused some casualties amongst the 
crews of the ICiglish boats. Thev, however 




ADMIRAL SIR GKORGK ROOKE 
let D.ihl 



7") 



pulled on vyith loud Cheers, captured the 
ships, and turning their guns on to the bat- 
teries, sileuceil them. Admiral Kooku ind 
his men then set the line of battle sliips on 
lire, ami pulled into the inner harbour where 
there were niaii>- transports at anchor 
ihen the elibing tide obliged the .VImiral 
to withilraw. his men .sdutiug their late 
.Monarch witli the resounding chant. • (iod 
-Saw the King." 

, ''''"-' '■■"«'■* St "ne llre-shi|. : the French 

lost iO large ballleshil>s. 






?*■■ -^A 



-ifT'-, 






'ft 






'' * 



THE BATTLE OF 



UA HOGUK, MAY 'ltd:*' 



h-,om . pl.m,= hv C. C. Ch.n,b,, 



, in ,h« Pain"- »"« ''■■' 



' a. 



m' 



"* 



1* 



^^■'•^ 



PWTIO-i 




■jFrr/oJV ii.-EARLY 



BLENHEIM 

BY FIELD-MARSHAL SIR EVELYN WOOD. V.C, G.C.B. ^ ^^^^ 
TT.. PoUUcJ atu.tion pri'.Mo,''5J »«^^^^ 

r'^. I Id President of Council at Vienna. ^ ^ q„,,„ Anm through 

th- \,iuence of his wife, he manipulated "^"''.^'IJ,,,^ „/ SlaU for War. and through 
L ii «U 'through his ^r''-'Tij}:,Z%t.oToZo/L daughters 

HW«'S K'..s so fteWy flanted ■'•"\ff"''^ll,. Countries relier^e the situation of Ik 
lories impracticatU: nor "^EX-"""" t ««»^ -.' Bonn and the Mam at Fran,. 

^''"' TA. French had ^'^ f'«'^J^\ZS^c^g^un<'''^d by the Prince of Baden. shouU 

W»rWm«V I 500 killed and 4,000 wo. -.«. "' f „7„„ssj^ lo tlte north of the DannU: 
MarUmZgh wasted his country down to ^'''"'f;"\'''ZLTeZof Donauworth. This p!:« 
r^sTX Prince of Baden to invest IngoMiiml^ '^« / ^^^ , ,„ ^,,fc,„,« 

Tceeded.for the Ekctor. with ■"«"'" Jf^ltSfil^rf September 20th. 1703. . P'-'^ 
Zr the sLm of ViUard's ,.«<or, o«J f/'^^J^^//.'* /'.^ f""" -- r,*"/'"™'?'" ff 



Ens XIV. had determined to occupy 
Vienna in 1704. hoping thus to compel 
the principal member of the Grand 
Affiance to sue for peace, after which he 
anticipated but little difficulty m cruslung 
the Dutch and English forces m the >eth=r- 

°M^rlborough, realising that no great results 



were obtainable in the Low Countnes, h r 
the delays caused by the tears of the VuX.h 
w^re as great obstacles to mihtary succ>>»^^^ 
as were the numberless fortresses sptca., ,^ 
over the country, determined to jom . '« 
Eutieiie in the valley of the Dam. ,. 
t^ strategic move which he d. ,, 
fully impart to the Governments at U.e 



722 



f :"i 



as ii 41 



Section II 



Hague and in London. He pretended to 
the Dutdi that he was about to operate in 
the vaUey of the MoseUe, and even to this 
scheme they raised so many objections that 
eventuaUy he extorted a reluctant consent 
only by threatening to withdraw the British 
contingent, and march it alone to the MoseUe 
valley. He midertook to leave General Over- 
Idrk to defend the Low Countries against 
Marshal Villeroi. 

The Duke had all the roads leading to 
the Danube reconnoitred, and formed supply 
depots on the routes he intended to foDow 
capable of subsisting 90 squadrons and 50 
batUIirn . The troops, under perfect dis- 
ciplme throughout the operations, paid for 
every artide consumed, to the surprised 
delight of the inhabitants. 

Marlborough left Roermond, on the Maas 
nver, on May 19th, 1704, the Danish, 
German, and Prussian contingents being 
ordered to join Marlborough on his march 
towards Bonn. The artillery- train and 
baggage columns were sent up the Rhine 
by water to Mainz. 

Marlborough's Movements 

When Marlborough was travelling from the 
Hague to Bonn to overtake his troops. Over- 
kirk reported that General Villeroi was ad- 
vancing, and sent for reinforcements; and 
Prince Lewis, the Margrave of Baden, fearing 
that General Count Tallard was about to 
attack his entrenched camp at Stolhofen in 
Baden on the Rhine, urged his claim for 
supiwrt. The Duke not only reassured his 
Kn-ous colleagues that they were in no real 
danger, but by ordering the construction of 
a bridge at Philippsburg over the Rhine, he 
alarmed Villeroi and Tallard. 

Marlborough, leaving his mfantrv to follow, 
misiied the Neckar river with the cavalrv! 
Iilni- .)rd. and a week later, having marched 
Jfm miles, was visited in his camp at Mon- 
Wshiim by Prince Eugene, who had ridden 
»«r from his army. Three days later the 
MaiEfave of Baden rode into camp. He was 
a sluw, cautious general, very punctilious, 
and at first he insisted that Prince Eugene's 
'joops should operate m the vallev of the 
"'"-' ^"'i th.it, as tin; senior officer, he 
ttoulil command all the armies of the Grand 



BLENHEIM-AUG. 13th. 1704 



Early 

AUiance, Marlborough, with great tact in- 
duced the Margrave to share with him the 
command on alternate davs, and he con- 
tnved. being by far the abler man, to get 
most of the attributes of command into his 
own hand. 

Now the States-General again became 
nervous about Marshal Villeroi s movements 
but Marlborough pacified them bv collecting 
a flotUla of boats on the Rhine, and promising 
to return if Holland was seri.mslv invaded. 

The Duke left Prince Eugene in Baden to 
watch TaUard. who h, d 40.000 troops in 
Alsace, and concentraied his cavalrv with 
the mounted troops of the Imperial' .Army 
north <jf l.Im, June 22nd; moving thence 
slowly eastwards to Giungen to await the 
arrival of the artillery and British infantry 
under Marlborough. 

The Schellenberg, July and, 1704 

The Duke of Mariborough and Prince 
Eugene decided to attack Donauworth as 
soon as the whole of the troops should 
arrive, but some delay ensued, and General 
d'Arco occupied the heights of the .Schellen- 
berg. which overtook the town. The Mar- 
grave Lewis of Baden, whose turn it was 
to command the troojis. although urgently 
pressed by Mariborough to attack, declined 
to assault the entrenched camp. 

Next day Marlborough sent Lord Cadogan, 
Quartermaster-General, forward at davlight 
with 6,000 men, and althougli the advanced 
guard of the army did not come up till noon, 
Cadogan detailed a balt.ilion of the Grenadier 
Guards, two of the Royal.-, a battalion of the 
Welsh Fusiliers, 1st Hampshire, and the 
Dutch troops under General Goor to assault 
d 'Arco's ixisition. The cavair;- had been sent 
into the woods at daylight to cut fascines to 
fin up the main ditch of the entrenchment. 

VvTien the horsemen returned with the 
fascines, the infantry, carrying tliem 011 their 
heads, advanced under a very heavy lire, 
which killed General Goor, and many others 
of all ranks. The battalions nevertheless 
marched steadily on without firing a shot 
until they got to within roc yards of the 
entrenchment, where, by an unfortunate 
mistake, they threw tlie fascines into a 
scoured out hollow instead of reserving them 



Sfi:tion II 



t" Ml up ,1,0 main ,litc:,. There ™, e„„- 
-l-K-ntly great deluv i„ er„,s.si„K it un.ler 

- Nre which was ,K,ur«l „,.,„, L,'^e 
lavanans and LVend, „,„|, ^ 

..ta..^„t the,, the Ore„a„ier ,>,....,.; 

A Fierce Conflict 

Tl,e Allie,! infantry er„sse,l the parapet of 

K.„.a,„w„rkthr,...toesi„anl,„j.b,: 

««e ,,n each „ccasi,ra .Iriven „ut aRai,, 

.t.ek the ,'"",'"'' "■'"' """"'" '^'•■'■"<"- 

I MarllK,r„ugl,sn,e„, in spite „f her„ie 
"mage show,, ,„ tl,eir re|K-ate,l etf,.rts 
:■■■'.. no, get a foothold in the w, rk' 
Kventualy when r.joo dead and 3,* 
~.un,led men had i«.™ struck down in .,, 
■"'""tes^ the Scots Oreys, who had 1 
™™.ed, an.i the „,rely.,ried l,a„aho 

I" ''•""•'^"^ collapse-d suddcnlv Tl,e 
'■7 remounting, joined ,l,e rest of the 
-.Urs-. and drove out the previously her^ 
.1 femlers, who had now hecome a pani" 

tnlnitary nycr the Wernitz 

run^irav's '1'°"^ '^•■"«""Pl>e fell on the 
un.,„a>s, for the pontoon bridges over the 
>-u « gave way under tl.e pressure of ,e 
•"".nltuous, rushing crowd, and l,u, L 
■ne^penshed in the river. Of the "o"' 

S „ vf""'^■'•'™'■'"•"'"""'l•'-'- 
t .,"' ^'" '" "■'■™'^ench,nents. 3,000 

'"■Uied camp at DiUingen. The I'lector 
™.".« his stores and e„u,p„,e„t,evac:S^ 

1' ";; "'™ ""'' "•'"='""' «" Augs- 

"'. M="">"rouKh pursued with vigour 
«;! ; n"', ?'" '""''^'"'^' n,o,-e,ne„ts 

cr^ . '? ;l*'" ""7"'^' Marl,.,ro„gh. 
■- ■' ■- h, l;,|4, „„ ,]„. „,„(,, |,,,„|, „ 

■4r„lof,.ewisoffiadenl,vpersua,li^; 
,;"■'- down the river ,hrev,„arche' 

«';'«« men, to besiege Ingoldstadt. 
,,„t "■"""""1 French an,l Bavarian an„v 

_ ,"!' ^' position to the east ...f HSrl,s,s<], 
■Marsli!i"r' ";"';, ""'1" ""' conunan.l of 

'•"^I'.l Uunt Tallard, General Claira.n- 



BLENHEIM-AUG. 13th. 1704 



Early 

m";!*'7"«'","'V"'^'«- '■""""-.". Count 

"■'•h IS battahons on ,|,e e,«,-,„ ,vff "-, , 
wlK.e,,.ci„gU.„veen„or,h.„„r,h.„ ■. 
south-south-east, 

J^;"«.n.ugl, and Kugene carefully reeo,,- 

"'"' ■ ' - ^ " "'^vt day, i„ ;, ,K,„^, („^, 
"■;"-e.l w„l, 5 . „„„ „„,„ ,„„, , - ■>-; 

c.-n„s, the Bavarians and Frenehhav;: 
«.o<«. more ,„en. Their troo,,s were nearlv 
aomogene-ons, while Marlboro ,„l,'s force ^"^ 

Hdd-Marshal Conn, Tallard had placed 

;^''?eh,"r--v;iL--; 

^■t w.de, nreandering in three co„r«, ,„ ," 
anuhe Between Blenheim and H,k-hs,a 

north bank unpracticable for troops. 



72 



Count Tallard, StrateKist 

ti^ed'? ■""""'' ""™ "" l""'"-'^- m™- 

fo ""'■ ,"'" "■ •""'"'■ '"" """ "-J'' a 

an- T, '"'" ""^ '■•■"'"^■""■^ '""i" 

f^ rent tact.c.an. The centre under Mar- 

La er f T' "" '"""«'->'<■■ "■ 'l-t its 
uidtr had never conuna„,le.l ,nore than a 
battahon u„der lire, and he n.ade the "is" 
ake,wh,eh had disastrous results, of ph,c^ 
the centre too far away from the Xebel w .ich 
as we shall ..e later, gave .Marlborough's 
tro .p,s space „, which thev were able to 
rt'-tnrm. '■^ 

On the extreme lef, or north-west Hank 
■" an,l about I.u„i„ge„, were ,.S bat,al,o,,s 
of Bavarians under the laector, an,l some 
squadrons of cavalry were still farther out 
'" the Hank, hut the greater number, of 
horse-men were posted all along ,he front 
-l.ci was mall about four ra.les in e.ue,,, 

"i.e.. lallar.l had put „S battalions and 
t.,VH, disinounte,! Dragoous into Blenheim 
he ro,le along the front to see how the i;iector' 
;', "''I'"""! Ins troops, and, noticing that 
be ween Blenhel„,a,„l(,berglau there were 
only cavalry and a screen of i„fa„tr>-, he 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 

« _. <,!.„ ,i;=*-'iTi«' of 10 yar 



I" 



air«:tol Marsin tn pUce his re«rs-e in the 
^Treofhispanofthepo»..o,. Ma.m 



M»rlborouith'5 Plans 

Marlborough's original ^^^"«™ "fj:, 

carry Blenheim. ""• .">.%'^"="*H/d«,idc,l 
cut them off from Hochst ..^ He dec ^^^^ 

to make his ■"«\"""'' „? ^tailed Lord 
rieht posted in Blenheim, and detallea .. 
[;«u«, t-Tlead the assault on the vala.^^^^,_ 

The fo2 cleared off at 7 *■»>■. ' " 
J!:«hlaitedforman>Wso.^^^^^^^ 

Eugenes troops, wh ch had tot 

hidten partly -^.f "-''l' ^^Xt ." 
five ,«ntoo" '-«>«« .:tself waTscarcely 

stoi^^t::^^--— -'-"^ 

°\f"»rM.' Eugene reported that he 
Ivtoat ack and. the artillery havmg 
"'"'rle lord Cutts adyanced. his firs, 
opened hre ^"'f ^ , ^ ,„hat are 

line, cons.st.ng "'f/.^;^ Raiment. Royal 
now knmyn a. '^e » eg ^^^.^^^ ^^ 

ground behind them. 



From the distance of 3° ^ards up to ^:.; 

sitt:;^:^-tr^e^ ; 

brigl had fallen. As the -«"'"8;"" ; 
t^'n staggered back, they w-ch-g. 
eight s.luadrons of trench Corps <1 
:hkh. emerging from l"^""" *= ';,'" 
,„1 Blenheim, cha.g.' the '" "P " , *,,^, 
„„e retiring, and captured a ™1"U' " 
™,It Regiment. They then galloped on ■, . 
meetinTthe Hessians, who stood hrm, -r 
toten back, and the Hessians reeap.ur.a 
the Royal Scots Fusiliers colour, 

lord Orkney led forward two br,.. ., 
under Ferguson and Hulsen. They struK'A.I 
r;:^^ marshy groun. with. eat,.;. 

cultv. but go.ng on. thougn reigu 

iiiinst the fortified v.Uage. The iM.um. 
coyere^ the crossing of the cavalry, wluch 
was effected only with great d.ft.cult> 



The Cavalry Conflict 

Before Marlborough. cavaUy ha ™.e 
to re-form, the French first Ime 1 
^Je down the slope at the S-"' I '"^ 
brX the disordered regiments, and .1 tta 
^^°ond ne had but charged at th.> ■- 
» the Britrsh squadrons must hax.- !« 
"Thed bacwtt tleNebel. Marlbo.;* 

:;;:xr':::^c:«;titheF.neh-.,;^ 

tors which had been in the "eanUn. ' ^ 
Led on by Cutts's 'f ""V; ^^ ^JX " 
back, thus giving the British casalr. 

'°;:;r;.o,stein.Beck with rr «..,«» 
battalions attacked ObergUu, bu . ^ 
division was strugg^rng out o t . 

ground, the Irish Bt'S^i-^' " * ,„ , ta,. 
France, supported by -^^ral I ren n 
tahons. at ., P.M.. <^f argmg d"^ t' .P 
broke up the leading Hanover,an ba ^^^ 
Marlborough. l'"*«v«' *"3j,:,,, ,b, 
fresh artUlery and infantry, and dr" 

726 



Section II 



BLENHEIM-AUG. 13th. 1704 



farly 




ffom , „!„„„ I,, „ ^,,^^ WoodvUli. Bl. 

ITince Eugeno at three o'clock was still ™„? Ta"lHH ""'' ""? "' "'""■""" 

"..able to gain ground, although he ha,l m-r .-,;, ^ , "°" "■'■"''"'"« ""■■ '"'pe.uling 

S'lallv. uiti, herni. .„ ,,..., "' '"'" "'^Strophe, „r,lere,l Marsin t.. move to his 



si'nally. ,v,tl, heroic courage, led three succes- 
sive attacks. Marlborough, who had now got 
all I..S cavalry across the Xebel, f„rme<l them 
"pm two lines to attack the French centre 
Marshal Tallard, foreseeing the impending 
tack, sent for^.ard fr„^. the second lint 
nne battahons to resist it. The French 
"^"■try behave^l grandly, though their ranks 
ere mown down by artillery an.l musketry 
We .', et they continuexl t., advance. Tallard 
2»S that the infantry, u,-:sssuccoure,i: 
""-t break up, ordered his cavalry to ex- 
'"«,te them by a charge, but the horsemen 
""l<\ not advance, ami Marlborough's 
^lu.i.lrons. riding over the remnant of the 
mne brave but unfortunate battalions, 
Ucstroyed them. 

T!„ cavalry on Marsin 's right Hank, seeing 
"11 'l.-structlon o£ the infantry, "changed posi- 



rigllt an,l the Blenheim garrison to detach 
troopstoitslefttolill„pt|,,,,„,,,,„ti^„_,^ 

the or,ler ,Iid not reach him until the action 
was over. 

Marllxjrough, who hail formeil his cavalrv 
tor attack, now iKT.sonally led them up the 
slope. The French horse-men, inste,'d of 
ridmg forward to the encounter, lire,l leeblv 
from the saddle, and, then turning, lled 
Ihirty squadrons m.ade for the Danube west 
of nienheim, pursued by the i'russian cavalry 
liy this time Kugene bail pushed the 



not advance, an.l Marlloroue , n ■ '"" ""'* '-"«™'-- ''ad pushed the 
ns. riding o«r the remnt T^f : f::;^':^ Si'' "'f«'-l »'" '-'-8-.. 



727 



an,l was pursuing, but his infantry were 
t<x) weary to be etfL-ctive, and his cavalry- 
would not charge home o„ the Bavarian 
battalnms, 
Tallard was taken prisoner when trying to 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 

. 1,1.. «:iv€h1 mai 



Alhib lost 40 ^,yn„g ,l,e 

the iOth i:;imi:mnlun> (Mc..tt.r.ll Ki" I 

^'„„ Marlboruughs tr.,o,.s '»-•("« ",^ 

c .uW r.-fo.m afUT struRKUng "Ut .■ ^ ^ 

T- ,v l„.ttn„i MuillH.ruuRh's ia,,i<l '1^- 

niai»n> l"""'"" ,( .ttick when ic 



„. ,llv impreKnablo. save.1 many Uvw, 1 

The I-'ianc-Bav.Ltian atm.« l..» " " 
3S.:,nKn,..>uutm«kfflv,., wound.1. 

,h..,c. taken ,.T«nK«. IM f ■«■"="'> , 
c,,l„ur.an.\ cavalry .tan,l.-.r.U, and the «1. 

. • t ,;"i iea ami nu.ral effect. .» the b.r 

;:::^St::.run.re."The,.«.s.ve,,,.. 

'If .«enheim'Te«>umle,l thruushoute^.. 

nart of Kuinpe." „,„.l„.^ • » 

The Elector c.f fiayar.a was crushed. 

...nuK-ll"""'"*^"'"'"^'"'"-''''" 
'"':^Z^:.r had secured Vienrra. , 
Kri:h^erintheyalley.>.t..e^-; 
,,isapp.-arins, and l-""'% ^\^^.: "•" 
obliged to stand on the defensive. 




v4t .it -i. ..•;•' *■.%«, 




A. Bn.iF.. °"VS;,K V. Tta ►jrf'* ""T T . KS.I ii-»^ 1^-"* "" """■ 



728 



SECTIOX II^F^oi^ 



RAMILLIES 



nv F.K,.D.MARS„,L Sm EVKLV.V WOO,, V.,:.. C.CB. 



f.ulcd m ..very dia^cti,,,,, a„,l ;.f,„ jt 
K' « ., reduced to aet for the „„.st part o 
liii: delcnsive. -i I>.irt ol 

As a result „f the decisive Battle of Blen- 
.™thel.re„chhadtoal,a„d„„theI.:Jor 
"Bavuruaad to recross the Rhine, and fc 
Hector „as compell„l by the conditions 

; ! ° **""" '- -"■>■■ .Marll,orouKh- 
am, m ,70, wa, to ex,,el the French from the 

-rtresses they had seized in violation "tie 
terms of the Treaty of Rys„,ck. and he m 

Sn'b'";'' '" '■""« •"^- '--'■ -™'- 

oc»,ure s"' 7 ^•.'""- "'' '■""'»"« «heme 

„c?ntr , T"°"" '''■'""■ "« ''«"* coul.1 

"; the vahey „f the Mose-lle white Prince 

nus™e™,,ed down the valley of the Saar 

UoX Z u^"^- '■'^""'* "'^ Emperor 
l«'I«ld and the German Princes once re- 

-.1 of the French invaders of their country 

t^ the results of the Battle of Blenheim had 

lar^ .nto their usual state of apathy nd 

*s. ":;;:* ^'"' «"'^" Governments were 

On Marlborough's return to Holland, April 
V4- he persuaded the Dutch to aRree to his 
*mes for invading France, b,'t \^ 
""J ow been sent to northen, Italv^ .0 

IZlTr^ ""-■ ''"'^ ''^- \-«=t"l™^-.' and 
» "as no longer availabl:. 

i■alev"f;''^'"J^'™'='' '""'^ '"<^ «'^^'<1 «■ the 

.«m. eH I r ""'"S"' '-■ K«atly out- 

r„ f *""■, '*=" ''''"^'= '» - position 

■ »»<i Saarlouis. It was loo strong 



defence of the Netherlands had been oblige,! 

-:s,"SHii:hr'"""f'^'''" 
-"■■', -'..carri:d:::i^';:Vd:h:geX:;;;' 

completely decened \nlars, who ^ s ton i 
ofu,,. and the l,„ke joined Ow-rkirk,;:: 
2n.. and then took IIuv within a few davs 

l-he l.oniman,ler.in-Chief of the Allied bv 
a skdlu, strategical movement. ^.^ 

Antiurp to .Namur. a .listance of ,„ mile. 
Uutch then, and again later in August de! 
ctaedt^ utilise the favourable ,»,sitio:whfch 

IJuring the winter Marlborough visited 
Berhn. Hanover, and Vienna, hut failc^d to 

nduce the res,«tive Governments to unde^ 
take a„5 common action. The Dutch had 
refused to allow their troop, to se-rve ™t 
o .heXetherUnds.andatlast;Mbl„gh 

wthdraw the Brifsh contingent; this step 
he knew would involve the breaking up 
"f the U,aht,on. They then gave way an 
suggested not only that Marlborough si ot, 
^■lect the Dutch Representatives wlt^l* 
accompanted the Allied troops, but that more- 
m er those Representatives should have secret 
.nst ucfons to comply with all his orders 
Marlborough was, nevertheless, doubtful of 
tl.e tx,ss.b,hty of success when working with 
such Alhes, but jus. then X'dleroi ga«. him 
an opportunity of gaining a great victory. 

The French Marshal, although ordered to 
awa,t the arrival of Marshal Marsin. who was 
advanang from the Rhine, before undertaking 



M.olborough.7umbers.a:,",;:S :.t""""« "™'"- ^^ine. bef^ru'nd:^^^ 

'« 'enforcements from fiermanv "^ Z Z"""°"'' «°' ""^ '"^ '"'" I-- head thaf 

""■"=' uverkirfc, left in charge of the th. if ^T" "■"'■'""K "■■ Xamur before 

"arge of the^^^they had effected their concentration, and 




nicture b» R. CaWn WoodviU". R^ 



>(;ction 11 

lit ra.>viil nut ..f |,is eiitriTichfci lims l)ihiii,l 
tilt Dylc rhi:t. iLipin^. t.. crush the Allies 
liciiiri- thev wiTf nady to ritvi^. him. ami 
Miirllwrouiili, st-iziiiR the iip],,rtunitv, ul- 
vMiiccd oil Hranchion. He. howtvir. hail 
ciiuxutratiil his array and wa^ minuiK 
s iithwards. 

CmIotk-I till. Karl of Cuiloi^an, (JuartiT- 
iu,ister-Gcin;ral to Marlliormi.'/s "uritish 
troops. rcHk- forward at I \.\,. m .May 
2]u\. Ijiiii. in or<U-r ,> lay out a camp at 
K.iinilliw, two mik-s from tht riyt-r Mi-haii;m;. 
a trilmtary of tlit- MiuM-. I.roni a lull near 
MirdorpCad.«an sighted the 1-reiich trooja 
Jt lo.i.M.. wlieii a thick mi.st clearin« awav 
under a lirinht sun, .lisclosed an army of 
Ix) ".o men comint! on to the Ramillies 
pl.tteau. The country unpaved roads were 
trnin constant rain very deep ; the Allies' 
guns were often u]) to their axletrecs in 
mud, so Cadogan halted the head 'jf the 
column to allow it to close up. 

The Battlc-Field 

The srouiid <m which Villeroi elected to 
fight is a slightly ele\ateil tableland in 
.1 Hat country, on the slopes of which 
three streams rise : the Mehaifine, flomng 
eastwards, passes the villaRe of Taviers, two 
miks lower down, where the stream is 12 
feet hroad. The Creat Oheete, rising close 
under Ottomond's tomb tlows in a north- 
westirly direction ; the Little Oheete oozes 
"ut nf the ground at Ramillies,-flowing in four 
small branches, geiier.ny in a north-easterlv 
direetion, past Ofluz and Anderkirk. We 
are writing from memory, but after careful 
inspection fifty years ago, are under the im- 
pression that the undulati<ms on the battle- 
fielil are not greater than those from the 
Marble Arch across Hyde Park to Victoria 
St.itinn, London. 

\iIleroi put his right in Taviers and a ham- 
let a little to the east of it : his right centre 
!t'«"l at Ramillies, his left centre at Offuz 
mJ his left at Anderkirk. the two flanks 
Ixinv half a mile in front of the centre, all 
facmi; eastwards, on a frontage of about 
tour miles. 

M.itllmrough's tactical skill in grasping 
theilistiositiuu of an enemy's troops was as 
lemarkable as was his strategical insight, 



RAMILUES-MAY 23rd, 1706 



7." 



Karly 

and he noticed immt^liately the weakness 
of Vilkriii's position, in th.it the |«.st> of 
Taviers .uid Kainillies wi.e too far distant to 
allow the guns in tli..s» vill.iges t.. tr..ss their 
tire on .111 ass.iiiltiiig coluinn. .u"' Miat, inore- 
ovel, thougli his left in aiul derkirk 

was sivure, yet the troops on i ,.ke<nild 
not advance for a couiiter-.ilt.ick with,,ut 
much dithculty in consii|uence of the three 
streams of the Little IJlii^ete llowing in their 
front. The Iluke, therefore, .keiiled to 
demonstrate against .\nderkirk, hoping to 
induce \ilkroi to strengthen his left. I'or 
this purpose an advance was iiia.le on the 
e.xtrerae right .if the Allies by the Hritish 
contingent, which moved forward foriiRd in 
two lines as if about to attack. Some time 
later these lines retired, the projier front line 
up to the top of I rise ..f ground, where it 
halted ; the rear line, after pa.ssing out of 
sight, turning southwards, an<l marching 
rapiilly to reinforce Marlborough's centre. 
The ruse had the desired eft'ect, for \illeroi. 
who had already occupied Anderkirk and 
Ortuz strongly, now ivithdrew troops from 
his right to his left, going there himself. 
Ramillies was entrenched, and held by 20 
battahons with 24 guns. 

Advance of Mariboraugti 

mien Marlborough s .irmy was ready, he 
advaiicetl the infantry of the Allies' right in 
two lines, on a frontage of about three miles. 

At t.jo the artillery opened lire, f.ur 
Dutch battalions carried the hamlet in 
front of Taviers, gaining that village, which 
was defcnileil by se\ eral b.itteries and a 
battalion, after a seiere struggle; while 
12 (lerman battalions attacked Ramillies. 
which was stoutly held by the Irish Urigade, 
General Overkirk moving up on the left 
bank of the Meliaignc, charged as soon as the 
capture of Taviers enablefl him to pass that 
village. He routed the front line of I-'rench 
cavalry, destroyed two battalions of Swiss, 
but was then driven back, trang saved from 
destruction by fresh squadrons, which were 
Ie<l forward by Marlborough in iMjrsim. In 
the hand to hand tighting which ensued the 
Duke was surrounded, aiul being rt^cognised 
by I'rench Dragoons, was attacked by several 
men, and fell from his horse when attempting 



■t: 






>■> 



^ 



1#^^% 



THE CAVALRY CONFLICT 



W1 



* I'' 



.^^>/ 






BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



,„ cross a -litch. Hi. «amvle, '"«■"■" ,^ 
greatlv encmrago.1 his squadrons, w U, 
cluseil' up around the Cummandcr-m-Chit . 
Now zo fresh scinadr.ms craing up from the 
Mehaigne bank, Marlborough ^ "'""'" ^ 
charge on tl.e French right, aud drove all its 
caX awav, they leaving infantry alor^. 
These were now ridden over and destroyed. 
The Irish Brigade garrison of Ramdhes, who 

had fought hand to hand l-'»-»"^; ™ 
seeing this disaster gave way. When \ dk 
,„i s.aw that his right Hank was turn.l he 
gave orders. - Change front, r.ght back, 
pivoting on .\nderkirk and trying to re- 
form h?s right on Gen,mpont. His baggage 



all the French troops near at hand, and iv. 

some battalions which, having retreated . 

lier, were moving back in good order, w.: 

ridden over by Marlborough's victor,.. 

squadrons and sabred. The fugitive army 11. 

to Todoigne. and the British troops puKi:. 
them the cavalry only halting at Meldeit i 
miles from the battle-field, at 2 .■>.>!. ne« .u; 

The French casualties were over IJ.00.1 
addition t.. .'.000 men made prisoners dup' 
the pursuit, while the British losses «. 
only between 4.00" "'"' 5.«u" "n™- 

The effects of this disaster were gn 
Louvain fell twenty-lour hours after I 
battle, and then in successiim l.ru^^. 



form his right on Genmipont. "'^ '"»>'"^;; ,i„„, ,„,, ia,„ Antwerp. Marll,o,.„„b - 
which had been parked there, P--f *^ f^ps evied forced contributions in Iro,. 
tr<H.ps from getting into the < «"«' '"'^ , """ ■ " — ~' '■•'" 



tion The British regiments had at this 
inie been halted on the slope to the east 
of Offnr, since the battle began four lumr 
earlier and were now allowed freedom of 
act on They forded the Little Cdieete^ and 
ca ied Offu/with a rush. This disheartened 



troops iCMtvl »"'. , T 1 , ,1 

Flanders, and Ostend surrendered July 1.11. 

The nuke had led his triumphant tronpj 
in one month frimi the Meusc to the sv.. 
and when the armies went into vvii^tcr 
quarters France retaine.1 only l-harkr.i 
Luxemburg, Mons, and Namur. 







'~^~^^-"" " P.»N OF THE BATTLE OF RAMILU.E.. «»V .3,.. .:« 

734 



l^^aCTS^l^ 



SECTION II.-F4NIV 



OUDENARDE 

BY FIKoDMARSHAL SIR EVEI.Y.V WOOD, V.C, 



G.C.B. 



THE campaign „f .;„;, which „\Kna\ 
l.rilhaiitly l..r tiic Allies, had ended 
disastniusly ; in Spain, im the Rhine, 
ill tlie south u( I-rance, tliere nere successiie 
disasters to the .\llieil arms. 

.Marlborough was more successful at this 
time in his diplomacy than his .Allies were on 
the Ijattle-lield. and the Iiuke with great tact 
an.l persuasive ability averte.1 an alliance 
which was nearly cemented between Charles 
XII. of Sweden and Louis (Juatorze. 

The .States, on seeing that .Marllx>rough's 
enemies in London miglit liring about his 
downfall, and realising that it would cause 
the collapse of the Grand Alliance of the 
Confederated Powers, l>egan to consider the 
ailvisabihty of making terms with Louis 

Marlliorough had further difficulties arising 
fri.ni quarrels between the Emperor Leopold 
and the Duke of Savoy, which induced the 
Emperor to negotiate with Louis Huatorze 
Then Charles XII. of Sweden, arridng at 
Iiresden with his victorious army, frightened 
the Emperor and the Oerman Princes, and 
the I lake of Marlborough with great tact and 
ililJoraatic ability put an end to the negotia- 
tions between them. 

W'hen Marllxirough returned to London. 
November. 1707. he had more difficulties, 
»nd even of a greater nature, than he had 
fvrnTienced on the Continent, for his political 
enraiie.s contrived to ll,t on him the blame not 
only for the want of success of the Allies in 
the Netherlands, but als.i for the disasters 
" Alma.ua, before Toulon, and for the vic- 
toni-5 „f the Erench over the Confederate 
ttiKips in Cermany. 

Ill tlie spring of 1708 the Duke of Ven- 
onmr. acrompanii.d to his great annoyance 
1>' the Duke of Burgundy, had 100,000 men 



in the Netherlands, and the Duke of Ber- 
wick, the \ict'>r of \liii-ui7-i li.„i „ 

"-^ 01 .\nnanza, had ;o,o(x» on 
the Lower Rhine. 

The Duke of Marlborough met Prince 
Eugene at the Hague, April, 1708. ami thev 
elab.rated a scheme for the hnasiou of 
France, but Prince luigenes army was, as 
usual, late m .assembling, ami the liKctot 
of Hanover and the States-Cenetal were as 
usual, obstructive ; moreover, now some of 
the great cities were no longer loyal to their 
own people. 

The Emperor in 1707. feeling very grateful 
to the Duke of Marlborough, had offered him 
the lucrative ap[iointnient of \iceroy of the 
Spanish Netherlands. The States-General, 
however, would not assent to this arrange- 
ment, so the Duke declined the apjiointment, 
and the conquered territory had since been 
admuiistered by a mixeil and very unpopular 
form of Groveniment. which gave rise to 
disaster in the following campaign. 

In May. 1708, \'endome. cimcentrating his 
100.000 men behind the Aisne river, south 
of Mons, advanced towards the torest of 
Soignies, Marlborough concentrated 70,000 
men at Hal. Prince Eugene's army being 
still outside the zone of operations. The 
Duko of \'endome now moved in a north- 
easterly direction to threaten I.ouvain. 

Marlborough anticipated Wndonie by a 
forced march to the Dyle river, but \endome, 
who bad lieen intriguing with the inhabitants 
of Ghent and Bruges, who were much dis- 
Siitislleil with their forai of Government, 
marcheil rapidly in a north-westerly direc- 
tion, when both cities of Bruges and Ghent 
.admitted Erench trcxips. The citadels, how- 
ever, of both cities where the Allies had 
as-sembled their parks of artillery, remained 
in the hands of the Allies. 



BT^ITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



MarlborouRli trie<i to brinR Ve-.uU.me to 

action. l,ut UiW. .md the French >vcrc too 

supenoi in nu-.nlKTS to justify an attack on 

an entrenchcil p.sition which they ha,l taken 

up at Al.«t. on the Uen.let rivet, where \ en- 

dLe covercl the sieges of the cita lels of 

Bruges an,l C.hent. ami threatened Urussels. 

The Duke of MarlborouRh cnvereil Brussels 

from a position he took up at Assche, \ .«■ 

dome was arranging to assault Oudenarde 

which was weakly fortilie.l and held l,y a small 

garrison, when Marlborough sent L"r<l l-han- 

d,.s to hold it with all the men whom he coald 

collect from neighbouring posts, Mid thus, 

when Vend6me's t'oops arrived befor- ( )uden- 

arde, he found the place too stror.^ to be 

carried liv an assault without s.i-ge operatnais 

and sent back for artillery to Touraai, 

Marllwrough now became ill from fever, 
but Overkirk acte.l loyally fi>r him, and Prince 
Eu-ene. who had arrived at Maastricht with 
his mounted troops-the infantry, even after 
making long marches, being still far behmd 
—rode on with a small escort, and reached 
Marlborough's camp July 7th. in time for 
the impending battle. 



Oudenarde 

The town ot Oudenarde lies on low ground 
in the vallev of the Scheldt, which Hows there 
from south-west to north-east. The Xorken 
river which rises near Oycke. runs nearly 
parallel to the Scheldt, which it joins below 
Gavre l"rom Ovcke. which stands on the 
highest ground of the battk-fielil and about 
three miles to the west of Oudenarde, two 
small streams rising near the Norkeu run 
nearly at right angles away from it, and 
through Eyne into the Scheldt. 

There is a successitm of hamlets facing the 
Scheldt and parallel to it. Mooreglicni. Bevere, 
Groeuewald, and Heume, the former being a 
mile upstream of Oudenarde. and the latter 
three miles down the Scheldt, all about a mile 
from the waterdine. 

When Marshal Vend6me learnt that the 
Allies' cavalrv were across the SclieWt. he 
rode towards the river, and from the high 
ground above Evne saw that the enemy's m- 
fantrv were still far hack, and he directed that 
all the hamlets facing the Scheldt should be 
occupied, sending 7 battaUons to hold Heume. 



iM.rtunatelv for Marlborough the Duk^ ■ : 
Biirgundv. heir to I.ouis XIV.. and l.'>- 
maiider-in-Chief of all his armies, waspro,.: i 
and exercising his right, he detennincl : . 
form a line of battle ..a the left bank of 1, . 
Norken. two and a half miles Ironi the ScIkI ■ 
The seven battalions ordered by MatM. ,. 
VendOme to hold Heume marched in error ■ 
Eyne. tliree-iiuarters ot a mile farther s.>;r : 

The Battle Begins 

The advanced guard of the Allied infamr; 
reachod the Scheldt at i I'.M.. crossing b> 'x 
Oudenarde bridge and pontoons, which h.ai 
been thrown over the river by Lord Cadog.ia, 
\ brigade, under General Sabine. consisti:i5 
of the I.iverpoid Regiment. Royal Welsli .M 
IniskiUing Fusiliers, attacked Eyne vigor, lu-ly 
in front, and the cavalry winch had pas*.J 
through Oudenarde. forming up in the 1. J. 
so demoralised the seven battaUons tl.at 
three surrendered, four broke up. and wire 
pursued and slaughtered by the cav.dry 
under Prince George .if Hanover ll,.ter 
George II.). He having broken some Iriiicb 
squadrons, drove them across the Xorken. 

\t 4 l-.M., when the -Wlied infantry were 
still crossing the Scheldt and Cadogan li,.J 
onlv two battalions in Groenewald. one iinii: 
m advance of Evne. the Duke of Burgundy 
advanced his right wing, and M.irsh.il \ .11- 
dimie. conforming, brought forward his Idt, 
but the Uuke sent him orders to eiitrnicli, 
Marloorough sent up 12 battahons to 
Groenewald. and the Prussian cavdr) 
formed up to the north of Heume the 
British infantry occupying Bevere. on tbe 
left flank, at the same time. 

Tiie two battalions .if Prussians. alt'.i..iwil 
attacked bv io of the French, held .111 «rth 
grand courage in Groenewald until su] ]"•«> 
came up. which prolongeil the Hue to S.lia«- 
ken .m the left ..r s..uth flank, where macb 
hand t.i hand fighting to.)k place, 111 «1*>J 
the Roval Scots (I.othian Regimen! an.. 
the Buffs (East Kent Regiment) wen: !»ll> 

engaged . 

The Duke of Marlborough and I'nn« 
Eugene had ridden t.igether so far, Int." 
Duke now rent his colleague to comni ml . - 
the right, supported by Count Lottu'a .in- 
20 battalions which, hiring pierced tlimaa 




rrom a piclure hv R r..i„.. iii-_ , ,. - . 



picture bv R. Calon WoodvilU, R 1 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



ll,c I'm.cl. fast li.K-, vvwo M,p,K,rt>.-.l In' 

„c,. r.c.n-.,l bv . ,k...lly v„lK-y |."."c'l ■ 
l,v.n..,KinKl..h....n.mks:uiah.-.l>;c-,. . ..1 

l.-,..,Kl, lI..v,..I,..H C.»alry .m.l .Ir.v.n Lack 
umiltlKvn..,dK.lCom,tI...<tum..,.fcmt . 

Wliik- rriiii.-.- ICuK^li.' »;is i-ni;aKl"K tilt 

.^k' t'...,.s a' '^— f; ^-::;v 

,„,d, „,,. attackii« tl.uso at l.i,.i.cu»..l,l, 
„„„K.hi.b.r«r,nm,l.o,h.wcslvvar,l..»- 
loc.ki.« SchacrkL-n alM IkotmAvaUl. Ilia. 
the l--rcncl, l.-.-at Lack all the attacks. 

■riK- IHik,- "f Marlli.ir.mKli luiw mumi 
(kiicral (ivcrkirk uii.kr ever "f tlic 111" 
near Ikvcro, callol linger (.-mitcr, as lar jvcst 
"",,vcU.. well .,utsi,k. tlic Ihikcof Bvir. 
cuii.lvs H«lit llai.k, au,l fallliii; "n it. aiul 
alsn on the rear. s,>rr,m.i,le.l the tr.,.,ps. 

Marshal Ve.l4.„,le.s.ei,lU what was. »:c.,r- 
rhi«.trk.ltol.ell.tlietr,«.liS,mtlierislltl.y 
„,lvai.cii,R fnmi Lchiild the Norkeil lea,l..i« 
hi„„eU- 111 Ina.t; l.«t «he„ , ayllRlit fa<k->l 
i„t.. .lark at <) v.yu. the Alhes' liauks had so 



s„rr.nm.le.l the French that Marll.or,. 

an.l laiKciic "'•"'c 'l'^" """''* "''•"'■■ 
the sifetv of their own men. 

Marshal \-enil..me eilileav..uK-.l t.. k. 

his men tcRc-tlier till .layligllt t„ act ,. 

rear-KUar,!. Imt the IHike ..f Hurs'.: 

„r,lere,l a retreat, ami the men stre ,. 

awav to the n.irth in the itarkness makn,. 

Chent. Thev ha,l l.ist e.,hesi..n. and ese, 

with their lives .mly I'V the fatiRue .1 

■Mhe.l tr.H.ps. Nvho hail marched ::■ n: 

in 60 honrs liesides crossmR the xii. 

,„„1 ilso because effective imrsuit w.i- 

practkahle until dawn. The Allied I 

were less than ,i,.ioo ; the French k,st • 

killed and wounde.1, and (M«" prisoner- 

U .lavliRht 4.1 squadrons of the .\i 

cav dry chiellv liritish. which had oiiH ! 

siiRhtly enRage.1 in the battk. pursued 

p-rench wh.. v;ere tli..r..iis!lily dcm..rah- 

Two davs later Marlboroush eiic.a 

„n I-rcnch' territory, .m the inhabitaui 

which he kvieil cmtributioiis ihis vk 

rt Oudenurik re-established for n tiiia 

IHlkespositi.m in I'URland, and cmse.in. 

also the Grand Alliance on the Conlnu.i 



\ 



\ X ^ W ,,,"'.;'". 



,,--- oS- 



■■fc^-".. 










vim OK THE BATTLE OF OUDENAKUE. lULV ... 

73« 



MALPLAQUET 



BVK,E.O.M.HS.,.,.s,H,.:v..vNWOO..V.C..C.CB 

«Tt-ii-i'l-i'..„ ..r .1 * 



T"^,^ ;"'"" '" '"^ >«""'^ "' France 

■uunil t,) accc,>t rcas..nal,li. t.rms „f , 
lud lx-c,„„, arrogant „i,l, success T 

:::i:::r'""' -'""■'"« '-^iC.:^ 

""». and thev ;::,:,f"! ";"" ir'"™"- 

«'■■«. .MarsLa, I WrrtiT; '""""'' ' 
".n.sf..rn,e,l a nun.l, r of , """""^ 

B. l':;::^1,'''"''■'';•^'^-'^■-"«-" 
«r ■,,:,a'' ^""""""' ■■■"""■"''""-■ 

,.'''■ IHike nmv .Irt-rminiil t- 



cuttinK 



■■■I'f fV„n, 



r.xj 



siutli i,f t|,;i, f,,rtri.„ 
"'^' "''•■■''"' "( l-ranc.- 

'"- d.rX t:'7::^:"'r "■" ^ 

.>,.p..r.„;!i.;:' ■'"'""' """ "- '"»t a Krcat 

^--....H,„:^;:,t.„:i;rrrr'^"™" 

'no ailvancid Kiiards i,f tl, 

uck ,ef.,re.h..l.H,,c,,c,,uIdd,,„,,,L;;k 

Eyne-and „l„aine,l *,„,: mT " 

MarsLal MUars availcl l,in,,s>..lf of „„. i„t,r 

"nmg t.m. to add «r™.Iy .„ ,, J , " ; 

^nad™ccof,„.An,... ,Ic had col:^:' 

to t,o o,H.n„nB,,. In the hishes, poi„t of 
the mam gap. which ivas there l,o,„ 

;;..^a„da,,alffro„. eastt;:;.e;^'tr 

«a. a tr,ple hne of fortihcations, i„ fro, "f 

nehst,.od,,.,,eredans.an,,i„,„,ed,a;e • 

f'<"tof,l,eworte,vasahattervof,OKuns 
n,e r,„ht rested on the „,,„.! of f ,„ 
nicres. mside which there ,v,s ., y' , 
"faha,,. The west, i,e. the i;;^^'^'^;;: 
sap. ha,: two ,,„, of fortifications faci,!^ 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



h,„ i„..„W .., n-k .he «nc of ^^ 

.1, . . .1. iu<l the extK-nii.- kit "1 ti"-^ 

"^k rest 1. :>™-'"l>. Muml.nthe^. 

*S:;nh:"-'-.u.ee„,re„cl„„ent.. 



The Opposing Armies 

(h> September loth Villars ha^ 05^n«. 
men in positinn. covering tl.e roads to Ma. 
Ce Marlborou«l>. who wa, about to a - 

aek him, had o.i.cK^ men, but rather more 
l;«lery. HeleftapartofrrurceEusene^ 

rtirrii:m.= ""B 
Es,nn:.,;'^a:rrSe,r:irno 

anack a once, but the Dutch Deputies as 
Sua! urs d the advantages of delay, »h.ch 
r:u;.dLerinagreatsacrrhceon^^^^^^ 
Before dawn, September nth, I '^™ ^^^ 
vice was held for the troops >« *'»= ^ ' 
,^'^til, and Marlborough supermtended the 
ZhdL of batteries of 40 B^ns u. actum to 
t Tgarnst the french left, and .8 agau.st 

^"If ""oV^^the fog and mist, which till 
th« had been dense, lifted, and the I'nnce ol 
ornge led 3" hattalions and zo ^luadro -s 
SfDutimen, against the I^jmcl-BM. 
and C.umt Lottum advanced with -» ';"• 
::;t,^ Igainst t,. entrendmr.,.. w,nc 
faced inwards on the western side of the gaj 

-r^,:^^r;.ir sidrfaX' :i 

S't,. make a circuit and pass roun^h^ 
!r ;n,„m „f I a I'olie, which was well ovitsuR 
S;r .S Mt' through another o,.n.r,g 

en ins left, had closed on the enem> s works. 



.\s ,hc Austrians, k^l by Eugene. w,.m 
sl,;dvflvard,muchham,K.redbyther.,„. 

t.und. which was serrated "V ---';; ■. 
Streams and covered w.thlm^hw«l.^ 

,„,^ „ith no op,»«"'« »' ;^, X 

within ,0 paces of the iTench « rk , w ; 
thev were received with s.) dead a ^ 'H 

•-.-rrth^'teJ'" .rC- 
^rSirai'-ttwoforceseveuw, 

combined could not gain ground. 

Count Lottum. to whom I.ord (irkno 1.1 
W,;^ the Buffs and Bedfo.lsh^K^«.- 
had no more success, and, despite ,dl 1,. 
enortsof the Allies, the french held on v^ 
S\n»e„ch«ents. WhUe the Buffs w,.. 
wading through a deep swi-nip, I- 1 ru .. 

^-r-Trt:rb:tX:n:;- 

Villars at that >""""="»,<^™«";fi „ ' , 
Duke ol Marlborough advancing t the h. 
f tveral s,,uadrous, and recalled the - 
'.rnlions. The B„«s, who were -,. 
Wft of the Hue of T.ottum s advance^ • 

the l--tenoh entrenchments, and l."tl. .. 
attacking in front at the same time. ... 
heavv Ightiug succeeded in entering ■- .' 
t:;kswUl,adl«nlieldbythePK.,r.l..- 
Ciment, This.suppo^ltobethe... 
regimeiit in h-'ance. rallied "•''";. 
lottum 's Cermans backwards, f.r alt.r u 
tl^g f - a few minutes, and hgliting -. 
tu" to tree, the Vicar.lie men came I ... 

and reoccupied the works. 



The Prince ol Orange Attatk 

The Prince ..f orange l..sii.g p.. 
verted his intende.1 .lem.ms.i.a,. ... .- -■ 
realattack..nthe h-rench right l-s...' 
„.o..d of 1 .ugnie-res. The Pnnce per- 

::rhi:.efaompose,..Tu,,i,.ir.,n.- 

Hepburn-. Regnueius in "' ' , 

vo'ing Marquis going on well m ft. ...t 
cir Alongside the Scots, and m 
Miind, went forwa.l ^^ J^Jl' 
Cuards .\s the ..ttacking force Uos I 
wS^s nearly aU the Stafi o the . 

orange were shot down, and Ins .• 
Sw but he went on in front of^h. 
and though whole ranks were swept.. 
?he French, carried the first entrench . 



Section U 



MALPLAQUET-SEPT. 11th, 1709 



Karlv 



< frcmt, l)ut could net nL.ki. tin- 



The French at this p„i,„ wore c.,„„„„,„k,l the .„in,v 
l.y a rc-markahle ,„a,. Marshal liouffk-rs. Zk 
awl svcty-scveu. aii.l crippled with ,.,,,,1 r, ., , 

lie had „.,tai„ed leave t, Ln- i„ ,^ ,■ ""^ "' ^'■"lbor„u«h and Prince 

hattle under '" ""-' ■■•"-™^- "™ ""l-' up and restored „r,ler. 

his juilii.r, 

Marslial \il- 

lars, and ua^ 

so popular 

Irom his de- 
ter ni i n e d 

courage with 

the t rool)s 

t li a t their 

enthusiastic 

cheering 

"hen he 

came into 

camp. 4 ,s 

hours before 

the liattle, 

h a d caused 

the Allies to 

stan.l to their 
arinsexlwct- 
ilU an at- 
tack. The 
old man ral- 
I i e d the 
troops be- 
hind the 
eiitrcncli- 
"»>;! which 
i>'i te's de- 
t ^ r 111 i ,] e (] 
CoUMi;e had 
5aiind, an.I 
then arlvanc- 
'"■i drove 
h.uk the 
■^lli' - anni- 
h i I ,L t i n K 
tile Uutch 

•'.U.il.ls, who 
I'lSt h.oix) at 

">■■' I'hw, th^- Scots suffering nearh as 

»vei,h| 1'>-l''li'irdiiie diexi in tht works 

"■'I' Ins c^wragc. to a great extent, had 

> >kd rw Prince of Orange to capture. 

t,,.'- "'^«'- though young and incompe- 

as hi„,e. auj seizing the colours of 

''^iment, he advanced almost alone up 

741 




iiTLK or MALPtA^OtT. septhmbeh 
WOUNDK 



i;»: CHEVALIER ST. GEORGE 



\illars had been pressinj; H..ulllers for help. 

but he was t nucli occupied in repulsing 

the I'rince of Oranges attack, to sjjare 
ally troo|is. and while Count I.ottunis and 
Schulenberc's men were slowly gaining 
ground I'.eneral Withers was turning the 
extreme French left Hank. Marshal Villars 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



sent the Irish Brigatk and sirae I-rench 
regiments fn.m tlic eentre .if his i)..s.ti..n 
til meet tliis uutlUuildns n.ovemtnt^ They 
charged gramllv down and .li..ve Wlthersliack 
into the forest, where, however, losing their 
fornii.ti.m, they were no limger effective. 

Prince Eugene liastening up to rally gen- 
eral Witherss column, was shot in the head 
but did not quit the held. Withers brought 
up the l8tli Roval Irish against the trench 
Royal Regiment ..f Irelanil, l)eat it back, 
and pursued it for some little way. Prince 
Eugene and Marshal Villars now met face 
tn face, and the latter was hit in the thigh 
and presently was carrieil away. Marshal 
Boufflers assuming c(mimand. 

The Duke of Marllmrough then sent up at 
•■ the trot ■ the 40-gun battery, which came 
into action within the French lines just as 
I ord Orkney's British brigade carried the re- 
dans and Auvergne's Dutch cavalry passed 
through the entrenchments. The captured 



batteries were brought to bear against tli, 

I'teneh. 

Marshal Boufflers now persiinally led lof 
ward 2..XH1 of the French Cendarmerie .in.i 
catcliing D'Auvergnes squadrons as tlu.. 
were re-forming after paSiiing through tin 
lines of entrenchment, drove them back ui 
disorder. Lord t)rkney's infantry. h<.we\.i 
lineil the French entrenchments on tiu 
reverse side, and held them against thr. 
determined attacks made under the ditv. 
ti,m of Boufilers, The Duke of Marll«.ruu..; 
bringing forward British and Prussian hor- 
was attackeil l.v B..ufflers, who ups*t iIk 
first and second lines, but Prince 1-.iii;it,. 
came up at this immient with the ImlKTi ,1 
Horse, and in company with the I'rniee .1 
Hesse attacked Bouftlers so Wgorously tin' 
at i P.M. he ordered a retreat on Bavay, 

The French lost 12,000 and ,Suo P"*""" 
the Allies lost 20,000. Mons capitulat.^l 
October 20th. 



' 'i'\%£k. «i ° ** <» -a -^V^ 



A. Withers 

B.GAUVAIN 

CWlRTtMBlRG 
D. SCHULtMftERC 
E ■ O'AUVIHONC 
T. LOTTUM 
C. ORKNtY 

I.MtsatCAMEi. 







PLAN OF MAIPLAQUET. SEPTEMBER llth. 17» 
B» pcrmlMi™ !">"■ " Marlborounh'. Camp.iin. (.;. '>■-' •- 



SECTION /.-A/rinc»«, 



THE ZULU WAR 



I-- lS-7 Great Britain, by anni-xinj; tin- 
r,...svaal, m..rally ac«i,t„l tl,.- onus of 
lIK^ 1 .ntler disput.s which had l„nK 
.M-ti-.l l.>u,fen till- BuiTs ,„d the Zulus 
1 iKse disputes ha.l l,.„,„u, «, si-rfous .since 
the ace,ss,„n t„ ^^,,„ „( j;j„^, ^^^^. 

""".'" ;'^l"-""y. IS/S, a C..mmissi,„i was 
upiKauted to rqx.rt on the lK,r,i„ ,,„,,„„„ 
ll.e LomniKsion „,ade its re,>ort in Julv 
"lucl. was alniost entirelv i„ favour of the 
»mte,itio,,s of the Zulu,, hut Sir Bartle 
Here, who ,„ the meanwhile lia.l U-come 
lli^l. Lomniissloner, deemed the decision 
unrur to the KcK-rs. If ,he land in dispute 
«ae handed over to the Zulus, the Boers 
1» imnitahied, should he pven compensation' 
■More-over, heing con\inceil that peace 
cjmlil not he presc■r^■ed in S<.uth Africa till 
till I«.wi-r of Cetywayo had l«n curtailed. 
- ir liarile. when making his award, insiste-d 
W'^i the Zulu military system shouhl he re- 
nt"' 'Med ; that Cetywayo should undertake 
t" allow missionaries to work unmolestnl and 
-t"M't a BntLsh Ri-sident i„ ,,1^ dominions 
-ttt.. should agree not to mohiUse his tr,«,ps 
«itl».ut the cousi-„t of the Council of -he 
nation and of the BhishCoveniment, 

r.. * demands were formulated on Decem- 
'«r nth. Cetywayo heing required to give a 

mZh ''''''•' '° "'™ '"*'"' ""= ""'^ "' "'= 
T|» Zulu King returned ir- answer. 
n„ r.lore. at the hesinnin.^ of i,S;9. Great 

"nt.,„i went t,> war with him. 



""■"'""'"" "'■ '!■'■ ^tal,l,i,,g assc-gai a 
"''''"'" ''".'"" "■ "'^' sh-.ft tlian the old 
U.tass.^,,,„„,,,i„„,„i,h.,l„„^,,, ,„,,.;„ 
h<Ie, ^. that It could he „s.-d as a l.oice or 
•'■".'"'■' -'" "ther words, he hnoured si, ,ck 
tactics. CetjTvayo. while continuing ,1,,. use- 
' """ "■'■■'I'"", snccecled also i„ , ,|ui,,pinE 

-my of his regiments with ,irear,'us"a"d 
enforced the strictest discipline throughout 
■tie ai.i,> prese-rx-ing intact the elaborate 
miht.,ry svstem of his pre,l«-essor. 

RcEimental Distinctions 

in;':;rr^.''';""™'—M.t apart in 



Ctljwayo's Army 

1-v.r since ,he days of Chaka. who reigned 
f».. v,o to jN.S. the Zulus liad been esL- 
"arhke people, and their miUtarv 
ilthough it declined somewhat after 
"eatli. had been raised by Cety- 
;Ui e^■en higher .standard. 
' 8'eat iimovatiun had been the 



tiall 
power 
Cliak., 
«'ay . 



/43 



"..l«ary kraals, the memhers .i .Jch in- 
diMdual regiment heing men all much ol ,in 
"Ke; and warriors were not allowed to 
ratirry till they had dislingui.shed themselves 
■u action. Then they might he transferred 
to one or other of the ro>.d regiments, .md 
ticcrdetl the highly prize-,1 priMkgeof taking 
"ue.s to themselves from among the 
daughters of the men belonging to s..nie 
regiment specially selt-ctcl hv tile King 

So strictly was this marriage prohibition 
enlorced. that in IS7(,Cetywa^o had a nuniKr 
ol girls massacrcil for no other reas-,.- ,!,„, 
that they had marrieil men of their , age 
mstv.ul of an older regiment for „l.,,m the 
King llad designated them. 

The Zulu regiments were each commaniled 
!>>■ an Induna, or chief, and varied in strength 
from 400 to 2.000 men. food („r four or fiv^ 
days heing carried bv women. The latter 
were nearly as strong as the men. and conld 
walk 40 miles when carrving su|)plies to tlie 
arm>-. Herds of cattle were dri%en In- lads 
t.io young to bear arins. Hospitals" were 
unknown among the Zulus; nor was any 
prm-ision made for the care of the wounded. 
The numerical strength of the army at the 
begmning of the War o- ,iijr, has been vari- 
ously estimated, but according to tlie Ix-st 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



if 



authnriti.s it totalk-l from 45."'» «" 5".°"" 

""i", (X-t..lKr. 187S, Climcl r.volyn \V.)0.1, 
wl,„ ha.l iiiurdi.,! half his l.attali..n. >,.ih 
|i«ht Ii.f.uitrv, ami a hattcry-hoth ot 
which ha<l 1.C1-.1 under his cmmaml 
thr.m«h.n.t tU. Caika \Var-tr.>m KmK 
Williams To»ii, Calw C.l.my, tc I trvcht. in 
the Transvaal, some ,V>" n"'^'^ '""'' '"■'^' 
comman,! of the other half-battalum winch 
was at Newcastle, in Natal, amU trc-cht. 

Ceneral the Honourable 1-, Thes.«er 
Commander-in-Chief in South Africa, asked 
Colonel WcKxl to raise, if inissilile, a 
volunteer dviUan force to liol.l Lunehers, 
a C.erman settlement, from winch Kma 
Cetywavo li,.d sent orders that the Colonists 
were to depart. Witch doctors were Romg 
rmnd all the kraals d.Ktoring the warriors, 
and war was imminent. 



Dispute Between Zulus »nd Dutch 

There had iKen a dispute between the 
Zulus and the Dulcluiieii who had for 
minv ye"s pn^roached on Zululand ill the 
winter, that is from Al.ril till October ; for 
when the pasture on the high veld m the 
Transvaal dieil (hwn, the Ilutchmen used 
to drive their cattle into northern Zululand, 
out now, under pressure of threats, they had 
withdrawn their cattle, and the Zulus had 
(lestroved all the homesteads on what 
was known as the Zag ra<l, or huntini; road, 
which runs from east to west, fnnn I.uneberR 
to the Bullalo ri\er, the l)ounilary of Natal, 

1 unebers was, however, outside the dis- 
trict in dispute, and Cohmel Wood, realismB 
the imlK-issibilitv of raising any civilian 
force in the sparsely populated district, 
and knowing the im|x.rtance that the High 
Conunissioner, Sir Hartle I'lere, attached 
to the Cermans being adequately protected, 
took two companies of his battali-m out 
cf the three then at Utrecht over the moun- 
tains to l,unelK-rg. 

In ad.lition to the p<ditical importance 
of retaining the Cerman settlers on their 
farms, l.uneberg was also stratepcaUy 
iniportaut from it Ix-ing on the direct track 
to Swaziland, the inhabitants of which were 
Hritish allies, and a year later jomed in 
an attack on Sekukumi. whc for scmie years 



had delie.l the lioers, oblighig them to r. ■ 
tire fr.)ni his momitain fastnesses (m m 
dilTerent occasions, 

Col..iiel Wo..d, preceding the two coi;i 
i«nies of his battalion, nnle out unarm. , 
with a black hiterpreter to interview M,.ii 
yoba, the representative of Cetywayo, «!i • 
iiad coiivevwl the Kings ,.riler, given wi.l. r 
threat .if exterminati.m, for the Cerni.n;- 
to leave theii settlements. Colonel W."-l 
persuade.1 M,,.iyoba, who. although escorts. 
l,y 100 armed warriors, was at first vei;. 
nervous of being arrested, that the det^ie!i 
ment brought to the se-ttlement was lor d, 
fence ami n.it for .leliancx-, and six weeks lat.i 
the Zulu King sent tlie Col.mel a mess.-.' 
apologising for having ordere.1 the (,erm,u!. 
to ilepart. alleging that he <Ud not ki."» 
when he gave the order that Lunelxrg l^..' 
in the Transvaal, 

Colonel Wooil. November 14th, r..de t 
Wessvlstroom for the double purpose' .1 
purchasing ox trans,«rt ami to emleavnm 
to imluce the iK.rder Dutchmen, who -.ur. 
interested m the tiuestion of the frontal 
dispute to join his command m the ev( iil "■ 
a Zulu war breaking out. The Ilutehnun r. 
that district decline-ll to do so, but the Col-»^ 
learnt that if he could persuade Aildru- 
Pretorius, who lived to the north of l.,mp 
Nek, which diviiles Natal from the Tr,iii- 
vaal, that others would lie likely to foil"' 
any cimrse which he might adopt, and s' 
Colonel Woo<l rode northwards a few diiv< 
later, after giving I'retorius due ra.tae i< 
ills intended visit. 



Pretorius and Colonel Wood 

The Boer Leader had collected 
of his neighbours, who teceiveil the 
so rudely that Pretorius apologised t' 
attitude and want of hospitality, w 
attributetl to the intense hatred th 
felt for all Englishmen, He gave a deli 
fusal of anv help. The purport of I'r. 
reply was, alth.mgh he realised the in 
danger to his countrymen from Ce 
whose forces, as he helieveil, would an 
the British troops, yet he had promi' 
his countrymen ivouH take no steps 
to amity with the British untd Hk 
of Messrs, Joubert and Kruger, v 

744 



s,,\-er;il 
C, ,1oik1 
,r llKi: 
iioll '■■' 
It til.- 
iiitt t' 
■l.iriu^- 
raine," 

.VlVilV' 

laliil* 
;.d th- 

IcaA- 
, retu" 

,10 I1-" 



Section I 



ti"]l 



THE ZULU WAR-1879 



' ' "/"K''""! to soc the Sicrutarv ui St ,te I-,,, 

"■ l.'.l„ni«, ),„,,;, ,„ / "' '"■"f fatlier never br 

, ,"■ ti- Tr..„sv'.l a,';X:,""- """''"'■ """^V '- 'he 

;■ '"' "'""'■ " '"""'Kilt latiT. i,i,l„ce,i 

;.l 1.™, „,assuca,l vrith ntl,.r li, ,,; t 

■stahlislKil a sxstuu ,.f 



MoJcrn 



Tilt Cnlcn-I lia.I 

cspionilRe ill Zulu- 

lanil, the incnihirs 

of wliich gave liini 

accurate informa- 

ti'iii Juriiij; tin. 

K.ir i3tn!|)t on „iie 

occasion. He 

Icinit that Ccty- 

»a\ij had iiroin- 

■«1 Sirayo that 

lie njula refuse 

the High Commis- 

Amer's licniaiul In 

K've him u|) to the 

irtjiemor of .Vatal 

<•" trial, Tliis r, - 

fiisiti was one of 

the ultimate causes 

"f thenar. Col.inel 

«"""il, the vear 

after the war, 

Iramt from Sirayo 

iiii't from one of 

I"" sons Jlelolca- 

^"lu, all the cir- 

runistances of the 

"■' in which 

I'lyo was accused 

"f murder 



:hi.m, .ind he had pai,| 
know t,,a, ,:;■; I,;, _,'";'>'■"' father 

shot-,hei„!':"..'^;i:;i;ri,:'T'-'"« 

Kt;v^r;:^,;:;;x,---"--">:!:: 

'"■'"'"''""' "'l"""lt" General Tl,esi„e, 
O" jamiar\' utji 



The 

*;'"7"™*"^-^K<^'lma„ „hose,li.,rie, 

^"'1 ve' L „ °"'T- '•»«'"» ""I'ortant 
Md.r'.L""'"'''^'-''''''' many wives, 
tie, ,i'7"-8""""t™. tiring of the 

=C".Wed WW , '""" ""'>• ■"■■W™> ^»-, ab- 
Natd ■ ,!; ° ■■"""^ ^"'"^ "'■" lived in 

, ' "=* ""n^s the Buffalo river 

■■kazulu followed them with an armed 
»"d, talcmg the women across the f ront- 

iulu soil, there shot them Colof,„l i ', """ '" "'" "tountei 

'' -w him, " m„ an yZnotZl zT "" '" "" '"'^"">- "=>■ 

i"en as well > " A _, . smioc Zulus. 

/-IS 



.M. 
parf 



tlliit he had re- 
eiied reli.ilJe in- 
tellujeiice that 
'-itjiia.voiiitende.l 
the first attack 
shouH be made on 
■'^' '• ,! column, 
"'hich. entering 
'■ " ' n I a 11 d I, V 
<"rl;.» lirift, was 
' loving towards 
'•■Muihlwaiia.Th.-t 
'■■yl.''loi,elH-,,,„| 
' "o 'i;i,] eliten 
Xi;hil;Mid J.inuar 
-l:d witli tile I ;f 
■'"'1 'K'tlll.igllt !■, 
fai.lr\', four seven- 
IHiijiider guns, and 
■1 I'ody of liors^,. , 
men, wliieli \aried 
ftoln live to eight 
hundred nan, met 
I.otil (.■Iiehlisforil 
a few miles from 
Korke's lirift iiiiv- 
ing ridden on in 

->..inn. Which, owing ,„";h:";:; ^le';;, 

t- ground, could only accnipli.h a fe^ 
™^^."ly. the wagons hemg'necessar: 

tia t!/,n ""■' '"''"""' "■ 'h- '■■«ivral 
No .I'^otrmm™^- '■"■''* ""■'''''-"->' 

dire^'tiot '"'"r '""™' "' " "0«ll-easterIv 
J ration, and on ,he K,th Colonel Kuller 

;;rrri"!!"i-""« —a. driven 

!>trang body uf 




LORD CHKLMSKORD 



thnt « 1. '"''^ "^ replied "< 

»« >vould not have been rigit. for 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



p,i„ Mountain Were aaylwl,t..n.ldrivin. 

BliBUt rosist.nc.. January .4lh tho clumn 
:tu*,l an,l aeu.au.,1 .a.ly, .«n a, . 
.laylklit, tlK- Makulus, a.,.1 part, ..i tile 
NlKh^-io an,l IMluk,, cor,... al«ut fc.ooo 

null ill all- , . , . ,. ,1,. 

Just as t\iL- attack was tang made In tl'c 

m.th I.isht In- 
tan try. ail- 
\aiicini; ill 
lim-, ami the 
Zulus were rc- 



.itan<Uii« atimit tw„ n.iUs behind Kan.la.l.. 
Hill was el..lllea with I'ees, winch |.r,.vl.K,l 
„„,,,k. Urew.«.a f-.r the clunu. fur the next 
three iii'inths. 

■riiis ildininalins l««itinn was not reached. 

however, fur a week. The wauuns carryui, 

„o tuns more than their fair lu.id. the ..se, 

could make but very short marches. aaU 

It became IK- 



tri 



atini; 



fast as tlley 
could K". a 
111 e s s e u K e t 
roile u]! be.ir- 
hii; a brief 
note telling of 
the ilisast.r 
which hail oc- 
curred at 
Isandhlwa u a 
two days l>rv- 
viouslv 

C ol o ,1 e 1 
Wood was 
now in a ditli- 
. cult l».sitiou. 
because al- 
thouKhhehad 
built a tort 
.1 1 '1' i u t a ' s 
Kr ;al. on the 
r mvolo si 
river, yet the 
liosition was 
too ad\auced. 
coiisideriuK 
tlie disaster to No, .i column, ami there 
WIS moreover, no firewood ill the nelRl- 
iH.urhood. He ha.l. however. l-laced in the 
fort no tons weit-ht ol su|.|>hes. which he- 
was unwlllniK to sacril.ee, Tiel Vvs and 
lus bur«hers, who had very liKhtly loaded 
waRons, each head of a family havuii; a 
Wllion to himse-lf. loaded them up each to 
Sa,m lb, weiBht. ami by nniyiiiB very si.ntt 
imitneNS the ciluinn eventua'lv *ook up 
i„ ,K,silion mukr ihe Ka Uawaiie Mouutam. 
on a lull c.dled Kambula. The mouutaiu. 




the coleinu of march on 
uml when -the alarm" w.is i;iven b- 
buKle sound. ■■l..H.knut lor cavalry. :.;. 
of waRons laagered without further •■> 
and without actually closniK up- he. 
wis llwavs formed hi an oblons; of w... 
iusi.le winch the horses and oxen .' 
kraaled. After the disaster t.. J^ 
i,.lumn at Isi.n.lhlwana. th.' advance : 
of iw.. cmpa.iies iltew up their wai;. 
:,, „, form a l.asti..u at the auR cs 
obloun nearest to the enemy, and tin 



■M^MMMiH 



Section I 



tl.c seni„r .ifficers frn„,T rd,en„g 

ll"s infLnuaticn e„abl„i 0.1„„d \v,„„l 
0.1muii,"wlnlfaIHl„ Ti ""i- Hyins 



THE ZULU WAR-1879 



M..dern 
> ■'■'> '"' '»o ,h,.,s' full r.,ti„„s. 



The Commissariat 

I., tl,. ,ve. s.,il ,,,,,„,,(,, ,„,,;^,,, 

■Ik- ' c,« ""'""^ariat bakers, with 

'ritl, ,, ""'■ ""'*■■-' "" nmle „„r„„s 

«ork,, excavate tl,e site „f the „ve„s 
J ' ..J^ a <,ua„ti,v..f .,ry w„,„I „.^ 
«l... I, rT"" »«-— % t,.,k 
-..I 1, VT '"' '•'''^'' "' ^•'""«' 
'■'kin-!. the ,f "',"■""'"' """■«'"■ 
h.H„- ., " , ' '"'" '•■'"'' *""^-tin..s ,„.„ 
I,i„, ,;"'' ,""-■ f^-'r-K"^.r,l l,„l ,„„ve,l „|T 
""^■"-<:l,easc.s,.rot..,e„ , ,v a, „„„,., , 



The Position on Kambula Hill 

faaRcr wilh a command „f 2,, fc,., ,„,./ 
«^"KU,ni„es„f,irehei„Ki„a/^.' K ; 
"•esterly d.recti.m ; .,„ va ds . i ,, " • ", 
front of the. „,,;„ , ' "■'"''= '" ""■' "Kilt 
into uhidi 'nnn .^'^ "-'V,^''"'^ '■'■'«»■■'■. 

ch d„.n.,.„, and teat. ;L'::r;r;;« 

""",'■'' ""'"'"' H«at dilllcultv, and t e 
-;.lt was that .i„rn,„ the battle ,.,h 
2'(th. although a con.panvh.sideth.l 
wltich drained ,nto the nu „ '^ »«" 

Imvolos, »asnece,sar.lywithdav H^ 
c™j.„y^.,,ati.,„ into the „,a,„L^^ 
>« the Zulus could not move in it ,. .1 

-..le stood .oci„a.iv„.ed;,rt:;.;;=t';j 

movement inside tlie l,i,,er ,.vn„, / 

of the,r backs, was in,p:;SL;r""'""' 
lltere was a clear zone 0. fire l,„„, „,^ 

ma nlaapr for over half a mile north," 
'ml ».uth, except where view was o, J ne .d 
J he^louht. <^ the east side „,;:;;„ 

there was a clear ran.ue of lire for somethine 

'::'::j'ri" "'''"''- ^•'-'■-''" 

ta^c of th.s feature w,s not overlooked but 
-i.e other hand, it was necessarv tot 
e« to a „"od water supply, which w.,s 
'">mdmtl,es.,urcesof,hermv„losi a short 
'l«a„eetotheri«htrearof,l,emainl,,;e 



Till-: OISASTKK 01.- ISA.NDllI „.\N,v 

■' ^'"KI.MSFnK,, IS,, dcsiRiuled fo, eon , 

■'" 'llier chuuns should .nv,„le Farb. i" , ' "' 

'' tl„ lower TuKel., Korke's , ' n ''"""'" "''' '"'''"'' """!'« en- 

:c>u respeet.v^y'lamrt. T - ^,r:ri°'-'^r """H"-! "" 



i.'.ii 



"•' ''trecht respect vei .„;',? 'r™' "''' '^'"'""•'^ «""""■ 
'^"' • -"'"' "'' ""-• '?1M of the month ti,, 

"47 



•itre 



ilunui. 



H'ction I 






THE ZULU WAR-1879 



'">. I-...r„,x,,„s and 2,500 nalivos, u.uI.t 
I.-nl Cliilmsford. I,c,;a„ to niovv fonv.ml 
.Hvanciiij. Irora R„rk.s I )rift-„ lua- n;,^ 
Hll :i small K^irris.,11 c.iujKisid „f ,,,^.„ jr„„, 
tli^' -'4tl, KvKini..,t (1st S„„ll, Walls H„r- 
ikrirsl— to Isaiiilhlwaiia Hill. 



AloiJcrn 

till- camp at Isnn.lhlvi-ana : nor were ad^iuaf 
stq,s takir, by this c..lum.i to asccrtani iIr. 
|«.sm,„i of tile- viiiaiiv 

TlK. Ci-nwal an.l his Stall a,.,,i.ar lo haw 
UM.h.r-.siiraatvd the ,la„,,,rs co„ln.„,i„, 
tli™,. ai„i to thoir lack ,- loKsii;!,! is ,|„,. 




pa-viuus .Noviiiiljcr I.onl Chcliiis 
I'll Issued instrticlions to the ctTi-ct 
"Inn in tlie cue Mi\ 's ct)uiitrv, a dtft-ns 
I"!' should he (ormed at every halt. 
I Ills, iiothiiiK was<lone to fortify either 
I'M) lit Ri.rke'a |lrift,-a |»,»t ,',f -At ,\ 
"»P>'n .ace to the safety of the cohiiiiii_',r 



Vsiui 



the ( 



, 4'> 



■ter which fulli.wed - -. 
K'reater tliaii any tiiat lias eve 
British siil.hers in Afiiea 

liirlv ill the uiuriiiiia of January 2ji„l 
J.ord Cliehnsford iii.ixed soutluvards with 
nart of his force to su|i|Hirt a recoiiii itriiie 
party which he liad sent out two ila\s pn - 
viousiy, Iciviiiv, Lieutenant Cnluii, I rulleliie 
in command of 1 lie camp, then neuipieil In 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



fivecompaniwoi the l-24th, one comply of 
the 'Uth two guns, a few motmteil soldiers, 
amrf.mt companies ..f the Natal XaUve 
Omtmi;ent. 

\ftei I.or.1 Chelmsford's departure witn 
the column, nothing unusual .Kcurred unOl 
S A M when a body ,.t the enemy were s^en 
approaching, from tltc north-east. Lulonel 
Pulleine got his men un.ler arms ; hut pre- 
sentlv t>ie enemy withdrew, , , , 

\t lo A M Colonel IHimford arnvcd at 
Is;m,llllwana from Rorke's Drift with a 
s m a 1 1 mounted 
force, a K.>cket 
Batter> , and one 
battalion of the 
Native Contingent. 
Hearing from 
Colimel Pulleine 
tliat a Zulu force 
had been seen on 
the left front of 
the camp. Colonel 
llurnford sent 
liack a troop of 
mounttd nati\es 
to protect liis 
vvagons,whichwere 
following in rear ; 
then sent out two 
other tnxips to 
rec<mnoitre. and 
advanced himself 
with tlie remain- 

,ler of his force about ti A.M. The morn- 
ing passc-d ciuietly; but at 12 ocl.K-k. 
when the tr.,ops in camp were preparn.g 
for dinner the enen.v suddenly appeared, 
,2,ooo to M.ooo strong; and, a.lvane- 
iuR the horns of liis army, succeeded before 
I io P M, ui enveloping the Itritish camp. 

Surprised, outnumbere.1 by n.ore than six 
to one, and in a p..siti"n in no respect pre- 
pared for defence, the .lefendcrs were eventu- 
'dly overpowered, and a .lieadful slaughter 

"'\ few mounted men escaped, but the 
infantrv were kille.l to a man. Colonel Uurn- 
ford's force, which made a vahant attempt 
to protiHTt the camp, being also anmhdatol 
In ail --.2 otViccts fell ■■:■■■■:'■ >''* mm. half 
of whom belonged to the i.»th Regiment ; 



s.,me 4«i natives als. were killed, 
addition to valuable lives, this di- 
deprive<l the centre column of all its v. 
port, and S.1 made ..ffensive niovemer 
it imp<issible for *ime time to come 

Wlien the camp had be-en carried b-. 
Zulus, Lieutenant Melville, the .Viljut;..,' 
the ;4th, seized the yueen's eolonr 

accimpanied by Lieutenant Coghill, t 

to cimvev it to a place of safety. 

These two officers actually succeed, 

reaclling the Buffalo river and gainii.u 

Natal sli'-'- - 




:ks 



two miles ! .. li .w 
Rorke's I'l* 
Thc-re they ».rc 
overtaken b^ the 
enemy ami ^>a- 
rouniied. liutlh.y 
chose a pli 
Iween two 
for their laslM. 111.! 
and died gall,ii;!l' 
lighting back t 
back. 

The oil.iut »i 
later recnMT,- 
from the b, ! 
the river and t 
stored to the il'.' 
ment. 



PLAN OK THE DEFENCK Ol- RORKES DRIFT 



Daylight » ■ 
failing fast nlv: 
Lord Chelnisforil approached IsandliK^ .:, , 
his return jiairney on the evening of ] 'i>" ' 
- >ml anil as tlie colunm neared tli' 'J™: 
nothing could be seen save the black - n::-. 
of the liills and an occasional party "1 /.■».• 
— silhouetteil against the sky-line ii""'- 
along the clests. ^ 

The coimtrv in the imnu-diate iui,:,i ■ 
hood of llie cam,, was silent and d.-<"> 
for the enemy had fmislied his deadh » > 
and had departed, leaving the place U:.:a> > 
only bv tliose- taking their long, last -Ki| 
The greater number of Zulus had. 'n ' 
ing to their custom after a battle. rebrM. l • 
their regimental kraals, but four ret.i.K... 
f.irniing tlie right horn, which had I '' ' 
little engaged ill the battle, crn>-. - 
Hiiltalo river and attacked Ko.k ■• ; ■ 
75° 



Section I 



,'■""' Chelmsford had learnt about i v m 
"""' *'"" "•■" -"es to the south „f ,,(, 
camp cniluctiug a reconnai,- 
Jiee, that it liad been attacked 
-acl later heard that it lia, 
I'ee.. captureil. under curiou, 
arcumstances. Commandant 
Kapert I.onsd.de, formerlv iu 
she HiKhland Li^ht Infantrv. 
"I>" a» a iuagistrate ivhile 
leaclmg a native continsuit 
under direction of Coliniel 
'••"■'>•" tt«>d. who cora- 
mamled a column in the 
Amatolas, Kastern Kallraria 
li Hi greatly distinguisliL-d Iiini- 
s^lf m lie Gaika War „t 
i\"''^- Mr. Liinsdale went up 
'•' Natal iu the l„,,«, „, 
""'"8 "'"re tightiuK and 
"JS ui i87q commanding a 
J't'aliou of xa.al Ka/irs. 
IK had taken his battalion 
"" '" "'e S"utli of r.san.lhl- 
»;Mia with Lord Chelmsforil 
»"hout appreciating the situa- 
II"", having been "touched" 
'> <lie sun, and was returning 
"euiipiu the afternoon when 
aU'roaching his tent, he was 
^'tt.aked by Zulus, and nar- 
ronlv escaped. 

'•ord Chelnisfonrs colnnui 
R"t Iiack to the vicinitv of the 
ilivaslatcd camp after dark 
•""■I fi.ed some rounds from 
'"' .''""'^'•y ■■■'" it. He se,„t officer, iu i 
"."t,rm Mr, Lousdales re,x,rt, but forbad. 



THE ZULU WAR-I879 



troo,,s „, e,„er ;„„| purp„s,,K. ^ 
lore ih.> hgbt next morning towarc 



Moden 



relied bv- 
.s Rork. s 




'""•"'"• "'• •'°'"<"^ "Ril T, JANUARY „,„. „; 



Illifl 

siglil 



'" '"■''''' >" save the men tile 
'f l.ioo ripped-up corp.ses. 



grue 



THK OKFKNCK ol HDHKKS DRIFT 



lint 
We, 
thi ■ 



'""'' R'"-ti">n at Rorke s llrift, iu i|,e 
"'""1 "f I.ieutenant.s Chard, K K., and 
""ead, 2^th Regiuicut, although it num- 

"nly t;,|,nen, of whom jo were sick 
"*"'.'" ''^•'■I' 'lie enemy at b.iv. reiK-b 
' '*'"'■•'' "' 'Icspcrale asiaiuUs bv „ Zulu 

!""" strong, which had moved <.n to 



u ni.rid, and »a. continue,! iill 4 *„.,„« 
"• nim« On si.v oe-easi„ns the Zulus got 
"llhni the retrenchmeut, of mealie-bags and 
l"«uit tuis haslily i,„pro™,| l,vil,ee,rri 
-■■", but each li„„ ,(,., were driven back at 
be bayouet s poi,„ ; ,,nd at d.uvn thev liuaUv 
Idlew. leading behind ,:so dea.l The 
""•"•'I '""'■s »efe 1 7 klned and „, soi-nded 
Ihe smoke observed in 111, distance by 



Section I 



THE ZULU WAR-1879 



Model 






THK BLOCKADE AND RELIEF OF ETSHOWE 



Al about the timt- «-lien Lord CluOiiisford 
iKgm his forward movement, the riKht 
c.tomn. under Ciilonel IVarsin. advanced 
(mm the Lower TuRela. and liy January 2 >,nl 
lia^l penetrated the eiiemv s ountry as far 
IS Htshowe. Here steps were iminediateiv 
t..:. n to form a fort, with a view to tum- 
lasi the phice into a depot. 

Colonel Tearson received news of what 
lia.i occurreil at Is;indhlwaiia, and was 
warned by Lord Chelmsforil that he must 
be pre])ared to have the whole Zulu army 
down upon him. 

Colonel Pearson thinkinR that Lord Chelms- 
!"r.l would siHin he in a |K>5ition to renew 
his ad\ance, ilecided not to relinquish his 
["'silion at I-:ts!iowe. 

Aeeurdingly. he sent his mounted men ami 
native tr.x.ps hack to NataL and remaiiie,! 
»itli a garrison of i.joo Uuroi)eans and 03 
a.ilives. 

Ill the middle of February this force was 
Kimued in l>y the enem^ . and cut olf from 
oinnnuiiieatiou with the base. 

Colonel (now i-ield-lUrslial .Sir) I^elvn 
\\'no.l commanded tlle left, later I-'lyin^. 
f'luiiia, composed of the l,;th l.iijjit Iiilantr\' 
:>i Sumersetshirej ;inil ootli l.icht Inf.mtrv 
'-«d Cmteronians Scottish Killesl, .Soo Irre- 
uul.o- (lii>rsemen), a 4-Kuu made-u|i b.itteri. 
«i'l ^-xyi natives. He had in the raeanwiuie 
ii'iH ixcellent work in the n.irth. but on. 
■■iMni;- of the disaster to tlie centre cohunii, 
■Hii iixiyruK the warninK sent to Colonel 
i'ii.~a, moved to Kambula Hill (^,v pa^-e 
U7I I'. lure he formed a stronnly fortilied 
"ni|> under the mountain Nuaba-Ka-Havam. 
"" til, lace of which firewood was obtainable, 
iisastet which had occurred at Isanilhl- 
IS not made known in London till 
■ nth, direct telegr ipliic communica- 
•!i the Cape „„t 5rf l,.:vins I'ccn 



Tlu. 



I'.'lii 
i inn r 
t tslal.li 
.1 1 



The news created a profound stir in EiiK- 
land. On the day it was received a Cabinet 
meeting was hastily summoned, and it was 
res<jlved to send a large lK)dv of reinforce- 
ments to Soutli .Africa. 

The lirst two tn«]pships sailed <in February 
17th. the remainder following with all jm.s- 
sible sped : and on board the s s, /),i,ir./.,-. 
which left South.unpton on l''ebrn.ir> 2jth, 
was Prince Lonis .Napoleon, the onlv s<.i'i ..f 
the late bauperor of the l-'rench and the 
Emjiress laiginie. who had been i;i\en [jer- 
mission to accompany the expedition. 

IHiring the months of bVbniarv and .Marcli 
hostilities were susi)ended. m.iinK .ll^il,l; (,, 
tile .state of the weather and the lie.n > ll~,ds 
which pouriii <lown the Huii.do ami the 
Tugela rivers. 

Meanwhile reinforcements !i,„l ,irri\ed 
daily at Ilurban ; and by the eii.! ,,t .Mareli 
Lord ClK-lmsl'ord, having .isseml,l,,| on the 
Liwer Tugvi.i a force coiisistiiiL; "i the 57111 
(1st Middlesex) and olst list .Vrgvll and 
Sutherl.imi) kei^imenls, some 
the both (jrd Kings Koy.il 
ootil Und Wilt.sjiire kegimenl 
togetlier with nuiunted Iron)>v \, .Imueei^ 
and two battalions of the .N'.iiii, Coiiimgent 
-ill all, i,;(^i whites and -^2^o nalnes - fell 
himse-lf strong enough to uiKlerlake the relief 
of I'.tshowe. 

Tlie ni.ireh begin .Maicli 2olii, bul the 
colunui moved Inrw.inl very sloub . pii.givss 
being e.weediiigly dilhenit ui\im to tiie 
heavy riiiis which had teeenth tdkii 

In order to girird against a dis.isUi like 
that at Isandlilwana, an eillroiehed camp 
was forme.l . .cell night, the w.igons benig 
dr.iwn up m ,1 sipiare lornuiion, terme.l 
laager with .1 sheUer ttelleh niM-le No 
tents ware t.ikeii. and the troojis bi\ouaeked 

betWeea eie rt.igons ailii liie siieitiT treiKb 

On April ist the columt, encarai»'d in,,.. 



.\rg 
.oiiip, 
Hide 

ii-l 111 



lies of 
.■orps) 
liulis. 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



. „ '.vtci'ii miles Siom 
the (linRinlovo sti.am, , t..n 

Etshonc. nv.i."tc^l men 

„^:t:rr::tr„co.m,..ue..,onea 

At f' AM. Ill*- .i.'fciuKrs ui 

anJ within a s!,.,t, ome the Jeteu I 

The enemy l'"*"' '"""'" ., „,. 
, .„ r,ro <rom GiitUns Runs. At »" 

Thclte, treneh. nn. '»;"" *>,„t ' vas 
advance, an.l. reahs,nR ""^ ,;'^«t, . «,, 
„„, in vvhieh the asscca. »ouia he 
slowly lecoiled. 



V,,hev fell hack, M.*.r Barrow «th.h 
„:l;'rinian»vehatReat,^m ;; 
„„1 nsing saKr.^ with S."h1 ellect. 

"■^ra:rur.^rr.me.„.a 

"v ,1 forward with a llyu« column ,, 
, ,-. i_..,. The e.irrisim. who 1 
;rh:,^:ri.ottwee.-.ce., 
been sulK-rinR owmK <>■ rt>= .^et^"tl.er 
their cramlied quarters. 



.HEATTACKONTHB.NHL0BANB.MAKCHaS..«. 
'"■^ _j i„, 7„1ms who swar 



Col.mel X\o, •'■""j ,,.,„, ^„„„tain, 
C nnaissiuiee to the („,^^.s 



J K<. 7ii1iis who swam the trtr 
closely pursued by Zu us jl, ^^_^^^ ___^^^^ 

Colonel \V..od rode over the 45 mi 
LuneherR net -"^l.^tc^XsW,' K 
riviuR Column system « "^«'^-,,^^. ,,„,„„,, 
followed in future. -'.'"■■ '"'™\,i„,„n, 
respemsible for that regiment. On Ms 
' . i„n hp founc 



sent a ^ape eai . „..dc bv Cal't.iir, 

camp, under arrangements made D> >. 1 
'^'^ '^ ,._, „„i who was acting 



hill ; the 
Duller to 



against the western face yt th 
ot'her under l.ie„tenant-uW 
operate against the ~«^';;^ ''-■ „„,„ ,,, 

^r Z :tn 1, S the middle of 
^r^roaoteiv-ltvithhisniountedmcn 

'"' , le mihtarv kraals within two 
hame.l .1" 'I'e ni'"'' . v „nl>tila, his 

''-^'''"^rrM,kl,K^^*e-8'''' 



^;:;J"^T:eod."wh„ was ai^ng ^ 
Colonel W.iod as his assistant for poU. 
affairs in SwaJiland. , j 

Next morning Vhamn ='^'f'' *\,^„ ,„ 

if he would be kind «•""«'■ .*°f,,,,„, 
from Zululand his wives, of wlueliicU" 
Wv the number, but es una tu.. 

h,. .bout three hundred, 1"' 
^irt'; Udav, escorted by CO. nu.^^^ 
with «u horsemen, and .ioo "• . , 

:^e„, « ,o had f,mRht =*^""« "' •'^. ""' 
".!„: The distance in a straight 1 
Uhamus head kraal near the sources 

^u^ river, 4S mdes in the he.,rt 



lithe 
Zi.lf 






the c.mpany cr.wsii k, -'■■ ■■, „ 

da.hght, March .3th. m_atVnck^m.__^^_^ 

the c.mipau> was J";'";" " ^.^^ bank 

'^^is, who' ;::l:i-.i ^^'^^^^ "■""«" 



t-^-t there were four r^^eu^.ab,...!^ 

::::;h^'^here-rhamu'swi..;. 
l^ate.1, and it was necessary to trn.t 



754 



1* 

7.A:- 



Section I 



byalh- „f the tribe that thev should not 
c..nvey the i„teUiKe.,ce of the advance of the 
Enghsh force. 

Next ,1a,-, between l.ooo and l.loo women 
and chUdren were brouglit out and marched 
30 miles Wore sunset, some of the chUdren 
heuig only five and six years of age. March 
I'.'i. the commander of the column and 
lae mounted troops proceeded to LuneberR 
to raid the kraals, and destroy crops of 
Imbelmi, a renegade Swati chief, and re- 
turned on March 26th ; for the Commander- 
in-eliief for South Africa-who had now 
0.1 the death of his father, become Lord 
Uielmsford— had written to Col, id Wood 
asking him to make a demonstration against 
the enemy in the north of Znluland, whUe he 
le.1 a oilumn to reUeve No. t column, which 
under Colonel Pearson, had been isolated 
at Ekowe since the disaster to No. 3 colunm 
on Januarj- 22nd. 



THE ZULU WAR-1879 



Model 



Cetywayo's Movements 

Cloncl Wood, reporting that he would 
attack the Zulus on the Inhlobane Mountain 
M,irch 2Rth, mentioned that his last news 
fr»m spies at Uluiidi showed that the bulk 
of Cetyivayo's army was leaving March 27th 
t'l attack Kambula. and that regiments 
compnsed of coast tribes only had been sent 
tn „p,K,se the march of British troops to 
I K .we. 

lliis information was generally accurate 
•t the moment it was dispatched from 
Uundi. li.it for s<ime unknown reason the 
Mu Ki^ng. althouBh all his army had not 
oeen doctored." or.Iered it to march two 
tovs oarher. and its main body left " The 
<.r. il I'laci" eariy March 25th. 

Cloncl Wood had arranged for the troops 
to attack the Inhlobane in two forces the 
»«t<ri, force under Colonel KusseU w.is 
to as^mble to the south-west of, and climb 
to the lower plateau of, the mountain, 150 
l«t I .low the siiramic. It was to make a de. 
oonsir:,t,„„ only, while 500 mount..] troops 
mh' Colonel Bnller. made a real attack 
•ttl.- north-eastern extremitv of the m.mn- 
^ Colonel Russell's force consisted of 
'"T- r ;:r!nnr. „■ uilaiilry. some Lietmans, arid 
"t • -t battaUon of Wood's Xatiye Irregn- 
'" 1.000 strong, and loo of Uhamu's trilie 



Colonel Wood foreshadowed in his orders 
the possibility of the triKips being surprised 
when on t,p of the mountain, and ordered 
both attacking forces to send scouting parties 
forward towards fhindi. 

The Army Leaves Kambula 

The two columns left Kambula at midday 
March 27th. the western column bivouacking 
five miles from the sonth-wistem extremity 
of the mountain, wliile Colonel Buller 
bivouackcl to the south of it, changing his 
position twice during the night to guard 
agamst surprise. Colonel Wood joined the 
bivouac of the western column at nightfall 
March 27th, with his Chief Staff (ISicer 
Captam the Honourable Ronald Campbeu' 
Coldstream Guards, Lieutenant L^•sons 
90th Light Infantry, ai,Ie-de-camp,' and 
-Mr. L. Lloyd, Political Agent and intenireter 
with the Colonel's ,x;rsonal escort, ten ooth 
Mounted Light Infantrj-, and half a dozen 
mounted Zulus, under Umtonga, who was 
half-brother to Cety^ayo and to fhamu. 
The Colonel there met Piet Uvs. ivho. with 
his burghers, was to show B^dvers Buller the 
way up the mountain, ana Mr, Potter com- 
raanchng the ist Battahon Woods Irregulars 
who had often been to the -op of the Inhlo- 
bane. Colonel Wood tliscussid with th-x 
two South .Vfricans the possilnlitv of retiei' 
ing over the Ityenteka Nek in the possible 
though improbable, e^ent of the Zulu army 
appcaring under the mountain while the 
British troops were on top of it. and he 
was satisfial from their statements that 
the retreat over the north face of the range 
was feasible. 

Colimcl Buller at the break of d.-wn 
clambered up a goat path, guided bv 
lict tI>-3, and gauicd tlie summit with 
slight loss. Lieutenant Baron von Stetter- 
cron and two men only being kiUed. The 
suriirise was C(.mplete, and the Zulus were 
swept off the summit, hiding on its nearly 
preci|,it.nis faces in caves mid under rocks 
on the north and south sides of the mouilt.iin 
Colonel Wood rode eastwards at i a.m. 
and just before daylight rnet .-. sqaa.Jron o! 
Irregular hone which had lost touch with 
the remainder of tlie mounted men liuring 
their change of bivouac during the night. 



t 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



.l--^!;'f"!*',";:^ir^uJr.m were 
visible, as tliey g.iU..vea 1 
the m"un'"'"- 



Marching <JP the Mountain 

1 „ 1, 111 been ilnected t" tpn 

became *' *" '"t\,,„^t two hundred 
and precttled it w 

>■"■''■ , ..l,irh h.d hitherto been well 

Tl"i:^'t: Wen'l-" K". an.l the 

"'■"Tt^d;«':ri«niXuti,e 

no which Bnher s n. trM>l>ers. 

. t fi.iK- one ollicer and two i 

loss of onl> oni j^,^,^^,,, 

•'''''^'':1'^Ctthef,tceofthor„onn- 
■rhe Colonel k 1 up t ^^^^^ __^_ 

,,nn,, ,nllinKh.s horse M^^^^^^^ 

,„„iea by '.-""=■""' '•;V,,n who followed 

:::r::.^:-t:r;i^:.:->.»-— "' 



^'"""''■;:t::ii:i w:;:i;:tw ...cu . 
::;-„«:rU".u„i.rtMr.,.io...« 

a „arr,.w ,«'*^ «^ "" ' j.s IJ f«-t h.^ 

^:t^:::iv:i->',eh in.. ew ;...;.;; 
^'"^"■\""tdVoirr::;^:-: 

to the othcers, and the c 
black escorts. «;„.,,= w.-re bat 

Tl,e l».dies of the two olhctrs were 

permitted .i Kr-'^e i;,,!,,,,,.! ici ; 

,,la,les of assegais. rht O 

;!!,:Ca„tah,Cani„belb twasn ; 
:;:;j:t: .ire, had bronght do... 



-",,.., thr,.^tU^>.c^----„ 
Captain Ca,n,.be 1 was c K^^^^^^ ^ ,^^_^_^ 

t„. mooiitain^ .^ ^^' ^^^_^ ,^„^^ (,„n 

'■":;;;;;,„S'^'-raea that the fjice 

„Ai;:;:.nnta,nal«v<.l.imwas— i;;^;^ 

and retrace.1 his steps to "^ ''*^ ■^.„„,._,„ t„ 
Captain Campbell to order the 1 ^^^, ., 
dear oiit the Ziili.^.wta.weKh^^^_^^^^, 

but a few. from ""= J'f ^ ■'","; Captain 
,,,.hads,lo.tlieO^- >.-^\,,^,, 

Campbell having fail^" 



The lrre<ula« .t the Sammit 

'""",'" .bkwestwards.tak, 

Ln a wounded man. whom^- 
the grass, and his na eso^.^^^^^ 

fl"ck-< .f''' Ton Ws outward 
he had followed, on nis 

•t:^;n:^^"o^"^'-"-r; 

/.uki army was stiU twenty-four . 



1 , 1- 



,. Iv.lu- 

^lll, Stil 


■.■ill ''■■ 


|. nt^ ii-* 



ScCtlUrl [ 



THE ZULL WAR -1879 



Modt-i 




eOLONf.L BULLKR AT INHLOHANK MOUNTAIN, MARCH iau,. I8;9 
hrom a piLture bv Suiiloy 1 WooJ 



tallt 



- .1 inattLT uf pFfcuitinii si-nt t'lii- 

p thi- Iifij;ht tu the suutli. rmtim.na 

iiUil just sliort of the crest, and 

his hand s.> enerHeticiilly as to 

'iani^er ; Coluiiel Wood caiit'eriiiK up. 

Miv 1. l,,w liim live dense columns of Zulus, 

n'"v,:;^. ;icross a vallov. and ht-ndiiij^ fnr 

Kani' m1,i. 

li;^ -iieep and tlie ^'r)ats were now ahan- 



'iKhci 



'loiK'd, the woundcii niaii, Kiveu in eharjit- (-f 
one ol the personal escort, was sent direct 
to Kaml)nla camp, alxmt twenty milis 
distant, where he arrived safely on Colonel 
Wood's tiat p)ny. 

The Colonel sent his aide-de-camp, Lieu- 
tenant I.y&'iis. to the officer comni.uidinji 
the western column, with the following 
written order : " Helow the Inhlobune, 



MiaiOCOfY RKOLJTION TEST CHART 

(ANSI ond ISO TEST CHABI No 7) 



1.0 Iria la 
^ "[f IS 

^ "" III 1.8 



i^l^fl^ 



^ /IPPUEDKVMGE In, 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



10 ,0 A.M., 2S .-, 7<i.-Tl.ere is :i larse army 
comiiiK this way ftum tlie si.uth. (lot into 
positiim on the Zunguin Nuk.—li. W." 

The pbuim fcrmiiij! the top of the 
mountain, whidl Colonel liulkt's force had 
cleaKil of the eiieniv, was 150 feet hiRlier 
than the l..«el plateau on whieh the western 
column was .lenionstrating. but each com- 
man,lin>; officer had seen tlic advaricmg 
Zulu arniv an hour and a half before Colonel 
\V.)od cauKht sisht of it. he bein-; the-n on 
a track i.ooo feet below the -rest of the 
mountahi. Colo,iel BuUer was cugased at the 
monieat in covering the descent of Captam 
B ■•on. Coldstream C.uards. who was taknii; 
a 1. rty of 2J l-rontier Light Horse down the 
eastern slope. In- which he had ascende.1 to 
bury Baron von Stettercrou and two men. 
killed before the s,|uadrons gained the crest. 
Barton was already halfway down when 
Buller saw the advancing Zulu army, then at 
least live miles distant, and sending word to 
Barton to retire by the right of the mountain. 



mcamng over the Ityenteka Nek. drew off his 
troops to the western end of the summit, 
overlooking the lower plateau, which lia^l 
been hitherto occupied by the column 
making the demonstration. The ollicer 
c.mmanding it had by this time recciNcl 
Colonel Wood's order. 

The Zunguin Nek is a saddle-back feature. 
which connects the Zunguin and Inhlob.ii-.e 
Mountains, and in that direction, which w <> 
the nearest line of retreat to Kambula eaiiip, 
the cattle and Wood's Natue Irregulars had 
been driven. 

The officers cimmianding the western 
colunm. mifortuuately mistakhig the i«.sitio'i 
of the Zunguin Nek. trotted live miles t" 
the west, and thus lost the opportunity ol 
assisting Cokmel UuUer's retreat, and tli.it 
of the ist Batlaliou Wood's Zulu Irregid.irs 
who were makuig for the nek, under .M.ij"! 
I.eet, Mtli I.W't Infantry. His men, ' -tli 
some of Uha, lu's. stuck to the cattle, wlneh 
they were unwilling to abandon. Capt.iia 



SKIRMISH AT THE INHLOBANB MOUNTAIN 

28th.MARCH,1879. 

A. Ki.ss.-ll\ Fir^l /•■■>■''•"• ^ ^'■•'•t<-- * 

II. in.^- /Wtry./e//ir;i!er-ii^^"t^- ^ 

>:. tr,'«tl..r{.-y.-- l:,r^~Aiill.:f:l^ ".<•:■- - - * 

1>, If'.i.'f.' i.,i''l.Caiii!-Ml ■•'•at kiil.-J . II •'•■./' /•:■■"''■ -■ — > 




fLAN or THK SK,»M,S„ AT TH. .NH.OBANt MOONTAm. MARCK «.. >Sr9 



Section [ 



ottcT, a Colonial officer, ami Lieutenant 
Uillianis, jSth (..n,l -Vorthamptonsliire) Rai- 
ment, ana alxint «o of Uliamu's men were 
killed ; tlley stood bravely bv their wl.ite 
"Ihcers, one of Uliamus Indunas. or l,e id 
men, beniR killed alongsiilc Capt.dn I'otter 
bv Makulusi. and part <,f the Xo,l,ve„Ku 
KeKnnent. who had l)ee,l attaelie,! to the 
Makulusi for the defence of the Iidilol, ine 
Mountam. It was these n,en who inllicted 
all the loss at the western extreniitv ,;f the 
luhlobane. for the main bodv of the Zulu 
army, exhausted l,y u long march, had never 
Rot mto action, lialtinfi on a stream near 
tlie site of what is now the town of Vr\ held. 

The Last Man Down 

When Colone! Duller fell back to the 
western end of the upper plateau of the 
mountain he selected s.)me good .shot,, and 
senduig all the other men do™ a precipitous 
fioiit path, held back the Makulusi, who 
seerag the oncoming army, were eager to 
attack and recover their cattle. Piet Fys 
and his sons remained with Duller until the 
l>ulk of the men had got nearlv down to the 
lower plateau, and then descended. The 
tr.ick was so steep that when Colonel Wood 
revisited the mountahi, fifteen months later 
lie drove, as an experiment, six ponies loose 
'lown the track, and oiilv one reached the 
liottom with.int a fall of heels over head 

Several Zulus reached the lower plateau 
before Colonel BuUer and Piet Ty-s, The 
litter was actually on the l.iwer' pl.iteau 
"lien, se^mg his yimngest son could n,.t get 
Ins pony domi, I'iet went to his assistance 
and though he succeedeil in getting the |x,nj 
■1">™, he was liim.self killed bv a Zulu 
Kedvers Buller was the last white man to 
liM-e the summit, and when near the lower 
IJ lean he t\vice went back into a crowd of 
-i;!!!],, each time rescuing a white man, 

lie and Colonel Wood met on the Zmiguin 
.^'k late m the afternoon, reaching camp 
•d ^nmlowii, for both harl remained out in 
n"l«s of bringuig in stragglers, 

■ll.e squadron, which had been engaged 
"' ir LoLmel Wood in the carlv morning 
•»"'l captain Barton's 25th Light Horse were 
"^'rtv all killed. The stiuadron had re- 
ni.ii;ied at the eastern end of the mountain. 



THE ZULU WAR-1879 



.Modern 

where it was overtaken bv some iun,„„ed 
men and active Z„l,i> of the Ngobaniakosi 
Ke^iment. an,l fought tdl the last ni.ui was 
kllhd .,t the top of the Itveuteka Xek 

When Captain Barton got Colonel Ikiller's 
w.irning message, having burie.l his com- 
rades wjio had fallen in the capture nl the 
mountain at daybreak, not appreciating that 
in military langua.ge ■ Retire l,v the right " 
me.iut right hand as the attack was ina.Ie 
he rode westwar.ls around the track followeii 
b.v- Colonel Wood an hour earlier When 
nearly as far as the western end of the lower 
plateau, but 80 feet belo-v it, he w.is headed 
by the rightdiaud column of the on-coming 
Zulu army, and endeavour d to light his 
way through it. 

After losing some men. seeing the dense 
inasse-s in front of him, lie retrace.l his steps 
and although se'veral of his men were killed 
-y the Xgobamakosi Kegiment, he ami I ieu- 
tenailt Poole, with about twelve troopers 
got <lown the Ityenteka Xek, a cntinuatioii' 
ot the Inhlobane, ami three miles to tlie east- 
ward of it, and nearly re.ieheil the .Munzana 
river. Lieutenant Poole's horse being ex- 
hausted, Captaui Barton rode ..ver and took 
I'oole up behind liiin on the s uldle. His horse 
also being nearly exhausted, began to f.iil, 
and the two men disnnmnting," walked iii 
different dire-ctious. Lieutenant I'.iole was 
killed immediatelv. 



750 



The Death of Captain Barton 

Chieheeli, a immuted ollicer of the .Vgo- 
hamakosi brought up at a niis.sioii station 
recognise-d Bartor from his lu.ble hearing 
as nil officer, ami iiiving alreadv killed seven 
white men, now remembered Cetyw.iyo's 
order to bring some officers to t.'lundi as 
prisoners. Laying down his assegai, Chieheeli 
made signs to Captain Barh.n to surremler, 
a.'d ■.,., putting away his pistol ami raising 
Ins wideawake hat, advanceil toward the 
native, when a Zulu shot C.iptain Bart.in in 
the back, and then Chieheeli, who intended 
to take Barton prisoner, unalile to control 
his savage uistincts, ran in and as,segaied 
him, Tliesc details were given bv Chieheeli 
to Colonel Wood fifteen months later, when 
he iHiinted out tlie body for burial. 
Soon after q p.ji,, during a violent rain 



Section I 



'^■<-"'"<'K K:mi\mh - ■„„, ,, "'"^'■•■'l«l 111 
camp, ,il,,,ut n ,. ,1 1 '■ '"■■' '■"""' <" 

"■«!. a small partv , J; '•/""' "'■•nt ,n,t 

I, '"""^■^ snstai„i-,| „„ ,,,,; ,^,, 

"■■a- killcl j„,| I„. '•""'I'^ans i.„j;aK,,|, ,,_, 



THE ZULU WAR-,879 



Mod 



lern 



"'"''^' '""'V "1 .utive ,r„„,„ , . 

^i«-..pa.„„,i,. "sl'';';™"'"^*"- 
'1"* at C.,l,„u, ^ ""- ,-;'li an.l arrive,! at 

attack. ■'''"■'""""•- ^' 'I"...! H„U„s 

"■■™'™"".i::it?r^^'""'''"«''''^ 

"'-"-■l.•a.,dl,., ' ''f '""^-".l""..,. 

''^•'"f^-lK- l,a,l J, ■'"'""''■ """""it^l.ut 

'■«"■>■ lir. lr,„„, I .' ;,"■"'"■■ '=^"n'-- un.icT u 

r""""-^"- arir""'i^""""« 

''''■*• Zulus .„„,,, ,,,,,:,,;';■; ami W„re 
''« '-•«or., Cui„„d " "V'"' ■'■"' "■^"»'"f 






'!'™"r:r;;r':i""^-' ---^ 

•'^"cl,.,stl,, ;",.'" *'■'""■ tl.enigl„;,f 

'" ""1. uativc tril,' - "I *;"■ « l.ear,l 
""i-liftl, nf the ul,i, "' ""•"' 'I'an 

""- occurred an 'tler:";:,,™'^^"^'" """ 

■I""-- fro,,, . saf. ""'".'"■ Tl.is is „„, 
~"I'-«t,ti„„, „,;•'«" ""'""rt, Imt fr,„„ 

"\:''- ".a, of .|.,ir WeC '"""""'™ 

'■"'"111 U'cod iv„ .,,1,.;= 1 . 

" ^■'«amU„ar,„. r'. """''^'I"-' 

^''>"vl,e,lodi, ,,.'""'«'"■ On this 

;'"'— -wer, fl """™'^"'"'^ 

'"■i''"J'l'>..CT,i„|,tK" ,^ ;"*■' ""^ "«'" ^^ 
*■' Hehadt,t- ,r'"'.^"'^^J''■-»'^• 
'■^:"■"«'™•s.«t'm, ,;f ''■•'■""'■■"■n 
"■'"'■'' Ik- had foil , ' ''''Uinsular War 

;:" '-"PS st,K,d to ar,„s a-,d "'"■"" 

'-- opened one „™;i;l;;~- 



1S7I) 



ami on a„v ■ \i,r„, - i 

'va-ni„« „,e ten,, ^ ", , ''^ <'''!■ "'ithoni 

■»-who,vasi,;e: ,e':,:^r'^' "'"''— 

-:-;:4'::,,dr''cf "'■'"'-""" 

roadlessr;;,;;:'""^"-'^ '-■"«'■< over a 

r"''"-':^-u';^:^L :--■;-"■" 

'■•"^■m>-. There was tl, ■ "' ""■' 

p-"«i<™«c„t;:u ,'ri;:."i,"",'^ ■ 

"■^ ""TO was l„,t a sc, it r '" '"'"'■ 

ai-ailahle f„r cook-i , -, "'"' "' "-"'"l 

""'-rta.„ ,,Xk■,h:',""f'''»-- 
f^>'i"..s.rf«,o's,;,- '";'""'■ ''"""«'- 

i" "U,nl,er. a I "" '""'«'''='-' ^.»» 

bciug tl," «.!„ '•'^"■■••.ninK in camp 

«.K«n drivers, foreloupers, and 



BRITISH BATTLES Of; LAND AND SEA 



six border Zulus iic-r comliany uf the tw. 
Britisli battalions, who liail beeu attaclied 
from tlK day of tlic f..rce crossiu« the 
border. 

The Burghers Go Home 

Soon after davlight the burshers, except 
10 who haviuR iiired waRon-i to tile c.lumu. 
did not like to leave their prciperty, came to 
Colniel Wood and asked leave to Ro home. 
They had be«n hrouRht out with the column 
and' kept with it entirely bv the influence 
of riet T'vs, their Conunandant, ■ ow that 
he was dead they were utterl. „i=pinted. 
Thev trekkeil inmiediately they had shaken 
hands with Colonel \Vo<id. and the nust, 
fortunatelv fc r tliera. screened their wagims 
until they had Rot far enough away to be 
out of siRlit of the Zulu army 

All the horses in camp were suficruiR from 
overwork, for the mounted troops and the 
Staff hail ridden far, and sometimes fast, 
dailv since March i.ltli. when they went to 
LunelierR. the Staff retuniiiiR the &ime day, 



as thev should have been, were allowed to 
graze in the re.ir ..f the eanip, and tlu 
Nokenke Regiment passing ral'idly Ijeyoml 
the eastern or left llank of the main laager, 
some of their vounger men, runnuig with 
incredible speed and with great auilacitv 
turned the cattle, sheltering cleverly behni-l 
them, from the hail of bullets winch were 
directed on the voung Zulu warrior* 
though, owing to the defeat of the Zulu 
army, the cattle could not be driven aw.o . 
knd'were recovered in the evening after iIk 

battle. 

Cctywavo's army, under command ol !u» 
Prime Minister. Nmvamaiie. and Tyiugw.iyo 
came fullv in sight at II. JO .I.M.. when se^■L■.l 
miles distant, advancing generally in i 
north-westerlv direction, anil when having 
surmounted the plateau they extended t.. 
tlieir attack formaticm. they covered a 
frontage of 12 miles. 

The main laager of the camp -of Xo 4 
column was held on the left front .uv\ 
llank bv the 90th Light Infantry. Il.lf 



returning the same aav, nanit o> i.i^ v ^— ' , , , 

, , ,„. followiml the front and the right Hank was guarded l.v 

a distance of .," miles. On the folownig '«" ^ , „„„„toi ,„,.„ 

day the horses weiiMS miWs. lit,, I ninnis ^ 'f, '^^jt^of the laager. The 



countrv, takhig a day and a half for the 
return journey. On the following day they 
were taken im a raid to I.mieberg. and had 
been under the saddle fr.mi II a.m. March 
27th. to 7 r.5i. March iSth. 

Nevertheless, in spite of the state of their 
exhaustion, it was necessary to locate the Zulu 



holding the rear face of the laager, riie 
redoubt was held by a company of eaeli "i 
the battalions, the cattle laager on the rwlit 
front being occupied by a company of the 
13th, Two guns were mounted in the fruiit 
face of the redoubt, and the other four cuiie 
into action on the ridge on which the redoaM 



-t:;"™gr-"= E^ 



as soon as the mist cleared, so Commandant 
Raaf. with a small patrol, went out at cj A,M.. 
when the fog seemed to be lifting, and at 
II A.M. he was joinetl by one of Uha nu s 
men . who , having been overtaken the pr .'.■ious 
day when retreatuig from the Inhloba..e, hid 
his Hritish head bailgc and joined and bi- 
vouacked with Cetywayo's army. Next morn- 
ing, on seeing Raafs parte, under pretence of 
fetching water, he ran to the Commandant 
and reported that the Zulu army was abimt 
to advance, and v.ould attack the camp at 
Kambula at wha^ they thought would be 
the soldiers' dinner hour. 

The wood-cutting companies were recalled, 
and got back to camp in time to dine before 
the action began, but about 200 of the oxen, 
instead of being driven into the cattle kraal 



the left fnmt and flank were heavily attack, il 
the teams were unhooked, and put inside the 
laager. The othcers were instructed -.lut 
when the Zulus came up close in masses die 
gun detachments were to retire to the slult.r 
of the wagons, but in the result the '.;iia! 
were fought and the gun detachments si. « J 
in the open throughout the battle. 

A MagnHlcent Sight 

Colonel Wood was asked to all. 
men's dinner to be put forward, but h. 'U- 
clined. saying that the usual hour, k 4'' 
would give sufficient time for the in.)i t.' 
dine with contort at the pace at whiel. the 
Zulu armv was then approaching. I' pre- 
sented a magnificent sight, the 2,i..S"" "■«' 
moving towards the laager in regular ■ rf". 



the 



762 



BRITISH BATTLKS ON LAND AND SEA 



i, ,. „,rnsma<lvoncv.,l tlir ll.u.l.,. ..ivl i 
,K.„, HU^s some w;iy back ... tl.c cxi.t.o 
Th. ,,um b..ly w... st.U tl.r.. ....1- . «- 

h. sh„uM «.. ..ut a,„l lose tb. r..h b 
o( th. Z..1" ar..iy, tl.. eastern -.. ...<1 J, a 

it i.,to ...aUi..« a l.rcraaturc a,.,l .>..1.^>. I 

,,st.rK- .l,..rtiM., at I.;,u .•■5.-. b. ..- 

,n„u„t.,l b.» ...o,. ^vb.,. half a ""'^' ';""', I);. 
Zulus. .... who... h...l.e.,c-.l a br.sk l.r.Uu- 

N„k...U- R.«i....'..t c....ti.,ue,l .ts ""'^''; ^^'^ 
L...li..B c,...il.a...ts makiuB f"r the cattk^ 
.. bel're .tat..l. but the r,..b....a,nb. a,,.l 

l-.ucitvu Kesmtcnts. n.V-" ,^"""f ,,?;"' 4 
,„,t.e,.ce .....U-r the Kallu.B nre „i e n 1 
'.lulkT's ,„.... chatKe.1 i.,.,.et„..usly f. ™a .1 
wl.c. C..l,...el Bulkr, rcm".ll.t...K. 'et.l.'l a 
quarter „f a m.le and agai.. on three separa e 
occasions repeated l.U lira.!; a...! retreating 
tac.e.. Whe.. the Zulus were wUhm a 
nuarter of a mile "f the ea...l. Lul....el m.ller 
brought h.s ...e.. at the Rail..,, msr.le the 
laager, takh.g up the .lefe..ce ..f .ts rear face. 



Advance of the Zulus 

The Zulus advanced »ith all the o.ulag^ 
„( l.rave ...e.. wl... l.a.l ..ever been beaten, 
and who, moreover, had had no ex,,er.e,,ce 
„t the effects ..f ...".len. firear...s, U.e <|. h 
Light I..fa..try. on who.n the attack nl the 
t«' Zulu c„r,,s fell, tired only by word of 
c,„n..rand. ai,..ing low a..d very stead. 
,s did the Ijth l.igbt Infantry later ivhe.. thi 
riKht fn,..t a..d Hank of the posit..... was 
attacked; m.leed the ex,.enditure of a.....vu. 

„iti„n tl.nn,gb,.ut tl... e..gaRe.nent. ...c .d g 
the pursuit, six h..urs' r.Rl.t...g. average<l o..l> 
.,.,rou..dsper...anin.hewl.olec,.....n.. 

The rmb,.na...bi a..d Un.c.tyu He.n.nc.ts 

c,..,e u..der a ...ost .lesttnctive In. when 

cv were within 4"" >-'J^ "' '"" «"":. 

standi..g ".. the ridge, .n.der c«....na..d ol 

L ,e..an.s Wgge <I.ord Sta...fordl.a.n) and 

Freder.ck Slade (the late Ma,,.r-C.e,.eral). 
These poured case^sl.,.t h.to the adva.,c...g 
. tass. which W..S sn.itte.. by the f.re of the 
„„th i.. fro.,t and by the two gu..s nn.ler 
Lieutenant Nichols..,, h. the rcloubt. as 
well as bv the two cm.panles .n the w-ork 
which enliladed the Umcityn adva.ice. 1 he 



e ,„.i..,.ous ^torn. of .nissiles .na._le si.co 
f r the Zulu attack i.nl«.ss.ble. ll.e .'r.. 
...xages charged straight forward >«!,-.■ 
attcipting to ..se the few rifles they h,^ 
take., at ls..n.lhlwana. When .. chief f... 
men ran t.. his ..ssistance. but pracfcalh 
Zulu who got within 4"0yfls.. hen.-; 
l,..«crre...ah.edal.ve. No f..r..led l...d> V 
towithi,.=iO yards of ,be wagons at any I...... 

though isolated Z..h.s ...a..age.l t.> tun .. 
„,.,rer; b,.t the bulk of these grand s,.vag, • 
were shot be.we,..o„.o,d4o..yards.l.sta.u, 
By '.s P" 'I'e brimt of the attack..,, 
the left fr..ut a...' Hank h..d been b...k.:; 
a,..l C..lo..el W.....' tlirongll.>ut the acl.. .. 

stoo.l .... the ri.lge be: wee., the re.loubt .in ■. 

the cattle laager. wl.e..ce he ha.l a g... ■. 
view .,f the ent.re pos.tion, except the 1... 
u-ai of the .naiu laage,' an.l ..f the r.,.u.. 
u...ler the cattle laager. ^ 

rp this ravi..e passe..! the >g..ba.nak. -. 
:u.d m.U crps ; the latter ...ove.u,. ...u 

the ph.teau past the b..kery (<.v 1 la..l ■' ' 
onlv whe.. the gr<.u.i.l was covere.l «." " 
their corpses .li.l the c.,r,.s descen.l ia -■ 
the vallee ..f the r..iv..l..s.. l..ll..wn.g Hi. 
t.ack ..t the Ng..bam..kosi. 

l,-..l....el W b relieved of all anxietN , - 

to the attack of the left flank, was ena.l.-, 
t„ ..ive his u...Uvi.le.l ..ttent..m t.. ... 

which he saw was ..ow impending fr..ni Uk 
ran..e, springs in which are the s..uie. ■: 
the r...vol..si river. One cnipany ..Ml.. 
Ngob..n.akosi. n.<.vi..g up the raMi.e ..-v. 
the rivers source, occupied s..me ru .l..-..• 
l.eaps .... the i.lateau ..n which the ma... l,...u.. 

st„o,l The refuse fn.m the h..rse. b..e- .m 
accum..lati.... of two months^ fr.>m th. ... 

su,. acting ..n the llea^T dew wind. ..1 
nightlv, l.a.l caused a rich e.op .-f "'. - 
t.> si.rout f.irtb about f.>ur feet h.gh i- ■• 
givi..g the c.mpany of Zulus so much ...... 

IS to re...ler tl.em im.nune from the l.r. .i 
the rear face ..f the laaR..r. K-^''";^';; 
pane wl.icl so,..ewhat later mlhctcl 1 .. ■ 
outbetw c...np..niesoftl.e<,..thwi..nr.- 
tur..ing from their successf..l charge ,.a..» 
its fr.tt.t. 



The Zulus Try to Rush the La«Ker 

The Colonel was ..bligcl to wi.h.lr... t!« 
c.mpany of the i.;tl. postc^l .n the r.;.; 1 <" 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



Sketch of »;C.mp of M?» Corn™ 

KAMBULA HILL 

ZULULAND 



nthpraviiif ^>Tnl 
th. ' '■' 

a, tlKV I....'. 







\trth> 



By per' 



^ Wl.ilu C.ip 

was carryiii^ 
thisiinl^ !'"■ 
FnwUr 
wlio was 1 111: 
in the ditch > >- 
the mlnuM 
haiuliliK !ii- 
Swinhunu- 
Heliry cavhllii 
to C..l.iinl 
\Vi»«l, askol 
him til fire it 
a 11 I 11 il 11 11 1 
(chief), vvli" 
waving a if'l 
Hag, « 1. s 
clieetins "a 
the ZuUis will' 
were in f'l^' 
tavi •" >'■■ 
iluce ti.em '" 
charge \\y f'^ 
the 1 a a i; •■ 1 
Ciloiiel \V'-'l 
si ot the nun 
(leatl. anil iii^ 
pljce l«iiiS 
taken by i"- 
otlier. kilk-i 
,,i„.„ithathinlsh..t: thenathiMeliW 

picking up the flag, waved it. while kne, . 
1,„ ..lie knee, the Colonel shunting lnm««.. 
a fifth bullet in succession of lire. 

Just at this moment Major Hac^' 
two companies apreared an.l, led by la- 
w„h Lieutenant Str,ing some d.stane^ » 
front, the two being gmded by t. V »•■ 
Woodgate 2.1 yards il. advance kllll 
" - --- 1 ran straigli' .i 

back int.. tin 

s. >\iiu ", — 

Tlie companies retired at on. 



^^^;Ss«^^'«":r-'^""-"""^"' 



of the cattle laager, as Zulus --;'-- 
the men, ali.l from where liest.iod he -« 
see at some distance higher up the ra^ e 
^„,.,, .If the Ngobamakosi, w li.im the 
kaders were trviiig t.i induce t.. leave the 

did climb forward, ..ml L.il.nel " 

consequence, sent ^''P'"':' f "f :, ""."S" 

Camiihells successor as Chu Mail Oft. c , j^_^^^^^. ^,^,„ 

^:;::';^:ct;;^;:^h'itsi,uct„,nstod.in,.e 

.M.IJ01 > cintK. down to 



with f.N.d bayonet! 



ravine, 
"ovcrthe'sHic down to otdere.1, 
-6.1 



the Zulus, firing from 



Secr-on I 



<.t tlu- n 


J 


e,nl. aii'l 


" 1 


Lice 1« 


\K ■ 


il:i-.i l.y 


">- 1 


ther. kdk-i 1 


I third cl 


ii'I 


liilc kiK-. 


in: 


ins I'i"' ^ 


-it'.i 


lire. 




lor Hack 


tt- 


. led l)y 


.lii" 


; distaiK 


ir. 


l)v C.ii 


t;ii:'. 


rce'lkill 


I .■'■ 


an straii:* 


t /. 


jack iilt' 


t'l. 


ed at oiu 




ing from 


t';-.i 



"'^"■■■••e Ik.,,,„ ,r,e„ti„„„l ,l,„. 
Hackitt. tile l„..f „ '•l'-iri;e .\I,ij,,r 



THK ZULU WAR is7y 



MoJem 



ileek 



The Demoralised Zulus 

^■■'t CptaiM Tl„irl,.w „ I „" ;r"""-' 

tlie I-., ii kvein eiit ,el„ "■"■'' ""^' anioiiKst 

take „u, ,,„. " •'.' ,■'■'"■ 'I'l-ectms Iliin t„ 
"HI iJle mciunted men uh ,.i. i j- . 

'"K, and lin.l tii.,.,1 ,„„ , , • ' '"■"'" '"^ 

line t.i tlie • . • v ""■' ''™''est 

-.«. ":,:,^7u:f, :""' '""^■^'' ■" 

h.lN*lea.Uignt,,;! '''''"''■"' '""" ""■' 

-'" ■-";r-a;;'t:in--r/- 

.1111 mi'ii L-in„i ''" oIlictTs 

•■'-<"-^'d::irrt„tr^ 

- -;^e.jute ,,„,.,,,, --:;:^ J;;a- 

f.. l.<,l„nel Redvers Bulle, Mai„r I eef 

•"•^' 1-4 If,'?' "'"' ''"^•'■"'■- P-™-!". 

ti.^.,n-'- r "'"'""'^'«"- '^"ived tlie Dis- 
.. "' ^"ncl„ct Jledal, ninl wmld l,a e 



S"«J!este,l ,1,,,, |„. ,1, , '; ^" y 5 

l'l-Maj.r ,;"",""■','"•""■'"'■"-■ 

tl.-"... .r,""''^ '''•'''"'■ -'' 

'-'^■'-"■andaiva-. ;,;,''"'"■'.''''■ I"»er 

lnsl,„rs... """■'"'"'"-«,■ in „(,,,,„ 

't ivns inip,Ksi|,^. t,, „,.,,„ 
Zulus ivli,, ,.,,,11 ,,, ''" ■'">■ """iided 

"■'Heats; ..ne ,„„,,.,,,;. "'''./'■' »'>■'«- as 

;:'•''""«-■ -ere,, :.,:,w';;:^-n' -11... 

"""K at e-„l„„,| ,Ve„d -t ,„ " '■'''■ 

'a'"--^-. ki"e,I a „„tl. , . , : •"' Va«l'di.s- 

'"""" tile re,l,,ul,t. 



if? 



OatherinR j„ ,he zm^j 

■\t nishtfall ,],i. ,-,,i,,,,„, 

ti.ereivasac„m«i„n,/l;; ;,,i^7''.""" 

liattili,.i,s „i.t ' ' '^'Wments. a,„| 

'"'"'""■ "">' cciiinuindi,,,. „|i;,vrs 
rec.,r,le,l. sl„„vi„„ ,|,.,t ,,,,t. ''' """^ 

l--nti„tl.e,,attle , ;",,:;^7'',,-'J-f<' 
--•nK,,ti,.«as,,,a,,,,ie.talX;,,f- 

^; le S:;;?."- '--"' -'•'-- -^^ri,,; 

£.^^ri-ir^^^^^^^^ 

-.-i..n.„-L.,,;:L,;:r„>,':„z;*t^: 

that f.,e tr ^S.ibamakosi imarine 

, »..c tr,.,,,. „.ere aUiut t., retreat, s., tliev 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 

• .1 1 ,„.l,l.r ..r m omversati.m will, our nativts .'( Hk t 

U i. ,.,.. uf,.n tlut >'-,;;"-;' ! '„, k-lu ....... ..„ .l. rt,s. .l.,y .,K. . .. 

vict..rs.m.lv.in,i"islu-.l.'Kr.v,l,ut. \ "1- ^^ j^^^__ »vcr.- thi- Kur..l'> ."- » 



THE DEATH OK NAPOLEON. PKINCE .MPER.A.. 



■r„, i.-ivi..R C"iu"." "■""■-> «" «'"*'""'; 

l,iv,si,..,, c..m,nu.uU'.l l.y I.k-uto.anW.v.-"«-'l 
Iv XtwdiKate. Juni: 1st. ., , , „, 

l.-..l.„al \V.....l ^-.Tly i" Al'"' ''."'' =;■"' 
two nllkcts. ijth LiBht Infantry, mti. 1 1^' 
l.-r... Slate with i'.V.""". »'"1 ""■•>■ '"'"f ;' 
sulVicicnt .nnl.. waK""S and tcan>s to vnal.k' 
l,i,„ to snpply not only the mount.. ttoo,s 
of l,is ..wn coUnnn. but al*. those- of (,cwr. 1 
N-.w.li«ates command, to whicl. were a - 
tadKatl>eKins-sl"»S"'""'":'"'^'7'''' 
Lancers, Somewhat Uter Ceneral I.onl 
Chehnsfor.! re-cor.le,l that without this a»i=t. 
a„c' in the l.,an of waRons, his striking force 
'couM nut l.ue niarche.1 to Vhin-li, 

^t sunset, June 1st, while Lolouel Woo, 
and ColonelliuUer were exauminw the Krounu 

i„ front of the l-'lyinK Lolumns '^•'"M'- " 
.leternihie the asiest gradients lor tic 
wagons to take on th-- nn.rn.w. I uy n e " 
officer of l,.r,l Chelmsford s Start Kallo,,.nK 
,,t sped to the westward-a surMVor o 
a sn all parte to winch the I'rince Imperial 
of KranJe had been attached while making 
sketches of camps to be occupied m he 
a.lvance to rhmdi. The olhcer rejK.rted 
that the i.artv had been ambuscaded, lusing 

the I'tince, two white troopers <.f a I- n'''' 

corns and a liasuto. 

The I'rhice Imperial, a vonnK rlian .1 
brilliant talents, and who had l";^'-;' " 
nnusually thorough e.lucation at W oolwUi 
.\cadeni , had arrived m South Afrl a, 
March Jist, hoping to gam mditare ex- 
perience on service. Uc had spent a week 
n the camp "f Hn-- ■•■l>ing Column as he 
Kuest of Lolonel Evelyn \V.>odm Ma,, and 

had accompanied Uedv. rs HiiUer on two raids 
showing gleat keenness, after which he had 
returned to Lord Chelmslord s camp. 



June 1st he left the he,id-.iuarters ■,.;! ; 
with one officer, six troo,Krs, ind ,. H,.-;' 
and after he ha,l made some sketches : 
parte oft-sa.ldle.l ill low gtoun.l ne,,r >..l 
Ki's Kraal, Ityatosi river, lo miles m ir . • 
of Lord thelmsfonrs canil). 

The Zulus in the neighlKmring kraab n. r. 
collected, an.l appr..ache,l the party, wlii. ,: 
WIS near a field of high mealies. The /.uM, 
had crept up the bed of the rner. w!h" .. 
frieiuUv Zulu, who was actmg ..s gm;. '" 
the ,,artv.iuf..rnied the officer in c.min..i:l 
that he had seen s.niie Zulus apliroacln.i,;. 
ai'd the escort was ordered t,. mount. 1 1^^ 
Zulus, '.I, in miniber, purpose-ly waite.1 um.l 
this m.'.nlenl, re.dishlg that it would be l::v 
most favurable time to ,,ttaek, and tiun 
Creel a voUey, The lu.rse of one o, ik 
white men was sh..t, and the rider v> - 
inuucliately asse-gaied. Another hor~e „ .1 
in an ant-bear hole, and the rrUt - - 
stabbed •-•h he could rise to In- b- 
The rema.1 ,.r of the parte, with t,H .v 
ception of the Prince, galloped at speel v 
the ridge fr..il.- which they had de*vv,,.,. 
to the pr..xinlily of the niealle led 
.Irawing the rein until they reached - ,:. 
rocks S20 cards from Sobusa s kr,ial, .i 
then one .'.f them looked back but l,:-« 

r,,de on stiH fast, tliough not at the hea i . 

speed at which they had started. 

The party of Zulus ran in pursuit •■■■ 
the tw.. white s.,ldiers, who were or, •;; 
Hank and then four Zulus, headed bv a , ,.i 
Zibanga, lollowe.1 the I'rince, Ui» ;- 
had jumped as he was mounting, a..,, ^' 
sword fell out of the se-abbard. He «-. 
very active, and was vaultnlg on ins . ■ 
in motion, when the wallet em whie^ 
left hand rested in front of the sad.llc 
awav and he tell to the ground, bei' 



t 



ctioii I 



THE ZULU WAR-1879 



■Vm time cjiily 'o yiirds IkIuiuI thv fimitives. 
llwn scvfii ITKM [Lttiaki-a tliv sall^iut niirt- 
■nil.Ltivc ..f a c.,lir.iL;..ilis r,.<.e. llv tliriK'.l 
■ii /..ili.iiiua, ivlu, r.cii ;,«,iv fniiu liim, ami 
thill iroiicliiii-^ in tiK' 'jri^s thuw an as.s.i;, ' 
ivhuli ■itiitk in tlic I'riiRv ilii^li. Hv nitli- 
irawiiii; it irniy. tla- Ui.iiinl, ki>|.t .1 si-vcn 
iiMi at luy lor >mral iiiiimti.,. In tlit- 
n'.rils of OMV of tJK MMM : • Ik- foMsllt likv 
1 lion : ln' liriil two sliot~ but witliom iif.-it 
I'li I tlir«v an iisMsai at jiini. wliiili Muitk 
iillll. but I ahval, allottvl /.al.ant:a's claim 
t'l li nv kilK-il. for his ass.-;;ai lilt thf I'rini. 
in t!lf Kit slioiil.lcr a jnortal wounil ; li 
loilSllt Willi iny assiTJai. wliicli lie |iulluil 
out of his wound, and wc did not dart; to 
close on liini until In; s.ink down ladnij us, 
wlun wv .dl ru-iliL-d at Inni ' 

Tlie day was ilosinK in will" , alinnlittd 
fiii;iti ,-t's uKt the two se-nior oi.icers of the 
F' ilK Coluuui, who iie\t luorninii sent out a 
Kt.ichnieill <■* Basutos who found the Uxly 
hlili; where it had fallen with einhteen 
assei^ai wounds, all in front, .uld stripped, 
with the exeeption of a loeket worn round 
the neck, sus]>en(led bs- a j;old chain. This 
i> the Zulu tribute to the courage of a ver>- 
l>r,,ve warrior, who fights to the last. His 
t-lollR^ and all on hini. except what he wears 
t'ltiiid his neck, re] resented by a ch.iplet of 
■ids in his own nation, become the projuTty 
the second man to strike a mort.d bl.iw, the 
»t as&ulant beini; content with the honour. 



lx> 



Modern 

the disaster. U'lien the |i,ittv left the head 
■luarler caniji early, Juii. IM, \,i:',l tain 
u,.s l.dlnin, .111,1 the rrniee wore ,i w.iter- 
proof coat, in which tiiere was .1 record 
of the proceodini;s of li.e parte. «|iieli 
ll.id be-ii t.irn oH a tall • .iii,| pined ill 
the ticket |.,ckel "I tin e. ,it, which w.is 
recovered from liie Zulus ,111.1 s,Mt to Hit 
Mije the lanpi.ss si\ inmillis later. 
The record runs June ist, stirled from 
Itile/i to find carapiiiK eround for Second 
itivi-ion party iiniler C.iptain ," 

Return of the Flying Column 

The I-lyiii^ Column, followed b\' tlie -iri 
Division, nioveil slowK e,istw,irds. aec- 
paiiied by nearlv .;oo wagons, and, .lllile stli, 
li.id a slinht skimiish, ni which Lieutenant 
Frith. I7tl' I.ancers. wis shot, /.ulu mes- 
sengers arri.ed from time to time under a 
flajj of truce, but nothini^ c.iine of these 
o\erturt^ for pein '. 

The w.iHons of both columns havinii been 
emptied of their stores, i.'oloncl Wood's 
' lunaud. then ciKlit miles in front of the 
1 Iiiiisiim, was sent back into .N.ital for 
"irther supply, June ;tli 
When he was returniiiK with boo wagons 
there was some anxiety, .is the coal-cutting 
parties, which had been covered by a pro- 
tecting force, hail n driven in. These 
parties were neat ,anibula. whence the 
suiiply of coal hai. enabled (.'olonel Wood 
to pro\ide cooking fuel for both cohnmis, 
Xothing came, llowe\er, of these demonstra- 
tions of the Zulus, which were made by 
local tribes, and the safety of the ci lumii 
was watched o\ it by two s*|iiailrons of 
mounted troops, which always reiuaineil 
out all night III miles on the danger side ol 
wdiere the convoy was I.iagered. the Colonel 
isitnig the 5(|uailrons nightly, before break 



A Court Martial 

The oilicer was tried by a general court 
itiirtial for " misbehaviour before the 
■ luiny. havin.g galloped away when sur- 
ITi-id, without attempting to defetal the 
I'niiee. or to rally the escort," The prisoner 
Ilk , led that he was not in command of the 
iM'Tt, and was merely accompanving the 

"■'"ice Imperial as a brother officer of junior of dav, to ensure their being on the alert 
tiiik He was found guilty, but the sen- When the Flving Cohmui rejoined the 

eiice of the court martial was quashed, 2nd liivision, June il.tli, having deposited 
tin J ndgc-A.lvocate-tkneral holding that the the loads of the wagons at a fort which 
>:";lenee di.l not sup|».rt the charge, had been constructed bv the 2nd llivision 

■'1'' months later a strange and convincing it moved on lour miles, ami resumed, its 
I'ui. of evidence came before the writer of [msiticm in front, which it maintained until 
till- lecount. m the I'nnce'sown hand, that after the Battle of riundi when it followed 
DC uis servmg under the British officer, and the 2ml Division from the %Mllev of the Uni- 
»i- therefore in no sense responsible for volosi to the high ground near Kwamagasa. 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



THF HATTLK OF ULUNUI, JULY 4th. 



1879 



l,('Ki> CiiEi-MsroKD met with little i)pi«)si- 
tidii ns he advaiicea through Zululand with 
Gjiieral Xewdigates division ami the Flying 
Cnluniii. None the less, elaborate precau- 
tiuiis were taken to ensure against suqirise. 
The Itruiit of the work was home by the 
Flying Column, which moved in advarce of 
tlie 2nd Division, scouting the country in 
every direction. 

Puriiig the ad\ance Cetywayc sent mes- 
sengers to Lord Chelmsford to treat for peace. 
But the negotiations proved fruitless, since 
the Zulu King declined to accept the terms 
offered to him, So tlie Ilritish progress was 
cmtiuued ; and on July it-i C.enerals Wood 
;ind Xewdigate reached the hanks of the 
Wliite Univolosi. within live miles of the 
royal kraals of I'lundi. 

Here tk'fensiltle laagers were formed, and 
the position made secure by nightfall, since 
Ijudies of the 
enemy li ad 
been seen mov- 
ing on the far 
bank, 

On the fol- 
lowing day the 
2nd Division 
closed up their 
la;iger t<) that 
of the FUmg 
CnUnnn and a 
stone redoul)t 
was built in 
rear so that 
small garri& 

Cnuld hold t. 

[jost. thus lea\- 
iug the main 
force free tu 
ojierate as te- 

riuired. 

On July 3rd 

Colonel BuUer. 

w i t h the 

mounted men 

of tlie Flying 

Column, en Tssi'd 

the liver anu. 

reconnoitring 



towards Ulundi, advanced to within thr. - 
quarters of a mile of the royal kraals. 11^ :■ 
thev came upon a Zulu army, and wi.i\ 
compelled to retire hurriedly. 

Colonel Unller had achieved his object - 
had gained much valuatile information r.' 
ganling tlie nature of the ground between 1 in 
I'mvolosi and rhimU. At ().45 A.M , J;lv 
4th, the main body of the British 'n^i 
began to cross the river, leaving the •■.uuy 
garrisoned by the l-J4th Regiment, a cm- 
pany of Engineers, and a Catling gun 

Colonel Buller. with the mounted Uo'>^'~ 
of the Flying Colunm, led the advance. 

The whole force was formed into a huilnv 
squnre, the fnmt half comi>osed of the FKiiiu 
Column, the rear half of the 2iid Dinsinn Tiiv 
ammunition wagons, etc., were placed in th, 
centre of the scpiare, so also were the ^;ui^, 
tlie Litter l)eing ready to come into action ,■. 
a minuti ;' - 




tice ; w h 1 


M 


cavalrvco\ 


re^l 


the fro 


1 1 


flanks, and 


r-,-.n 


of the s([ii. 


u- 


In this f. 


r:ii- 


at ion 


!u 


troops 


^1.1- 


vanced tn 


Ilk 


posit ioi 


,il- 


readv sd> 


■U''[ 


bv C:>1< 


lud 


Buller. 


: 


ridge of gr. 


Ul!i: 


w h i c h e 


Mil- 


maiided til 


■:\''.- 


jacent cou 


Ir^ 


and oil. 


re . 



grass 



onh 



PLAN OF THE BATTLE OK ULUNDL JULY 4th. 1879 



force. 

Large 
hers ot 



r o n n ■ 
kraals 






:.4- ^"'-^ 



/ 1 



THE CHARGE OF THE I7TH LANCERS, JULY «,h, 18: 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 

.1... (.,».il tlinist was 



,,„„W Wore .,»,.. he ca.^;u_tjK 

;irtllkr> "A eftLCtive tlwt m 

;inil Riive way. 

The Charge ol the .7th L.ncers 

.... „ the 17th I.aucers ami liuUer s 

:,;,e Son, liuiUr's men ,mrsu,„g then. 



■ > .,< file fatal thrust was al."Ut tn 

Sv^^th!.,, .1,.,,.™. =>""-,;:it:r, 

inR aRilitv. wouW either eva.le the a. 
2r to it till the Laneer was supl-.rte.l 

^'^n:'ses of .he Zulus that aayanroruu,..: 
,0 , -00 men The British tou^ 
'''',;, a ■l--v.ro,,eansa,.rt... 
whch numl>ere<l 4.01]. >,u. 1 
;;a,ives.l..st.S killed a,„lS5vvouu.le,l. 

Uehat and Capture of Cetywayo 

Tl,e defeat of the Zulus a. 1 hu„h « - 
I .. \fter the battle their arun ■!: 
"'""'fcctvw -hMmaeave,a,i,l.«a,,v.: 

'"^^AuRUSt .7th Cety,.;v.. was -,.n... 
aivl sent as a prisoner to Lape Town , " 
^VSnct, havins formally procl^u^ed 

^s:J~r.»r.;. — - 

definitely annexed. 



77« 




THE 17th lancers PURSUING THE ZULUS AFTER ULUNDI, JULY 4th. 1879 
f-'tom a pivlute ht- AmbiatF il« W^.ltoii 



DETTINGEN 



THIS bat*, the last in vvhicl. a cruvvnrf 
K ts "f England an,l Scotland drnv 
hi, ,w..rd. was fnuRM i" ^"I'P""."' 
Maria Th«esa in the War uf the Austnan 

'"CiSnsn, Britain sent an army, under 
,i',;»Sal)..l"..Harl..fStair^-^- 
N-.therlands in the summer of 174- ^y' 
^tttheyearr;4.n>arched-w^^^ 

Rhine and in Mav encamped near Hoclist. 
r*;^!. with nearly 4".«,oAnj.nan. 

I'rasmatic Army 



George 11. In Command 

Earl Stair was „utn,a«.euyre.l by Marshal 
N<,ailles,wh„ did n,.t h"-"'" ',■■""> :';;j: 
reputation as a soldier. He held the , s 
Jgs over the main nvc al«.ve and below 
t!it> Mlivs' position. 

'"t,„ was the military situatjon when 
Hi; Majestv King George II. landed at 
Lvoet'luys. and. travelling v,a Han.ne.. 
assumed the nominal command of the anm 

June iqth. ,, ,. 

Lord Stair, ambitwns of repeating Marl 
hor^gh's strategy in I7"4. had marehed up 
t e Main to Aschaffenburg with that Mew, 
^"ile the enemy kept pace with mm on the 

"'when the" King, accompanied by the Duke 
„( Cumberland, joined the army he found 1 e 
intending armies encarnped on those erle 
,„d beautiful plains whrch border on the 
Main op,«,site each other, under a ndge of 
Ms covered with wood u, all the full fohage 

"Tfcrnnles north-west of Aschaflenburg 
„l,et,ingen. where the river is about s,xt> 
vinls broad For about a league the Unl 
through which it flows is low and level 
Xr which it l«omes mountamous and 
tautifully w.,oded. A mile below Aschaflen- 



,,urg the small river Aschaff. "^^f^^f^r^l 

,.„i„gen.betwe.m»^.a„^A..n^_ 
the pietureMiue Bavarian na 
^'t;:;':.stern bank of the river is genera.,. 

:::z'7::^ Z'J^^ -stwards 

^^tf^S troops were on the righ,. 
• H„. town of Aschaflenburg. 

west .)f Aschaflenburs, on tlio direct 
Ilauau. 



Retreat on Hanau . 

rhe Allies remained in their camps tan. 

,.am. passing «-"«" " j;^'^„:w.„i 

^TCfch.prt:redap.,sitiono,,,>. 
:^>^::t:;kof*=-Beekbr.«k,wh-.,a.. 

Dettingen becomes a swamp. He 



fi«k 



*^,M-^ 




Section II 



I'ne batteries to cnmraaiul the Aschaffenburg- 
I'ettingen-JIanau road. 

When Marshal Xoailles learnt the Allies 
were movinR. lie left Count Crammont with 
2S000 men t.. hold the IJettingen position 
and returning to the left bank of the Main 
-rdered 12,000 men to cross at .yschalTen- 
I'Urg and attack. 

Advance of the Allies 

.\t 4 .^.>i the liritish cavalry, followed by 
tlK .\ustriar,, marched. Then the infantry 
m the s.one sequence. .\ rear-guard com- 
^o-ed of battalions of the British Cuards, 
selected German infantry regiments, and 
■lanoverian cavalry, was accompanied by 
King George, who, ignorant of Comit Gram- 
moiits position at Dettingen, looked to 
.\schaffen!)urg, in his rear, as the most 
iiangerous point. 

.\t 7 .4,M, the troops, on passing through 
the \illage of Klein Ostheim, came he 

lire of the French batteries on tlie op|josite 
hank of the river. About S a.m. King George 
heard of the enemy being in p< ^^tion at Det- 
tingen, and strove to re-form the armies, 
hut the baggage massed between the nmiii 
frnly and rear-guard was hearilv fired bv 
the batteries on left bank of the Main. 
Lventually it was massed in the woods at 
till- lower sIoi)es of the Spessart Hills, 

11 the Iluke of (Srararaont— Noaille's 
nephew— hail obe.ved orders and remained 
in the swamp-covered positifm at Itettin- 
fwi .Marshal Xoailles's boast that he had 
i;"t the .Allies in a mouse-traji " would 
li'ive been justified. 

The Iluke, with select troops, among 
>■ h-ra were princes of the blood, all eager for 
Mttle, passed the swamp by the Dettingen 
t'fi'K'e, behmd which thev were posted and 
I'h.ilced into a small plain to meet the 

■^".lilies, when from the left bank of the 
.Mam he beheltl this unexj.ected niovemeut 
»-.i" lilled with grief at the rashness of Grani- 
•11.1m 11, foregoing all the advantages of his 
I^iiitinn, 

I'l.is was about noon, and on the approach 
' ''■": French, who were now attacking, and 
nut ,15 their General intended, on the de- 
liiisne, the King ordered his first line of 



DETTINGEN-JUNE 27th, 174? 



i» 



777 



Karly 
infantry to advance, under his second sou 
the Duke of Cumberland, and I.ieiitenant- 
(>enerals Clayton and .Somnierfel.lt 

During the advance tlie King was iie.irlv 
captured by the elieiii;-. and would have 
been so but for the valour of the 2.nd 
(Cheshire) Kegiment. 

The French Household tioops, from their 
right, advanced on the left of the AUies and 
commenced an irregular lire which rapidly 
became general along the whole line. 

The Allies still continued to advance not- 
withstanding a front and Hank lire which 
laid dead and wounded in piles mer each 
other, 

Tlie F-rench, in a charge, dr.ne in the 
King's and l.igonier's regiments of horse 
which had been sent to the front bv Lord 
f>tair. They next drove in the Horse Guards 
under General Honeywi„d : the iiifantrv 
companies 'wheeling back " opened their 
ranks to let the beaten horse retire. 

On the left the French cavalrv charged 
the Austrian cavalry and drove it back ; 
but the British and Hanoverian infantry' 
animated by the presence of their .Sovereign,' 
stood linn as rocks, and inured in an 
incessant fire which nothing could resist ; 
letting the horsemen through, they re-formed 
hne and made great havoc among them. 

The French Retreat 

Accompanied by his aide-de-camp, the 
Earl of Dumfries, the Kari of .Stair then rode 
up to the infantry, and told them that they 
might yet have the entire glory of beating 
the French, whose third line was now seen 
drawn i.p in beautiful order. 

Three hearty cheers were the response, 
and once more the British line resumed its 
steady advance : and their attack was con- 
ducted with such determination that the 
whole French army gave way, their con- 
fusion being increased by the Hanoverian 
artillery, which opened tire u|)im them. 

Marshal Noailles retreated across the .Main 
with the loss of 5,000 men, many being 
drowned in the Main 
Tlie loss of the Allies was about 3,000, 
The Wctory was productive of no decisive 
results , and both armies sliortly afterwards 
retired into winter quarters— in October. 



SECTION ll.-tLARLY 



FONTENOY 



ON Marcli 7tli. 1745. William. IHike 
i.f L'umbMlaml was cnmmissKined 
as Captain -General of the British 
\rmv and Commander-in-Chief of the Con- 
fc.<lerate forces. On April 7th he reached 
the Helijian capital. 

The Rarriams ahsorlied 18.000 troops, 
leaving 4J,ooo for the field army. 

Maurice, Count .saxe. who commanded the 
French, had ohtaint-'l Rreat celebrity by 
his skilful tactics and mihtar>' talents and 
intrepidity. He brousht into the field .iS.""" 
more men than the Confederates ; his fuU 
strcnRth beluK luO battalions ami 172 squad- 
rons, while tlicy had but 4b battalions and 
()0 squatlrims. 



Investment of Tournai 

The campaign opened with the investment 

of Tournai. The Duke of Cumbcrianrt and 

the Austrian General, Marshal Count Konig- 

scck. inarched for Halle, and on April 2Jnd 

ere at Soignies. 

Louis XV.. accompanied by the I)au- 
jihui, joined Marshal Saxe in the camp before 
Tournai. 

The Marshal invested Tournai with 18,000 
men : to the defence of the bridges of the 
Scheldt, and to keep the communications 
open, he assigned b.ooo more. 

The siege of Tournai had been pressed 
vigorously when the Duke of Cumberland 
advanced unwisely to its relief, as he had 
onlv 53,000 men with which to make the at- 
tempt. The Dutch, who proved worse than 
useless in the campaign, were led by the 
Prince of Waldeck, a leader possesscil of 
little skill and experience. Konigseck, who 
commanded our Austrian allies, was old ; and 
thus led, the Allies advanced to engage one 
of the finest armies in liunjpe. led by the 
first strategist and tactician of the age. 
In his army were five Princes of the 



Idiaiil and b7 orticers. all of noble (amilir^ ; 
but .Saxe was s<i ill as »o be unable to -11 
on horseback or wear uniform : he accom 
panied the troops in a litter. 

He took up a i»isitii.n at Fontenoy. a. su;. 11 
village which is situateil on rising gruar-i 
six miles south of Tournai. on the ri-!.; 
bank of the Scheldt, .\long the summit .1 
the eminence which there slopes upw.ii 
from the pUiin, he formed his line of uifaiitr- 
The village of St. Antoine. near the ri\.r 
covered his right flank, and it was furllur 
protected by a battery or. the left bank . 1 
the Scheldt. 

The Wood of Barn covereil his left ; it «..> 
occupied by infantry and guns. Besi.k^ t!i. 
batteries at St. Antoine. in the centre .1 
Fontenoy, and in rear of the wings, iha. 
were also abaris of felled trees. 

The position was defended altogethi; 1" 
2'mj heavy cannon and field-pieces. 

It was imliossible to turn the llank> " 
the French, and to assail in frimt thci 
superior force thus jKisted evinced eitln 
the extremity of rashness or igrairaim 
The Duke of Cumberiand ordered 40 Kit 
talions and 00 siiuadrons to advance t 
the attack. He had 90 pieces of ordnaiu. 
eight of these were mortars, but many »^i 
r.nly three-pounder falconets. 



Advance of the Allies at Fontenoy 

The niglit of the loth of May was cl« 
dark, and moimlcss. and mist was envd 
ing the positicm of Fontenoy, when ' 
A.M.. on May nth. the Allies advanced 
the open plant. The atmosphere « 
still that the troops conld hear tlu \!!l 
clocks striking, as in the dark the 1 : 
of attack formed up. 

The right wing, composed of 
and Hanoverians, under General Z,i- 
was formed in four hues before '. 



n.iiis 



778 



FONTENOY-MAY 11th, 1745 



Section II 

rillago. The left «mg, coraposcd of Dutch 

and Austrians, reached to the wn„d cif 

I'eronne, In fmnt of Vezon was an armed 

a lul.t, mannwl by fx>o Frenchmen ; an,l 

tins point Brisadier Ing.Jdsby had orders 

to Sturm with four battalions, while 

the Pnnce of Waldrek was to assail Kon- 

tenoy with the Dutch. The tro<>],s in 

marching order, stumbled forward in the 

'.ark, over hedge, through water-cuts and 

the growing grain, till thev formed quarter- 

colunms, and then dejiloyed into line thri* 

r.niks deep. 

At 4 .A.M. tlie artillery opened fire as 
the mist cleared away, ami the earliest beams 
of (lay began to lighten the flat horizon, and 
continued without intermission. 

Sir John I.igonier was ordered to advance 
«ith the lirigade of (Juards and seven 
guns to subdue a destructive fire from the 
enemy's fiel,! artillery, an.l when thev were 
silciie«l the whole line was to advance upon 
tile French position. 

The seven guns were hradeil witli grape 
an I the brigade advanced with bavcmets 
li-ieil. Several officers fell ; two lieutenant- 
colonels were killed at the same moment ■ 
Z^fu ""'' ''"•y"^"™ ."•"' -—S «■' two episodes worth repeating 

r'r=r,is~rLr™ ;:~:;i^ ■£;-?:££-- 

The Guards and 4and Highlanders f^'^T^ Jj'"'" Ing..Uisb> s division and -ttaciicd 

'n, 1 „ *" tlie Guards. 

-^ti^ri^^^z::::^:;::^ ,^z:^ - '^- f oncers of ,1. 

Infc Tl... t^ » 1 , .. . 



JCarly 

Brigadier Ing shy, who had special orders 

to carry the reilouhts at the Bois de Barri 
miagined the difficulty to U. greater than it 
was : and mstead of storming the works at 
on«. and scounng the wckkI with the bavonet 
he returned to the Duke for artillerv thv" 
afforchng the enemy time to reinfoTO the 
w.,rks. F.,r this he was afterwar.ls tried bv a 
court martial, but was acquitted of all but 
error of judgment. 

Courtesy on the Battle-Pleld 

I.«l by the Duke of Cumlwrland. the first 
hne succreded in passing Fontenov and the 
redoubt, and got within tliirtv yards (,f 
the enemy's muzzles. The Briiish column 
advanced U-twetn the batteries The 
slaughter w.as indescribable. Mliole rank, 
tedl. but the gaps were closed up. and 
alter two terrible rushe- with the -avoret 
they broke tie brigade of French Cuards 
and pushKl ilem back in disonl.r upon 
their supports, the Irish regiments of I.o,d 
Uare. The French cavalry now ad-anced 
but went alKjut. unable to face the lire that 
mowed down horse and man. 

At this portion of the battle there occurred 
two episiides worth repeating. n\. find one 



them out. killing a considerable 
manlier. The Guards and Black Watch 
then kll back and rejoined the first line, the 
lormation of which was complete by nine 
clock. The troops then moved forward 
to tlKir respective points of attack. 

S.' f|iiick w.is the rush, that the Duke and 
other officers rode their horses at a canter ■ 
"nt tlKir men f,.U fast on every hand while 
m-'uvi between Barri and Fcmtenov, " the 
nre 01 tlie cannon making whole lanes througl 



the i;ii,i;lish.' 
'■■•ler this the Dutch, who covered their 
"■ Ml into disorder and could be rallied 
m ninro during the day. The cavaln- al?.n 



hats. The Count de Chambanne and Duke 
de Biron. who were i,i front, returned the 
salute, as did all the other officers of the 
French Guards, i^rd Charles Hav (son of 
the Marquis of Tveeddale). a captain in the 
English Guards, called aloud : 

" Gentlemen of the French Guards, fire I " 

"Gentlemen." replied the Count d'Anter- 

roche, lieutenant of Grenadiers, " we never 

fire first : fire yourselves." 

The British then, he conrinues, " com- 



iks of the r„r^ V *^ ""■ """"' "'™' •'= continues, "com- 

■fa of the Confederates, particulariy menced a running fire in dirisions (platoon"" 



bcc, 



disorganised. 



'■•' li'iuvijuus rj, 

I that one battalion made a discharge, and 
afterwards another, while the first reloaded 
Nineteen officers of the French Guards fell 
by the fir.t disch.irge. Three officers and 
95 men were kiUeil. and 28.'; were wounded 



779 



„„T,SH B«TU.:S ON ^^""'^^^i 



als.. It Swis-ollici.' 



■; iinil ■ 



•1 ^"^' ...iiliatiimh 



I if wiioni 'M 



,\Ka "11 llKSl 



'l.lcllKl iJllVlI- 



liis iKiitiiiiii"-^' 



,l..iul. four """^'■' 



rs air.l nhin 



i.twlllistamliiW 'i'* «'•■ 
■nclK-* 111' 



ill 1 



1 tlif til' 



i.ml ('.;inlli!' i 
.■^>llK■uc^ 



were 

,int-i;tiiL-r^il - 
„l,„se r.i^li 
cmiUiet l"'t 
fiiltliel'"^">-'ll 
the BiittW "i 
llLttinseii— 
„iiskilK-.l. 
■■Tlif I'.ii',;!!-''! 

adv;nuei\ i^ 

if jK-riiinuiui; 

part "i <li'^'' 

exercise ; the 

maji.rs kvel- 

lins tl"^^ *"'" 
lUers" UHlskets 
with their 
canes, to 
make their 
aim mure 
sure."' 
In the ■■ Ue- 

cnrils "i tile 

4>ild." «e 

fin.l that tills 

secniul attack 

\v a s 111 a il e 

.ibout luid- 

,l;iy, " when 

S'\.ie:;!:^;...-0.1o„el«rKo,,ertMnn». 
;Uh.heHmhla.nlerswj.or^l-- 
tain the HntisU tfops. who were 

,,^.:i<:^:^e^ii^nienfi^.int,.eirown 

Lliioii, they fh...^ thenjs^v^ te^ 
«,„„„,, when thelrenehlirtaU _^,^^^__ 

„,„s swe,,t harinlessU ' " '^f,^ ^ung 

^>'""^*'^r':'''»:.'wS'«>^c-heaon 

their muskets, .« " ■•' "' ., ^j j5„,j„i 

r^^l^^h^r.-lrrre^inren.,.'.. 



men : Hi 

arm ;iii"^ '■■• i i . 

„,,,s ..hserveil that when lu- eonimana,, 
was ciiwry etonii'l 

rsiswn^-'----- 




duet 

reKinient , ■ - 
„l,fervi , . 
lli(.hlan,i.r 
who !... 
kiUeil l.i- 
men, ni,i,'',- 
a stTok« ,<• ■ 
tenth will' '" 
lir.iadsw"" , 
when hi- ■'■■-' 
was torn - li 
bv a eaiuv 11, 
hall. 

The liiA- ■ 
the ir. V.' '■' 
trenches ^^ ■ 
choked 1',-' 
dead ai>a ',; 
ins'. "!•' 
thtee-C" 

nered h - 
powder- 
wiRs, »>J 
ons, and -- 
buried -li 
lay e V - 1 
where. 
The S-'i' 
„, the scot. Greys was web. Cor... 

-r'^tltef ti Uhe sta.,,.. 

t ght and fast, as m lue _ 

f, , Ht.,„ch left i,»i paces bexond 1 
and making themselves masters oil,. 

;«0 



THE DUKE OF CUMBERLAND 

THE DON p^^_^_., j^„„, 

,.„,.i,bv Si, J..>». »-"■■"'•■""■''' 



Sectir 



FONTENOY— MAY lUh, 174S 



Early 







u 



X 



,«i;% I I ^ 

4 -l :t ^'- 




I BATTLE OF FONTENOY. 



PLAN OF THE BATTLE OK FONTENOY. MAY nth, 1745 



from the ground on which they stood to 
tla-ir own camp. But as the lef. retired, the 
cnlumns wheeled hack, nr opened and un- 
cnwred two batteries of lieavy puns, v.hich 
jHiured on the British such a stcirni of cai- 
tri'Iye-shot in front and flank, that it was 
impossible to face ft. Rallying, ho^^^:,v■r. 
tiny completed the disorder of the French. 
whn were beaten ; and liad some fresli bat- 
taliniis from the reserve replaced those that 
li-i'l suffered from the masked batteries, or 
ii;i'i the seccmd line advanced to enable the 
cawdry to get past the redoubts, the enemy 
ciiuiil not ha-, j recovered the day. 

When the French infnntn,- were driven 
"lit i>f tlie \411age of St. Antoino. the Count 
df Saxc be)ieved the battle was lost, and 
Ant an officer to the King bcRKing that they 
wuuld ])rovide for their own safety by fliKht. 

' lUiis were brought to bear on the British 
anilkry, which in some degree slackened its 
fif'* iiid gave time It.T the Irish Brigade to re- 



form. It was the last re&»urcc left to King 
Louis and Count Saxe. It was at the nmst 
critical iierifxi of that dreadful da> . when, 
after being harassed by the mana'uvres of 
the past night, after enduring a cannonade 
from more than 2(h> pieces of ordnance, after 
driving in the field-guns, after ft)rcing a 
pass;ige between Fontenoy and the WockI nf 
Barri, and after pushing the foe from the 
heights and village nf St. Antoine, tliat 
the Irish Brigade, of immortal memory 
— the representatives of ,io.ooo Irishmen who 
had followed King James into exile— came 
fully into acti(m against tiie Confederates. 

A yell rang along their rinks as the 
seven regiments came on. 

" Cxixmhni^idh ar Lnimncac iit;f(s <.\r fluile 
na Sassutunli ! " whieli may be translateil, 
" Rememlxjr Limerick and Saxon faith ! " 

Touring in a volley, they rushed on our 
toil-worn '■ itii the bayonet, who, 

after havi -sivetv routed the finest 



a 




Section II 



FONTENOY-MAY llth, 1745 



tr(H)i)s in ihv I-'n-iu-Ii s*-rvicv. were imw 
P.iiUil l»y tin.' Irisli ' " 

'■ \n iidditional enrits v,\yv si-nt tn tht' 
nlk-f i)f tlif Hritisli," s:iys Mackiiinoii. 
■ wli.isc- L-nmj.ict fnrin.itinii had hitlu-rt.. 
t'!i:ililt'il tlu-iu tn rt-pLiir tlic rt-piMtLrl I. ^s^^ 
nftMsiniK-d by tlust- iiiL\s,s;int iittacks. No 
frt-sh oril^TS Wire issuud ; tm cavalry was 
within rtach tn follow u\> W.,- panic which 
had st-i/L-d uiw.n the tntniy. TUl- Dutch di<l 
ni)t rijijK-ar in any (iiiartcr. ni)r was tlurv 
any prolwliility of a sortie from Tonniai to 
aid this isolated l)odv. . . . Tlie en- 



Early 

U-lnnRwI t<. the Si^-ts I*.«.t C.uards. Of the 
Irish nriKadc tlure fell one-(ourth of tlic 
othccrs, includinK Colonel iMlIon. and one- 
third < f the men, 

Tlie Uvikc of CuniUrland Wi-.s never able 
to face the enemy a^ain. hut lay timidly en- 
trenched with his tr.K)ps Utwecn Hm'^sels 
and Antwerp. The folIimiuK '« the bulletin 
of Fontenoy, pubU>!ied at Taris on Mav 
It.th, five days after the battle ; 

■ < »nr \ictory may U- said to lie complete . 
Init it cannot U- denied that the Allies be- 
ha\ea extreineh well, more esjiie <.. the 




JHENCH MEDAL CELEBRATING THE BATTLE OK KONTENOY 



counter Ix'tween the IJritisJi and the Irish 
Hrif^ade was fierce, tlie fire constant, the 
slaughter great ; and the loss rn the side of 
ti'c Rriti.sh was such that they were com- 
pelled at length to retire." 

The Duke of Cumberland lost all presence 
"I mind, and nis army fell back in confusion, 
cavalry and infantry all mingled together. 

The army moved to i.essines. 

l.ouis rode flown to the bivouac of the 
Irish and thanked them personally. 

\oItaire estimates tlit loss of the French 
ill this battle at 8.000 men. while the Allies 
li.ul 21,000 killed or wounded. Our House- 
hold Brigade had y?^ otficers and men placed 
li'-ys de combat ; of these no less than ^37 



Knglish. wlin m,-de a soldit-r-like retreat, 
whicli was niiieli favoiuetl by an adjai. eiit 
wood. The li: tish behave-' well, anri none 
could exceed them in ad- , cing. none t>nt 
our otHcers. when the Highland furies 
rushed in ujxin us with more violence tlian 
ever did a sea driven by a temiH-st. I cann.,.t 
say much for the otiier Auxiliaiiis ; some 
looked as if tliey had no concern in tlie 
matter. We gained the victory, but may I 
never see such another! " 

When (leorge 11. heard of the c<mduct 
of the Irish at Fontenoy he uttered that 
memorable imprecation on the penal code : 
■'Cursed be the laws which deprive me of 
such subjects 1 " 



783 












'^^,.*<v1f' 



AFTER THF. nATTl-E 



From a picture pai 






*2 



1 






4F. BATTLt («DN'TENOY. MAY Ilth, 1745 
paiiiitJ ^V H;-^M«iir ii, ihL- Museum at Versailles 






Sr.CTION ll.-EARLY 



CULLODEN 

James II.. landed in the north °/ '^^ ;''^^;;;i\';{;;,;7 Xw.-"'' chU. "nd afte, oca,pyn,, 

ordinaZ c,uarrdling. he relrealed '""l^f}'±^'^^^",„i r.lasgow to Stirl.ng : „l falkM, 
The Highlanders marched hrous' tMe. ^" "/™ •,2„,, ,,,.Vs mmbered less than S,<,<.n 
„... Pretender's men """^ ""/''"'jifS to;" S ™<(.<i, losing boo ,nen killed a,ui 
and in spite of some of '''' l'V^)lZ,,a,e ne '..'M-'-^ers- bss was only 120 ^ , , , 
wounded. 700 prtson^rs, .id <;« '' ' '''«''f'- „;"„ ,],„rncss lihen the Duke of Cumherland 

arriSt'J^::^: 'Ts^^ip^^^ ^ ^t7,S tX::foJz. ^i:^ 

up to Scotland.— V,. \V. 



THE Duke of Cumberland left London 
on January 25tli. I74<>. '"id travelling 
day and night reached the Palace of 
Holyrood on the 30th. There he took up his 
quarters, occupying the same apartments and 
the same beil that had been used by Charles. 
His arrival revived the spirit of the troops, 
with whom he was somewhat of a favourite ; 
and he stopped the cruel punishments his 
predecessor was inflicting to covet his own 

disgrace. 1 .. ., 

The Duke, though not a good general, was a 
man of courage, of energy, and steadmess of 
purpose ; but his mann. .s were boisterous 
and brutal, his teml«r hasty, harsh, and 
tvrannieal. his passions coarse and violent. 
He was detested by the people of England, 
who believed him capable of any atrocity , 
and the deeds that were to come m bcotland 
gained him the name of " The Butcher and 
iiave staniiH;d his memory to the present hour 
with an intamv that is indelible. 

The Duke marched westwards January 31st, 
in two columns. The force under his com- 
mand insisted of 14 battalions of the hne 
and iz squadrons of cavalry, ui all 14.0"" 
men. who were eager to retrieve the aurels 
lost so lately. Hawley was app^miled to 



act as one of the Duke's Lieutenant-Cenerals. 
with Major James Wolfe, of the 20th F.«.t 
the future hero of yuebec-as Ins aide-de 

'=^"1'- • r 1 .1 1 

\t Falkirk the Duke was informed that 
thi Highlanders were in full retreat, havin;; 
destroyed their ammunition and spiked their 
heavv guns. . . 

The Duke ot Cumberland, being Joined h> 
6000 Hessians from Antwerix marched bv 
.\l,erdeen in pursuit of the Highlan.lers with 
double their numbers. Durmg his stay .1. 
the granite citv he was indefatigable 111 
exercising his troops, notwithstanding tK 
rigour ot the season, and in providing Inr 
the security of the country ; and 111 Aprf 
when the weather permitted, he marched Im: 
Inverness, where the insurgents ha., hs.'l 
tlieir head-quarters. . , . , 

He passed the Spey, the most rapid nv.r 
in Scotland, without opiwsitlon, th.ius" 
3.000 Highlanders appeared on its n.irtheoi 
side where the bank was steep and dilhc.l 
t., ascend. A Omucil of War had res.,lv..l 
to leave tin fords of the Sl>ey unguar.k.l, 
believing that th. greater number ol 1 .e 
Kings troops that passed the river the le».r 
would escajie, 
786 



Section II 



GULLODEN— APRIL 16th, 1746 



This idt'u might have been rcahsed had 
they acted on the defensive and c-.utinued 
tu retire north, disputing every tiefile, until 
the King's troops were in tlie mountains, 
where the cavalry could neither subsist nor 
act; where tlic artillery and wagoii-train 
ould not be drawn, and where the Duke 
might have 
l>cen com- 
pelled to 
ciinimence a 
retreat in 
turn. But 
Charles, who 
Iiad imbibed 
fr'iinsomeof 
those about 
biin certain 
iiutious of 
nulitari- hon- 
our, deemed 
that further 
retreating 
!d be dis- 

-ceful.and 
resolved to 



;i ve 



>nc 



more trial of 

sUeiigthwith 

the King's 

troops, 

tiifiugh they 

St) far ex- 

ca-(led the 

clans in 

numerical 

force ; after 

ha; ing failed 

ill a niglit 

attat-konthe 

iJuke'scamp 

at Nairn, tlie 

mtii being unequal to the long march. 

^■t' n-, famished, and worn, they fell back 

Oil Iiiveruess, and on the moor of CuUoden 

aw-aitid the King's troops. 

last of the Prince's money had long 
been spent, and for weeks past his little 
'tirc^^ had been without pay. After their 
''tar, night march to Nairn, the state of the 
Hif;!.Iauders— tlisheartened, disconsolate, and 
g— was deplorable when they took up 



PRINCE CHARLES EDWARD STUART. THE YOUNG PRETENDER 
From a portrait br Nicolas Larailliere in the National Portrait Gallery 



sincv.' 



sta:\ j 



Early 

tlieir ground near Culloden House ; so scarce 
was food that even the Prince cnuld with 
dilhculty obtain there a small slice of bread 
and a little whisky in a quaigh. while for 
days past cabbage-leaves and a little oat- 
meal Iiad been regarded as luxuries to his 
followers. To add to his mental and ntlier 
sufferings, 
the young 
I'rince suf- 
fered from 
intermittent 
fcwr, the re- 
suh of ford- 
ing rivers in 
the winter 
season. 

On the 
other Iian<i. 
tlie King's 
army had 
been am])ly 
provisi(»ned, 
and at this 
time a fleet 
freighted 
witlisupi)hes 
lay in tlie 
bay, in sight 
of the star\- 
i n g 1 II s u r- 
gents. 

W h e n 
Charles Ed- 
w a r d o b- 
tained reli- 
able infor- 
mation, he 
gave (^"Icrs 
to recall all 
stragglers by 
having a. 
cannon fired, "from the brown heath and 
shaggy wood." by the gorse bushes, fnmi the 
bleak moor, from the park and turf enclos- 
ures, wherever the weary and worn cUuismen 
had spent the remainder of that dreary night 
or morning after the futile march to Xaira, 
they mustered with alacrity, good order, and 
resolution, under the banners of their chiefs. 
" The whole force, when assembled, amounted 
to not more than 5,000 men, who, worn out 




787 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 

»^" '^ „ . ... =„„l„ri„dv. to the men . 



r'l 



an. ,.eat.y -';-';;;l.'':;;.:uaac Charles 
A la^- attempt «"••'] .J ^,„ti„n. 

to occupy ^ ■" ";, ^^ j„ argument and en- 
B„, he »-f /^ : Xn committins all to the 
S;,SrS:tuatee,.a.ement." 



George, tatl of '-"•"^^-, „„rth by tW 
ken.ies, had been cu o« m th _^^ ^ 
Sutherland elan; f ^'f 7",,,^ crisis, had 
and the M-^" . fth ™n and as they 
brouRht a '»*>°''"?' ring Highland lines, 
marched alonr, «^^mus«nng g, ^_^^^ ^„ 

with pipes Pl^>«'g- ^'" mountain chivahy 
the usual appurtenance, "£ "»™ ^^ ^road- 
they were welcomed -* ';-* ^^t of the 
.words, and ' «>;^'t„;Xnts oppo-'' "^ 
Uttle •■>™v « 5.°^ » ^^^„i i, three lines, 
lo.ooo of the enemy i ^( j^.e 

Lord John I'rummond led the 

Highlanders. -'»;;-;; '""the Duke of 

Oeorse Murray the r.glit , 

Perth the left. ^j,,„,^. „en. 

,„ the r,ght w.nR^«e ^^^ ^^^^ 

the Camerons^ the b.ew ^^^^^^^ 

^""■'^ f: rttihr^ regiments of 
dans of lc'« note, i"^ ,„,t,in- 'elv posted 

on the left. 1 lie iih morass. 

bys.mreparkw*.andtheleft^K ^^__^^ ^_, 

'-— '"-:SS:il^--- 
Gordons, -";-^;;^;i"; stapleton ; but few 
pickets, unde Bn^'Uer I ^^^^^^ ^^^^^ 

accounts of the P™^" 1" Surrom.ded by 
as to the order of lus "^""^ . „ „„ a small 
Ws Life Cuards, '- ro^^JXtnalds were 
eminence in the rea . ™ ;^ J' 
full of sullen ind,gna«o^<"f'^-« ^, 

■"'^'^^ ""thrall gedohavt been theirs ever 

^----?.rStr:s:"^ 
r^ide;u;T^:;;?Trr"' 



Perth, imp^oringiytothem^o^lj^en^v; 

■•'''*^"^'U^le^an■d I -I ■"-*''■■ 
right wins of the '-"•/', J , .. nut ,lu', 

^-^^n:at^^ore::tr:: 
-rrSt^-"— ■ 

clouds. j^5 tower loil 

that sea where the «eet 

was anchored. , ,1,.. 

,nthedimd.stan -^> -,„„„.^„„ 
,,„are bast.ons of Fort .e. ^g^ ^^^^ p^^^^,^,^,, 
the Moray I-irth un ^^^^ ^^_^^^^,. 

was bleak and drear> bm I 

ranks when the I'l"" '^8''„"„;,riand. whns. 
the advancing armyf tumbe^^^ ^^^ _^ 

columns loomed darKiy s , ,,i,,ck- 

thengraduaUyth^m-of^t^c^^^^ „,„ 

gaitered and ™ "^ ^ ,,ecame .1.- 
tayonets tod and gh«e g^^ ^^^^^ ^^__^_, 
tinctly visible. Uoser a ^^^ 

with drums beatms -^^^™'^,p,o,i„g ,„•. 
massed columns of teg"n^"« g^nadier.. ^ 

each. 



The Duke's Marjngue 

^'t is recorded that on thi^n«^mel..^;;> 

,av th.se adverse l'"f „°' ^^ Macdon.,!: 

cheered e-vch other defi^".'l> ■'^= „"„,„„. 
regiments alone mamtammgsn«e.l^^_^^ 

King and country, ymr ""R"'^ ,, u 



Section II 



mg to victorj-. Be firm, and your enemits 
wUI soon fly. If jny amongst you are dilii- 
•lent of your courage or Ijehaviour, wlikli 
I have no reason to suspect, or if there ari' 
any who, through conscience or inclinatioii 
camiot be zealous or alert in the performance 
.if their duty, my desire is that such should 
immediately retire. I assure them of my 
free pardon for so doing, as I had rather be 
at the head of a thousand brave and resolute 
men than of tea thousimd among whom were 
some who, by cowardice or misbehariour 
might disorder or dispirit the troops, and 
bniig dish(mour on my command." 



CULLODEN-APRIL 16th. 1746 



£arlv 




The Battle Begins 

On the other side. Prince Charles merely 
niJ to those about him, as he drew his sword : 
' Come, gentlemen, let us give to Cumber- 
land another Foutenoy ! " 

Facing each other without dring a .*ot, 
the two armies remained under arms till 
iiiMHi was past. 

The battle was beg-m by the Highlanders 
With artillery. The-r gmis, however, accord- 
ing to the inniion G-uHte, were " extremely 
in-served." The shot went clean over the 
heads of tli.- enemy, and did no damage ; 
while those of Cumberland opened in re-' 
turn with grai)e-shot. which caused terrible 
havoc among the Highlanders, making long 
^n<\ ghastly lanes tlirough them. 

F'T half an hour this cannonade was cou- 
linmil. and during that time both armies 
m.initained steadily their respective positions, 
hut such was the slaughter in the Highland 
ranks that the clans became impatient to 
closi- with their enemies. 

Tile order was given when the mangled 
cirpscs lay along the Highland line in layers 
three deep. Leaping over these with a loud 
shout, the clans of the right wing and centre, 
m the face of a storm of grape and musketrv, 
ch,irf;,d with sword and shield. Huddled 
t'Wllier, shattered anil shaken by the shower 
"f inm and lead that tore through them, 
>hn nevertheless burst through the 4th 
'KiiiKs Own) and 37th (1st Hampshire) 
KfRiinents in .111 instant, ct. down !,ord 

R'llnrt Ker. ten other and 207 

m™ :4 both battalions, at arine two 

pieci's of c . 



7=9 



On they swept, though unsupfiorted thev 
were, to break thr.mgh the 2=;th (Kings (Iwn 
Scottish Borderers) and ,5th Marines ; 1 ut the 
lluke, anticipating this attack, had ilrawn 
up his second line in three ranks, the first 
kneelmg as if to receive cavalry These 
reserved their tire till the broken 4th and 
J7th had cleared the front, and then thev 
poured in a volley at pistol range wl.ici, 
threw the Highlanders into terrible confusion 
The 8th (King's Liverpool) Regiment 
changed front " at right airjes. and no« 
opened a flanking fire up,>n tbem. Enfiladed 
thus, blinde-d by smoke, the Highlanders 
could neither see friend nor foe. A few still 
rushed on, uttering their war-cries, then 
breaiuig through the second triple line by 
sheer dint of sworil and dirk, were bavoneted 
by the third that stood beyond. 

While the right wing made this gallant 
charge, the three Macdonald regiments on 
the left looked sullenly on, uncertain whether 
to advance or not. 

In vain did the Duke of Perth wave his 
bonnet to them, and shout, " Clavmore ! 
claymore ! " 

Hoping to stimulate them by his example, 
the venerable and fearless Keppoch, attended 
by a few of his immediate kinsmen, charged 
alone, while his clan, an event unheard of in 
Highland history, remained stationary. 

" My Cod ' ■ cried the old man ; " my 
God! have my children forsaken me?" 

They beheld unmoved the fall of their 
chief, pierced by many musket-balls, and 
heard his agonising exclamation without 
making any attempt to avenge him ; or 
simply ci,ntented themselves by exchanging 
a fire of musketry with the Royals, J4th 
(1st Border) Regiment, and other corps in 
their front, rill, observuig the total rout of 
the right and centre, they wheeled about, 
and retreated in good order with their pipes 
playing. 

The Highland ketreat 

The thin secimd line of Cliaries was still 
mihrokeii, and on being reinforced by simie 
remnants of the first tried to stand its 
ground : but the day «,is irretrie\abK lost. 
In fnmt were the victorious lines of Cumber- 
land, with their horse and artillery ; and 



wm' 



BRITISH BATTLES ON L.-.D AND SEA 



now, ami.! the .m..kc and con u ..m of the 
battle, three battaUons ..f ArRvllsh.re Lam ,- 
bdl^ led hv General Hawley, ,,rocee>k<l to 
broak clown the paik wall which o.vere.l the 
Prince's right Hank. , , . , ,„j 

The loth DraKoons hied throufth and 
opened lire, and «. a few nmutes a retreat 
was general alons the whole H.shland hne. 

Ere the misclnef made by the Campbells 




PLAN OK THE BATTLE OK CULLODEN. APRIL IKh 



was complete, and ere the sap in the park 
1,1 was wi,le enoush, a few o the Uan 
Chattan n.anned it with target and claymore^ 
and with spk-n.lid yalonr faced horse an.l 
foot t<.Kether. Man after man went down, 
.ra the last who stood m the breach was 
Gihies Macbane. 

T.nverinK aboye the <lead a,.d dvn« w.o 
lav heaped ab.mt the wall, coyered by Ins 
round shield, with his lonR hair streamms ui 
the wind, for his bonnet ha.l been shot aw-ay, 
and covered with wonnds. he stdl laced the 
enemv. The Earl of Ancrnn.. who rode at 
the liead "f the lolh (Lincolnshire) Repment. 



crie-d " S.ive th.it brave fellow ! " and oflerul 
him quarter, but Macbane disdained it. 

He is said to have unhorsed and slnn 
I, tr<.opers ere he was shot down, ai..: 
friahtfuUy man-led as the regiment ro.k 

over him. , , , , . 

When buried after the battle, his head w;i, 
found to be cloven, his body was a miss ..f 
bayonet wounds, aid one thigh was broken 
Charles stood till t'.K' 
last moment, and \ra< 
making a final attemi.t 
to rally those about 
him. wiien Sir Tliomis 
Sheridan and C.enci.il 
O'Sulhvan. two faithful 
and gallant Irish Rea!k- 
men who loved him w.ll 
took his horse by tin 
bridle and forced liiiii 
from the field. He tli.a 
put himself at the IkcI 
of the right wing. whiA 
retired in such order lliit 
the cavalry dared not ti 
attack it. 

The liarl of Kiliiuf 
nock was taken pris-tici 
bv some dismounted nun 
of the loth l)rag'"ii* 
faint, and wonndeil, his 
head bare, as he had l'"> 
Imth hat and wig thts 
nnfortunate pc-er «..- 
dragged by them ali'ti-^ 
the Hue of the 4th K>",;i- 
ment. in which his t^'ii 
James, I.onl Hoyd. »i! 
In a burst of t'dial respect, tlie 



lie 



Lr:;:rted"r;:u;':;:ra;k;:y«>k.^sf*t 

.., ,,ris.iner from their hands, and pl.M 
l,is own cocked hat .m his grey head. wl*. 
was ere long to fall be.ieath the ax,' •■.. 
Tower Hill. 

After the battle the victorious tr> 
haveil with great barbarity. 

The loss of the King's troops, o all' ^^; 

was only JIO killed and wounded, nu": 
regiments not having a single "S""";,;, 
tbev conM not plead slaughter as an .« « 
forso implicitly fulfilliug the orders ,t l- 
royal savage who commande.l them. 



'■m'", 



Section II 






CULLODEN-APRIL 16.h, 1746 



Early 

At.,..acc.«.L\ ';;';'"■<■ -umded. 

'""-if i«.i„f„iiv „, ',f 'f "";"" "'^d 

"'" "' "'-""' ■"«! .li-li,„Rv, 



• 3i3kjp^ 







"■'"' \Ms murilfrcl. To \>v ( i 

,;;;;:--■""-"'. ^:z;ri 

;," ';r< nn, all with,,, „.ore hur„e,l 
- r,. whole roaj ,„ ,„,„„,,, „.,,^ 
"'"' ""■■ IxJJ'ra of the slain. 



.lares 



" Wolfe," crieil His Hi,,i,,,, 

'l'^>t IliKhlarul seo, rel ,!, 

"f "s so iusolemlv." 

K . 1 H.Khness, replied ,l,e ge.ule 
« I cannot consent eo become a„ 



lot me 
. look 



t-XL'CU- 



•mi^i 



i&mr-i^jsri' 



..ORFRTS'S BATTLES ABOUT KABUL. 
RO»^^^^ DECEMBER. 1879 



„„,... wHch "-XK,n-whu - .he- 
May. 18-0. 'f-.^fSherc AU.hadsuc«-cd.Kl 
fl,ght of his father, Shen. A . ^^^ ^^j 

^'■-"'^"'taCMlorVrva.a. S^r 

lou..) ^---S^V ;X Tto treaty gave 
the Viceroy of InJ.a. ' ,,„,,. 

"-"^^^rcftonh: 'Sent-ac front- 
temporarx-tttec ^^ ,,,^. ^,. 

i„ .. of >-f''/^^^*\\ " i^t. Lord Beacons- 
tainment <'f"'"<^'',^„ attached much 
fcld. when Prime Mmisur, 
importance. „ , „^.d to de- 

lated that a Bnt.sh L-vo> * "^ t ^^^ ^^ ^^_ 
b^ resident in the Afghan capita , ^^_ 

onerous and dangerous po..Jth ^___^ ^^^^_ 
„est. was as.s.sned 'he ^"^'^ ^„d cahn 
Lded officer to "'"X oX the accom- 
sticnsth ot \% U «a Cavagnan 

is^ht:^o%asu^:- 

Hamilton. 



by telegraph .m the nuirr-inS^J^^^^^^^ 

yalley^he for.- -"-"'■:f/,:tns..-- 

r '-rurof^^rrtle^rrmy of rctn.,,. 
the nucleus ot tne ^^^^ ^^ ,^ 

.i„„.,othecom.n^ndo ™ta_^_^_^^^__^^^_, 

appointed. In less tnan j^.,„„,ar.lv 

Josse-d the Shutargurdan and P^^^ _ 
cutting l.>ose from '"^ J'^^ ' „^,.„,, ,,, 

^■;^r^:^^d^^— - 

taself on Rol^rts's protection. 



The Massacre in Kabul 

weary trooper "V™-/"„„i,ter-- rode into a 
S^^r'iSmir^firmi^o^nd 

-r^r'S'r^ecS';:^::"^ 

^aW,rVrThe news reached Simla 



Roberts's small Army 

-"r^'r^^rt^Ts,^:;: 

Kabul was but s.i.all. i , ^ 

rC.nd^T„!r-h.llnmofKepal,v.- 
In ,.f Hampshire and plamn.en of * 

,vith more than wonted ardou ^ ^ . 
,ho opportunity it V""""'\^'\'-'^.^„., 
g'anceTor a de.d of f,.ul treachery R' ^ 
Umn of invasion ^ %^^^^r-r.,„; 
brigade, commanded by Bngad.er 
,„rnh:mi Massy, and of two mfantr loS 
commanded by Brigadier-t.enera^ ^.-. , 
son and by Brigadier-Ckneral Bak.. 



T" 



y'J^" 



^-.:on I ROBERTS'S BATTLES ABOUT KABUL-1879 



three batteries „f artillcrj-, a company of 
■il'Pi'f. and two GatlinR guns. 

Baker Attacks the Afghans 

At -lawn of OctolHT 0th Baker marched 
rut trom Chara.s:ah towards his left front 
«amst the heights held by an Afghan host in 
saat strength an<l regular formation. Sween. 
".« back the Afghan hordes with har.l lighting, 
R.iker wheeled to his right, n.arched along 
he '<*>■ cre,t, rolling up and driving be.fore 
1>"" the Afghan defence as he moved tow.rd, 
t.ie .Sung-i-Nagusta gorge, which the gallant 
M.jor nwe.* had already entered. While 
B.ikeT had b<.en turning the Afghan right 

Htee and Ins little force of four guns, one 
sjiaadron of B,„g,^, .-.^y^. , j, ,s^,^,,„„,_ 

H..«hlanders, and 5"0 .^-ati^.. infantry. ha,l 
i.en distraguishing then,5elves. After'an ar- 
'Jlery preparation, the detached hill covering 
.he mouth of the pass had bee^n won as the 
n«ult of a hand to hand struggle Later all 
h; Afghan guns had fallen into the hands of 
" Me s people, the heights to the immediate 
nnht and left of the gorge had been carried, 
'he defenders driven away, and the pass 
"Pened up. Artillery fire crushed the defence 
» a strong redoubt commanding the road 
hmugh the pass. The .Afghans were routed 
ind on the following day the whole du-ision 
fasscd the defile and camped witlun sight of 
he Bala Hissar and the lofty mountain chain 
"Urhanpng Kabul. In the fight of Charasiah 
t>i than half of Roberts's force had been 
inmged. and this brigade had muted the 
.■nay of Kabul and captured the whole of the 
_n,Uer.v the latter had brought into the field. 
"■e Afghan loss was estimated at about thrive 
™. reu : the British loss was 20 killed 
■Ml hy wounded. 
On iliv oth the camp was moved for^vard 

•r™ 'w o f""^ ''"*^'"''' " "'"'■ '•"stwards 
■""" the Bala Htssar. to don,i„ate which 
■ t.sin.ent was detacherl • and a , -valrv 
-Siiuint occupied the .Sherpur canton, „ent 
» Rt.at magazine of winch had Ix^en blown 
;1. a-.l whence the regiments which had 
«" quartered in the cantonment had fled 
Fr-rf 'f •\™^'-->D<;holy visit which Sir 
""'■■ Ruherts made to the Bala Hissar 
• ■>".T..„d, Si, g™,ko While, ,bf ,,„„ „, ,., 



.Modern 

<.nthe,„h. Through the dirt ami squalor 
of the lower portion, he ascen.led the narrow 
lane leading to the ruin which a few w„.k.s 
earher had iieen tl„- British Residency The 
connnan.ler of ,,... ,,,„„i„^, ,„,," ,„,t„| 
on the sce-ne of heroism and slaughter, on 
the smoke-blackened ruins, the bl.KKl- 
splashes on the whitewashed, still sniould- 
enng walls, and the lialf-bumed skulls 
and liones in ,he blo<,,]-,labbled chamlier 
wlH.e apparently the final struggle had 
Ixen fought out. He stood in the breach 
■n the ijuarter, of the «a,ich and f,,i,i,ful 
Ouides where the gate had Ixen blown in 
after the last of the sorties made bv the 
Sallant Hamilton, and lingered in the tattered 
wreck of p,H,r Cav.,gn.,ris drawing-r™™. 
Its walls di„t,.,l with bullet-iiits. its ll,«,r and 
divans brutally defiled. .V,xt day, und.-r 
the flagstaft from which waved the banner 
of Britain, he held a durbar in the au.lience 
c hn,nbe.r of the palaa-in front and in flank 
01 him the pushing throng of obsequious 
sirdars, arrayed in all the colours of the rain- 
bow ; behind them, standing immobile at 
attention, the guard of British infantiy. 
with fixe.1 ba.vonets, 

A Ditficult Country 

Promptitude of advance on the part of 



-ed the defile and campe-d w«lnn sX of the ZTT"" °' "''■""'= "" ">e part of 
■Bala Hissar and the lofu- mountain chl ,^ i"":' '°.."'"j" """. "^^ ''-i«"<^d "»= 



793 



„..« 1^1.11 aanij^jieu IOC 

suppeirting line of invasion by the Khvlxr- 
Jelialabad route was of scarcelv less moment 
than the rapidity of the stroke wliich Roberts 
was commissioned to deliver ; but delay on de- 
lay occurred in the niobihsation and a.lvance 
01 the troops ojKrating by the KhvUr hne 
llierewas no lack of earnestness an™ here 
but the barren hills and rugged passed could 
funiish no supiilii^s ; the country in rear had 
to furnish everrthing, and there was nothing 
at the base of ojierations, neither anv accu- 
mulation of supplies nor means to transport 
supplies if they had 1kh..,i accumulated 
tommumcations were ope.ned from Kabul 
with the Khyixr force and India, it was true 
but no reinforcement came to RoU-rts from' 
that force until DecemlK-r nth. when the 
(.uides. 000 strong, arrived, brouaht up hj 
Jenkins from JugduUuck bv force-d marches 
l-ive weeks earlier, before the Kuram fine of 
comnmracation was closed for the winter 



^^^7M 




is'r-^ib> 



:"^^^ 



> 5 



^-on, ROBERTS'S BATTLES ABOUT KVBUI 






Ki'Ih rts liaii riTOvi-.! t),.. .,. i 

"' ^ «l„g „, ,ht' ,K r " "*"""^ ■•>«"«"». 

A Deceitful Calm 

'it > r.~;,.i... 1 "-'KU the vaiui' 

t .„llast murage „„uld r«,K,lv that 

'' (.!iaz,i!, who mnt t.i -m,! fr 

:/-:;ti,;::;":r'"^- ■'"-^'•- 

. iMMve a,i,l ,,.,.'r 1 ■ * """" 

lit i^gnr countrv- '^lutli <,f •- i i 



'879 M,xicr„ 



heighf, ..or,h-„,M „/,'''■■ "^" •*""^i 
"•».psfr,„„th" M, ' "'■■■ "'"''• 'l«^' 

I'.v -Mah..n,i-,1 J„, i , L "'"'^''' '"' 

c.u-n,i™ttoun~n:r r"'''''^- 

trati.,n r,f til,. .1,, '',"''''«'*■ fill- ciinan- 

;z,:3:^ttr--''--ir2 
--"'V ... an a.a:,;';:^r':;:;;r,"'^- 



A Prompt Initiative 

'"nrK.ra,„™t in.,."',, »' ;,Sr;"' »" 

"> .k,.! With .Mah„,n„ ; „V L"' ',""''■"*• 

tmsents might Ik- .lisrtgar<,c„ f, ',\, "°" 

<M I>c«ni,.T XII, n ^^""" ■'"""■ ""'"lent. 

^« .nfa;;;^ ^ "^rrs"' "'■',"■'•'' 

and f„ut gun, ,vit L, ■•-l"adr„n.s, 

1 tnij.d atsinil) ago {„ .i . 

"Ikv; „,arch thence. «n»h-„'«, td. "'d 
take a position aero-, „,„ ,., ' ""'' 

■n the .Maidan >aHev^,' ,, ,'"''" ™<i 

«l.ich ,t wa. „„,« Vh t e r "'""' 
•''"TOvd in enforcL •"■■^Pll"«>n would 

Mac„l„.r« '"'"™"K "n JIahonied Jan 

It ha!>i>tned. however as \r„., i 
alK.ut starting on the -,th ,.a, a'tri" "" 
connaissance found „^ k .. • ', ""^y^"'''- "^^- 
">nsideral,le strength about' v"* '"'» '" 
-.e .o tniles north-west o? K.^T It^^,' 
;™.-ra.u-etodis,.rse.hon.pr:;:::ya;^^ 



i:"\r..>^5ii. 



M''?Ek«i^ 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



S' 



Macphcr»m. on .he .o.h, had " f ^;^'. 
ta, of .dvanct. and mov. aK^inst the Kota. 
a^is a .l.v.r..nc. from "« ■•''«'"^/';^ 
which had th.. effect o. wrecking the p. 
vl V arranBed combined movement and 
Mou^l> arranK ^^ situation. 

bnnpnB ,"'"■' ;,X,%erson .onted the 
After a *nar,. 'B ' ''^"^^ ,^^. „,„„,! f„r 
Kolnstani. -; ' "^;\™ ;t combination 

^f'ch s u,l-we.t toward Urgundeh on .he 
::r:-f^:^„^jan and drive ^1 to. 
„.,r,W Baker. Macpherson li "1 left hi* ca^ 
:, ' at and brouRb. guns .o Aushar. on the 
jlr> a. an I riLirdeh valley ; and he 

wes.emedBe of .1 Lb ^^^^^ ^^^^^ 

was ■"'"™ Vo .he -me day, under .he 

^;rM::^^r.on.bu."unnoac^n.^ 
comim. himself .o an action until the latter 
had engaged the enemy. 



Massy committed himself to the offensne „ 
„„id6reo«.heAf«hann,asse.s. Iiu> I. 
were not daunted, and the guns had ..v.. 
and again to be retired. The ™>1™>'| " ;" 
ominous when K.>ber.s arrived on he k, 
He acted promptly, dire-etmg Massy to r» .. 
till Ik. found an opp.rtunity to charge . 1,. 
s..n.(V-neral Hills back to Sherrarow..:, 

i„ garrison to lie on .lie alert, aud ... ..t .. r 
,hedispa.chatsl«dofawmgof.he,-::. 
„st Staforth) Higldamlers ... .he villa,. 
llill Mazung in .he tlin.a. ..f the gori;. • 1 
the Kabul nver, which tl« Highlan,!.:- 
were to h..ld to extremity. 



Massy's Dilemma 

Macpherson marched from Kare. Meer at 
Jlacpn |_,jj ^^j^j, ,,„ 

hour at: , a'nd wt acr..ss country instead of 

tolling to the road. His force co-is.ed of 

two squadrons oth Lancers, a tr<K.p o Ben 

lal Lancers, and f.iur Horse Artillery guns- 

f a^Slla Ka..ee his advance.-guard se-n. back 

word .ha. the hills in front -« -"l.-lj^ . 

the enemy in considerable '°«>- ^"^"'^ 

halted when he saw some 2.000 Afghans 

fornfng across the road, and fr<.m the hills 

" and lef. broad streams .,f armed men 

^inng down, the sl.>,x.s and .»-"«-""- 

olain The surprise was c.mplete. the si.ua 

£ full ...,«r|,lexi.y. There w^s^^Ma;^ 

herson >u.hin ken ..f Massy. « he retired^ 

he probably >v.,ul.l In., rushed. «■ "" '"^ 

other hand, he sh..ul.l show a bold front 

fnrt dewrt "g from his orders in the urgent 

erisht' h h ch he w.n faced, should s.ram 

ev- nerve .0 "hold" the Afghan mas^ 

tn their present pos..i.,n. the^ w^ he 

nossibili.y tha. he might save the s.tnati ^. 

Sdglve time for Macpherson to come up. 



Colonel Cleland and His Lancers 

Theinomen. h.adcomef..r.lic-ac....n.: 
the cavalry. Col.mel Clelan.l le. Ins 1...- :■ 
straight for the ce.ntre of .he Afg ha. .,.,. 
Captain Cugh. away on the Afglun .1 
,„B,.rlv "c.n.f..r...ed," crus lung m ... .' 
,nenns flank a. .he hea.l o h,s . .-1 
There have In-en few more .larnig .U..- 
than .hat ..f 2«, .r.K,pers who. on .K,- 
ill-starred day, r..de int.. .he hear. ■. 
lo.oiK. Afghans flushe.l with unw.inte.l - ■-. 

fortune. Through 'h' "t'"'( -he '\feh'.r 
charge were visible the flashe.s .,f :1»-' .^'^''"^^ 
volle'-s and the sheen of the British U....; 
heads as they came d..WT. to the eng,..;. 
There was a short interval of suspense. . k- 
I'n of the melie fain.b" heard but mv.-.l^>^; 
behin.l .he bank of sm..ke and dust. I ..'. 
^1 o..t the ol«curity..f the battle n.e,~ 

h.,rses came galloping back, followed si.. 
bv br..ken groups of dismounted tro.,.. 
(iallantlv led h..me. the charge had 1....... 

What other coul.l have been .he r.-ul. 
S,l.en ...Kipers had K.n slain, seve.... 

woumled ; two brave y.ung oft.cers la -• 
where they fell. Cleland came ou -, ;■ 
sw,.rd cut and a bulle. wound, fr."" "•>■; 
la„er he .lied a few m.m.hs la.er. 1 • ^ ■ 
ghans pressed on. A gm. had .0 be n^ 
and abandoned, its officer. Lieu.enan.;. 
remainingbyi.un.ilkilled;threeot 1; .. 
stuck fast in a wa.ercouree^ All f .... 

gallantlv recovered by CoL.nel M- 
the same afternoon b: "st sk.ll 



, most skill-.J ™- 



the same aiieiuv,"" -.■ 

danng effort, which only he woul.! 

ventured upon. 

Tht retreat was stul.Uru and 



havt 



¥W'' 



""eciion I 



ROBERTSS BATTLES ABOUT KABUL-1879 



t.ut there was an anxioin inten-al at 
liih Mazung until the HiRhlanders came 
IhTOUKh the K„rse at the .louhle. when, 
ifter a short interval „f firinK, the Afijhans 
.limUd the sl„|», „f the .s|,u „„™.^,,, 
heiKhts, and <K.cupie<l the sunimit cf the 
Tahkt-i-Shah. Macphersim. niarcliinH i" 
5lrack and broke the Afghan rear, (hi th- 
I.'th Baker fou«ht liis way hack to Slierpiir 
The casuahies of the nth were u kille,i 
..n.l 44 wounded. The .Vf^han.. we're natur. 
Jlv elated by the success they had achieved. 
,.nd it was clear that Mahomed Jan had a 
■ luick eye for opportunities and some skill 
*n handhnij men. 

An Abortive Attempt 

.''rom the Shu I)ar>vasa hiirfits Macpher- 
-™, with barely (x,o men. attempted on 
till- mormng of the lith. to carry the roeky 
summit of the Tahkt-i-Shah. hut 'after a pro- 
k.iwed and bitter struggle it had to Ix- re- 
o.snised that the direct attack by .so weak 
a force, unaided by a diversion, 'could not 
succeed. Macpherson remained on the 
eround he had actuaUy won. being informed 
th.it on the following morning lie was to 
txi^-ct Baker's co-o[>eratiori fr„r,i the south 
The casualties of the abortive attempt in- 
cluded three otficers, one of whom-Major 
L.«.k. \-.C., of the Goorkhas, a high class 
wiliiier— died of his wounds. 

The l«son of the ri-sult of attempting 
aiil'i-sMbilitit* had lieen taken to heart 
and ihe force which Baker led out on the 
.iioraii.g of the ijth was strong, consisting 
J- it did of the 92nd (Jnd Gordon) High- 
■in.Krs. and the Guides' infantn-. a wing 
"' Ihe 3rd .Sikhs, a cavalry regiment, and 
'■'«M wns. Marching in the direction of the 
■^ter.J spur stretcliing out '70m the main 
nJc. eastwards towards Beni Hissar. Baker 
'•>i'm-i-d that large masses of the enemy were 
quitting the plain rillag« in which they had 



Modern 

neutrah.se the portion of that mass in position 
'r 'in the centre of the spur to its eastern 
ertta-mity. To effect tliis stroke it was, 
however. nec»-ss.ir>- that he should act with 
promptitude and energy. Kis guns „|».ne<l a 
hot lire on the .\fghan l«,di.-s holding the 
crwt of . ,e spur. Hi. Siklis. extended 
athwart th, plain, protected In,, right Hank ; 
his cavalry on the lut cut into the grouis of 
Afghans hastening to ascend the e.istem 
extremity of the spur. «-itli nolje emula- 
tion the Highlanders and the Guides sjirang 
up the rugge.l sloi*. their faces set towards 
the ci-ntre of the summit hue. Major White, 
who had recently earned many laurels in the 
camiiaign. led on the -)ind ; the Gui.li-s, 
burning to make the most of their lirst opj^ir- 
tuiuty to distinguish theiiiselvi-s. f.Jlowed 
eagerly the gallant Jenkins, tire chief wh.) had 
so often led them to \ictor>- on other fields. 
Lieutenant Fork-s. a young orticer of the 02nd 
heaihng the advance of his regiment, reachi-d 
the sunimit accompanied only by his colour- 
sergeant. A hand of Ghazis rushed on the 
pair, and the sergeant fell dead. As Forbes 
stood covering the biKiy, he was ovenxjwered 
and slain. The sudden and lihxKiy cata- 
strophe staggered f , a moment the soldiers 
following their olHcer. but Lieutenant Dick 
Cun.raghara rallied them immediately and 
led them fo^^va^d at spevd. For his conduct 
on tills occasion Lunx-ngham received the 
\'ictoria Cross. 

The Summit Qained 

The Highlanders and the Guides won the 
rocky sunimit The Afghans monientarih 
defended the jxisition, but the British fire 
swept them away, and the bavonets dis- 
ixjsed of the Ghazis. wlio died under their 
standards. The severance of the Afghan 
line was now complete. A detachment was 
left to maintain the isolation of some 2.000 
of the enemy who had lx.i'n cut off ; and then 



'»*n .srx-ndin2 the .vin„r „• r, ., ■ "■"" "''"' ""■" ""'■ "" ■ ••'"d "ki 

ta'fing upward to .11 ,7i V." "'"" ''"'*"8 '° "'"' "^^t with a ck-cT, Baker'. 

■ftl.es™rwWchlrst,,7i ""'","' '^'«'""""^ ■""•^■P' ^'""S 'h^- 'Pur towards 

fen*e Citl™ of TuT ""™ ''"- "" '""'" "•'B'-- "■"' "■<-■ Takht-i-Shah. .^ 

W-'fuSy flash 1 ^^r "-T"- "'' ""^>' '"'^'"^ '"""'<• "'^V "'""1 "P "'^' Afghan 

Bak.r Bv T" ""= «=«'>-'""'='' "■"=■ and the enemy, panic-stricken lied 

^ 'uldc;?n"^"^H AfT" "' "!%'""' ^""«' '""" '««' ^"'^ '" MaXrsont 

laie aiiu ana saakt-D b> lue Im: 01 the inomitaiii guiia, 
7<)7 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 

,.•» alinnt ;i 



<>I 



,he gamsou .,f .... Takht-i-Sh.h evacuate! 
from 200 to 300 mm 



Assault ol the Asmal He.Kht. 

of "fRhan., «i.h ...a..y stamlar,!.. were ■ 

, , hill ibciut a miK- iiortliwardr, 

"';■ V f K hul It tvas «.i..,at«l that 
sulrarb of Kahul. „„i,i„„ on tht- 

ahovt 8.000 nan w.rc m P"^'*"' ., 

Asmai l.ciRl.ts, inclu<li..R tho.* occui.>...k 

ra.o/co,,ican,in.j;>on<..;.;;;;^;; 

western t.^rmi..ati"i.. 1" l.^..>'-" 

wm,i..o..i.ayo..c-.s.c-iKl.t «....» ».><l;';"- 

; ,f Nativ.- cavalrv, was oitruMid .1..- 

;::^ a^i;:i«.... .1— ■V'-" ' - 

na-.T's fir'it ol' ect was to Ram 
iiic r. cniltlict. A '1"-- 

^::,;£r;;tt,:ni«i.ia...w.^), -.--•- 

^:,j;^'a^,a,„.tl.AW.a..,«-u,„.w^ 
tonly slKlkd fro,,, th. Pla... a..a .1.^ ^^an 

"";;Xfac.ofah.avynr.tl,cHiKUlan-U..s 
a„ .Lc.cli.nl,.lthc■n■Kfi..nnls,,k.caJ• 
„„ to till- \fKl.a.. l.rt'astworkx on tin 

shrapttcl tit. had 'l"-""'"">" ,'1 , 
to seek shelter ^'^^'^ *"" '" ''^'' , f*; '' , 
but the tShazis in the breastworks fout,ht 
dStKtdy, an.l died uttdcr their standards 
iure Highlanders carrted the dcfenexswth 



1 Th,. crest, ab..ut a quarter 
" rt .,s ra versed under heavy ..r, 

Ittack, led gallantly by C.u,.ora^^. 
" ■ Ls^:;:^ ireely cut and slash«l by - ; 

'-'■-■ ••-••trwirc^srb"-- 

vv-i'; CLirrii'il. nut \\n'i 

in lleb Afghan that place w as IK ax .!> . . 
The whole sun.unt of the Asma. he.ght- ;■ 
Hriiisl, ,K«s.*si.m, and it seemed l"i 
rI.^"';.'tadecsive™toryhadbee,. 

won. 



A Vulnerable Point 

nut scarcelv had Jenkins found hm.se 

.Mission of tlte Asn.ai posmon w e ;. 

^:i,;':':r;gtia"mu.hw.dsw..h* 

:tr:,,t object offottnmj. a luncu.^^ 

"■^,;';;rr'n:;H:;.S:.' '-.ebo,he-e. 

great Afghan tnass, sud.lenly fae n^ 
ri^ht. attacked the wln.le range of he I^a 

a second re.nlorcemenl, ano ■■'>. 
doubled out from Shetpur to ... 
^:;,gthen hin,. But the W.^nt. •- 
ing up fto..i out the Lhardeh vaU.^, 



798 




DRIVING THE AFGHANS PROM THEIR MOUNTAIN FASTNESSES 



f[- 



Section I ROBERTS'S BATTLES ABOUT KABUL-1879 



the shorter distaticc to travd. and arrived 
liefore the hurrying reinl cements. As tlie 
Afghan front and Hank attacks develoiwl 
llii>- encountered from the garrison of the 
conical hill a heaxy rifle-lire, and shells at 
short range tore through the rush of (Jhazis ■ 
but tile l.hang-maddened fanatics sped , in 
Md up without wavering. As they gathered 
liehind a mound for the final onslaught 
Captain .S[x>ns. with a handful of his High- 
landers, charged out on the forlorn hoix- of 
lislodging them. A rush was made on the 
sallant .Scot ; he was overpowered and killed 
alter a desperate resistance, and the charge 
"( the Chazii swept up the hill-side. In 
momentary panic the ilefendeis 5-ielded the 
iri'und. carr.ving downlnH „-ith them the 
remforeeinent of Punjabis which Captain 
Ihill was linnging up. Tw,i of the mountain 
nuns were lost, but thett was a rally at the 
Hot of the hill, under cover of which the 
otlier two were extricated. The Afghans 
refrained from descending into the plain 
and directed their efforts towards cutting 
"11 the British troops still in position on the 
■Asiliai heights. 

Withdrawal to Sherpur 

It was estimated that the Af , ,agth 

disclosed this day did not fall , .t „f 

4'V>"0 men ; and Oeneral Rolxrts. reluct- 
mlly nimpilled to abandon for the time 
M>- further offensive efforts, deteiinined 
to withdraw the troops from all i.solated 
l«sili„ns and to concentrate the whole of liis 
'"'«• witlun the protection of the Sherpur 
rantonment. The orders issued to Baker 
Md Jlacphereon, graduall> to retire into 
"K cantonment, were executed with skill 
|ml steadiness. Macpherson coollv marched 
lir-„igh neh Afghan, his baggage sent on in 
'MH under a guard. Jenkins's evacuation 
"' I Ik- .Asniai position was conspicuously 

mlil'iiM"'"''' '"■'■' " ""'™"R I'o^'"™ 
"»'i ill the other details had steadily made 
S"'«l their retirement, and he was the last 

» "itlidraw. By dusk the whole British 
»r« ivas concentrated within the canton- 
|»"1 aii.l the period of the defensive 

J'l i.-,'un The casualties of the day were 
Ji ki.led and 10; wounded. During the 
"^'"■■k ol fighting the little force had lost 



Modern 

altogether, in officers and men, ijj killed and 
19J wounded. 

The Sherpur Cantonment 

.^though over-large for its garrison, the 
.Sherimr cantonment [wssessed many of the 
features of a strong defensive [wsition. On 
the southern and western faces the massive 
and continuous enceinte made it iiiij,regn,ihle 
against any force uni)rovi<Ied with Meee 
artillery ; but on the eastern face the incom- 
plete ivall was low, and the northern hue <if 
defence on the Buiiara heights was defective 
until strengthened by a series of bloclc- 
hou.ses supporting a continuous entrench- 
ment studded with batteries. The space 
Ixtween the north-western bastion and the 
heights was closed by an entrenchmeiit sup- 
ixirted by a laager of Afghan gun-carriages 
and limbers ; the open 5],ace on the north- 
eastern angle was similarly fortified ■ the 
unfimshed eastern wall was heightened by 
bmlt-up tiers of logs, and its front, as else- 
where, was covered with abatis wire entangle- 
ments and other obstacles. The enceinte 
was divided into sections, to each of which 
was as.signed a commanding officer with a 
stxcihed detail of troops; and a strong 
brigade of Euroixan infantrv, uii.ler the 
conimand of Brigadier-Ckneral Baker was 
lield ready to reinforce any threatened 
Iiomt. Before the enemy cut the telegraph 
wire, m the early morning of the 1.5th .Sir 
Iredenck Rolxrts had informed the authori- 
ties in India of his situation and need for 
reinf<jrceiiients. 

During the 15th and Kith the .Ugluiii 
troops were busily engaged in sacking the 
Hnulu quarters of Kabul, in l.ioling and 
wrecking the houses of chiefs and townsfolk 
who had shown friendliness to the British 
and in fiera'ly quarreUing among themselves 
o\er the sjioil. On the 17th and iSth they 
made demonstrations against Sherpur but 
these were never formidable. Although they 
made tliemsehes troublesome with some. 
l>erse\erance during the daytime, they re- 
framed from night-attacks, to which ordin- 
arily the Afghan liiUnien are much addicted. 
There never was any investment of Sherpur, 
nor indeed any ap|iroximation to an invest.^ 
ment. The Afghan offensive was not danger- 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



ous. but anno>inp and WLarisoiiic. It wa^ 
puslRd, hnwL'Vcr, with some R*?nliiti(in <m 
the iSth, when seVLTal thtmsaml mi'ii came 
nut of the city and skiriiiisiu-d under a 
ci)\er (if llie gardens and encli>sures on the 
plain U'tweeii Kabul and the cantonuient. 
vSonie of the more adventurous S"t within 
four hundred paces from the entx-iute. but 
could make no further headway, The return 
fire was rest rit ted to volleys directed on 
those few of the enemy who offered a suru 
nark by exiH>sin,i; themselves, and drove 
the Afghan skirmisliers from their cover iii 
the gardens. On the moraing of the li|th 
it was found that in tlie night they had 
occupied the Meer Akhor fort, a few hundred 
yards in front of the eastern face of the en- 
ceinte. Baker went out with «8<) bayonets, 
two guns, and a party of sapixTS, In ap- 
proaching it through the mist, a sudden 
volley struck down several men, and Lieu- 
tenant Montanaro, of the mounted battery, 
was mortally wounded. The fort was heavily 
shelled, its garrison was driven out, and it 
was blo\»ii up 

Roberts's Anxiety 

For the moment circumstances had en- 
forced on KolxTts the defensive attitude, 
but he had one anxiety— the api>reheiision 
le-st the Afghans ^houM not harden their 
hearts to debver a real assault on his iK:)sition. 
That apprehension was but for a day or two. 
On the 20th the enemy took possession of 
the Mahomed Sharif fort, on the southern 
face of Sherpur, and they maintained them- 
selves there during the two f()lluwiuR days 
against the fire of siege-guns nicmnted on 
the bastions of the enceinte. On the 2ist 
and 22nd large numbers of Afghans quilted 
the city, and passing eastwards liehind the 
Siah Sung heights, took ixissession of the 
forts and villages outside the eastern faa' of 
Sberpur, wliich should have U-vn < -tro>ed 
pre\-iously. On the afternoon of the 22nd 
a spy brought in the intelligence that Ma- 
homed Jan and his brother cliief had resolved 
to assault the cantonment early on the follow- 
ing morning. His tidings were true ; and 
the spy was even able to communicate the 
details of the plan of attack. The 2,000 men 
who were holding the King's Garden and the 



Malionied Sharif post had been equipjied 
witli sril u.i;-ladders. and were to make ,. 
false attack, wlucli might beti-nie a real oiu . 
against the western section of the front. 
The principal assault, however, was to Ik- 
made against the eastern face of the Bim.iru 
\nllage, unquestionably the weakest part <•{ 
the defensive position. The 2:ird was the 
last day of the Mohurrum— th'- great M„- 
homedan religious festival— when fanaticisin 
would be at its height ; and further to 
stinmlate tint incentive to valour, tlie 
Mushk-i-A!'ii.i was to kindle the beacon tin- 
on the Asmai height which would be thv 
signal to the faithful to ru.-h t() the attack. 

The Mghan Assault 

The information jiroved perfectl\' accurati. 
All night hmg the shouts and chants of tk- 
Afghans filled tlie air. PuriMjseful sileiiiv 
reigned througlnmt the cantonment. I . ihc 
darkness the soldiers nmstered and quiill'. 
fell into their place-s. The otiicers cuimi,iii!'l- 
ing sections of the defence made their di- 
jKJsitions. The reset ves stood to r:i.- 
Every eye was toward the Asmai h'i;iit. 
shroud'-'' still in the gloom of the night .\ 
long *--:-■ e of llame shot up into the uir 
blazeu . iiiantly for a few moments, ,iiiJ 
then waned. At tiie signal a fierce fire vy-.u-'l 
from before one of the gateways <'l ilu 
soutliern face, the tlashe-s indicating; liiii 
the marksmen were within two Iiuiulrni 
yards of the enceinte. The bullet.-^ •^["-'l 
iiamdessly over the defenders sIkI^R'I 
behind the parapet, and in the dusk el' iIk 
dawn reprisals were not attempted. But 
this nutlmrst of powder-burning again-l ih 
southern f ice was a mere incident. Wliat 
men listen ''i for and watched for " - thi 
development of the true assault 'U tl'^ 
eastern end of the g'eat parallel' .:tan;, 
The defending troops were liie Cuide- froi;: 
Himaru to the hospital, in whicli we-v I" 
Punjabis ; and beyond to the basti '-•■ tiU' 
b7th (2nd Hampsliire) Regiment, rtii;i>rai; 
by two companies (f the {|2nd {2nd )- niiii 
Highlanders). From beyond Bimani i '■''■ 
eastern trenches and walls, as dav ':i '^•■ 
tiiere came a roar of voices so In an. 
menacing that it seemed as if ;' ^r"-^' 
50,000 strong was charging down a ou; 



Sff: ■-• 




THE BRITISH CAVALRY ATTACKING THE 



AFOHANS. DECEMBER 24ih. ie?9 
by S, P.iKel 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



thin lilK- .if niw". I.^<1 b>- (Iha/.is, tile .iKiin 
body of AfBliaiis. \y\v.i liad l)™n liidilin in 
thc'villaRis and urtharils on tliu i-ast side 
of SliLtpur, rushed out in one dense liorde. 
and everv throat was fillillR the air with 
shouts of " AUali-il-Allah ! " The roar surged 



l»sin llrins. From "Ut the mist at lenRtli 
emerged dense masses of men. some of «ll"iii 
were branilishing swords anil knives, wli.1, 
others loailed and lired wllile hurryMii; l"! 
ward. The order to " Commence firing " w.i- 
not gi\en until the leading (Ihazis 



carrv the low eastern wall. So rti'olu- 
were the Afghans that more than om. 
thev reached the abatis, liut each tii 
thev were driven hack with heavy l.- 
About ten o'clock there was a lull 
but an hour later the assailants on, 
more came on. The attack, howex.: 
was not pushed with vigour, and w,, 
soon beaten .lown. but the Afghans M- 
maintained a threatening attitude. ;in 
the lire from the defences was inefleet i. 
to dislodge them. The (kneral sent"! 
through the Uiuiaru gorge four 1k1 
guns escorted by a cavalry regim. r, 
BemUng to the right, the guns ear, 
into action on the Afghan right fla.i 
and the counter-stridie had an iiur.i 
(hate effect. The enemy wavered. .11 
soon were in full retreat. The K0I11-' 1 
contingent, some 5,000 strong, marcn 
awav northwards. The fugitive- w> 
scourged with aitiUery and rifle-fire ; 1 
Massv led out the cavalry, swept the |J 
and drove the lingering Afghans from ■ 
sloiK-s of Siah Sung. The demonstrati- 
on the -outhern face from the King's l.,n 
and the Mahomed Sharif f.nt never n. 
anv hea.lwav. Those |x>sitlons were sle.i 
shelled until late in the afternoon, v^ 
thev were finally evacuate<l. and by n'- 
fall' all the %-illages and enclosures K-tn 
Sherpur and Kabul were deserted. 

With this failure came promptly th. 
lapse of the national rising. Before day' r 
of the 24th the formidable combir ' 




PLAN OK THE BATTLF.S AnOUT KABUL. IBM 



that indicate.1 ..ur men with Martmis and 
Sniders were holding their own ag.unst the 
assailants. 



Continuous FightinK 

Wlk'i tlie first attack was made the morn- 
ing was so dark and misty that the outl.iok 
from the trenches was restricteil. and the 
order to the troops was to hold their fire 
until the enemy should be distinctly visible. 
The Punjabi detachment in the hospital 
opened fire prematurely, and presently the 
Guides, holding Bimaru and the trenches 

on the shipes, followed the example, and ^ ;.;;\;;;;'^,;;£,a-,„ the fighting ek, 
sweeping with their fire the terrain m fr mt whtd, h»<i '"™^" ^^,^^ ,„d , 

of them broke the f,>rce ,.f the attack when of North-Eastern Afg-'am ^^ 

S04 



I ROBERTS'S BATTLES ABOUT KABUL-I879 



ing h.iKhts, was a trilx'snian to lie swii S., 

hurru,! had 1H.„ ,hc. Afsha,, d,s,»..sa. that 
Ik d.ad w.a- Irft to lie- unhuricd where thcv 
Had ralleii 

The easualt,.,, „„ ,1,, „!,„ ,l,y, „„,. ,,, 
k.le. and (,t, «o,md«l. The enemvs l„<s 
'••' klllfd and woui:did throuKhoMt thj ..-vr , 
■"■"s was estimated to Ix- not under j.ooa 

Keoccupation of KabuJ 

"". tl.e -.4tll tne cav-a;ry rode f:,r in 
pnrsiut of the fuBltives, hut thee oiertook 
»""i-. On the same .lay Kabtd and the 
■■>■> ILssar Here reoccupied. and (leneral 
"Ills resuun-d his functions a,; Mihtirv 
' '";■'■"""■ °' "« >■■">■. Kahul liad the asiKct 
■1 iiaving underpme a siege at the hands „f 

'..enemy, the ha.aars.verehroken up and 
'l.serted. Alter tuaking a few examples, the 

■ei.eral issued a proclamation of an.nes.>- 
.»■ ndmg therefrom only 11^-e „f ,he principal 
le.i.lers and instigators of the recent rismg 



.Model 




Th.s ,„hcy of conciliation lx,re goo.l fr„it ■ 
and a durbar was held on Jannarv ,),h. i.sSo' 
at whteh about 300 sirdars, chiefs, and hea.I- 
.nen fn,n, the various provinces were present. 

The End of the Outbreaks 

.ytliough the country remaied dis- 

lurhed, there Were no n,„re outbreaks. 

Ivalml an,l .sherpur were stronglv fortilied 

■i..l.tar>- roads were n.ade, and all" cover a, l' 

■•bstrucfons for the s,,aee of ,,000 vards out- 
side _sher,,„r were swept away. In .Ma,,h 
tlK Kabul torce had be.., increased to a 
strength nf about ,,,500 ,nen and 20 guns'- 
1....I I'.-.ier.J Roberts fortned it into two' 
d.v.s.ons, „„,. „, „.|,j^,,, 1,^. |jj,^_^_jj 

.nan.led the other ben.g connnanded bv 

Maj..r-(;eneral John K,,ss 

im .„,1 Itav Sir lionald .Stewart arrived 
..■ Kabul from Kan.lahar, an,l took n,vr 
from ,s,r l-'rederick Kolx-rls the eonimand 
■a -\orth-Eastem Afghatiistan. 



Ti^^-'i**.' .nr ^*s 



THE FINAL STAGES OF THE SECOND 
THE HINA ^p^^^^ ^^R 



,._TnF. DISASTER OF MMWAND. JULY .7.h 



ISHO 



-,-V the early .lavs of AuRU^. .«^^^ 

1 secmcl that the lo"R, '.■"« ^""ff "4; 
1" last on the eve of l,e.ng em le, N 

r™ "'Zl^ P f ..m Kandahar an.. 

1"™« '""!, . ' ,v the brilliant battle of 

f,niBlit on the wa> the 

,,,ne.lKeh wa^-w;^^;;;;:;:,,,^,,,, 

:::;;Snb:^i;:tler,,y... India a,,.l the 

.Xment of the 'i-"-^-i;-\;:l;tf 

r^arbv«r£^i- 
re»ss'rs;Ki^n"-ri^^^- 

,ato«s.hiehreachMShen>nH;^->y-^;^ 

intimatinR «- '""' f ^'jS Bnrr.ms 
force comman.leil 1>> oenerai 
;"twecn the Helmund and Kandahar. 



Hostile Pr.p.r.tions at Herat 

s.::a:;;"i::^r;fKLnh:a; with the 

B:"rdMsion .>f his f..ree, leaving there 

l:'il.y divis, ^. the ..m-nand M 

wh.ch General r„n..,sesnec«<i;1^0^^^ 
S;rnr;S,r^.atAVub Khan was 
n tog l...^tUe,>re„arations at Herat ^« 
\ Khan who had been Governor of Kan 
fw .luring Sit Donald Stewart's residence 
S^:tneenn„n,inated,>ercdUarv™Wr 

,,f the rr..™ee, with the title <• XUh, 
when it was determined t., separate Kanda 
r^f om North-Eastem Afghanistan. On 
, ^,.1 the Wall, who had s.)me .hn 

asked iol the support of a British brig ^^^^ 



There was warrant f..r the belief that tb. 

^^^-;,„,«„cre.ii..(i-n^.;:^«.^ ; 

WIS in no c..n.liti.m to meet A>ul>s arm 
wih any likeUh.«d ..f sueee^. Afta 
S Irt's departure the strength ot 
,. ■•■ 1, f,,r<-es at Kanil-lliar was 47™' 

U : k mt It was .,f great im,K.rta,K. 

! ;l:^ Avub's. .tensive mo..m™t^ a w 

, ,,„,ade c,nisisting of a tr«,p o^ H - 
\rtillerv, six cmpanies of the IK tl l 
Battalion R.n-al Berkshire '■■.■^•™;"'_^;/ 
B,.mbav Native infantry regiments, and 
N- t !tr....pers^i.i aU about 2.,ioo str..nK 

^::-^'^u'":Uy did not behave na.. 

^i^^ and Burrows. briga,le was the,., 
f ,', the f.el.1 t.. resist the advance .i 
1'", Kb n whose Regular tr.Kips wee 

strength. 



Retreat ol the Mutineers 

Burrows promptly recaptured from t^ 
^i;;, i„<Jry the tetteo; they w«;;;.^ 

,Si..ved the snppUes which the Wa!. ^^: 
accumulated for the "-"'^ *•-„„;:,' » 
brigade, and Burrows therefore c 



Section I 



SECOND AFGHAN WAR-1880 



Innscr rfinaiii in the viciiiitv „f (iirislik 
He fell hack up,m Kluislik'-i-Xaklui,! a 
"Sitinn .listant 30 miles from Oirishk 
"»' 45 from Kandal;ar-a ,»,i„t where 
sl■^■cral tracks from tlie Udmuii.l cm- 
verKcd, and wl.cre sup- 
lilies were plentiful. At and 
'l-mt Klnislik-i-\akhu<l the 

'Titjade remained fn.m the 

I'lth until the mornhiK „t 

July 27tli. While waiting 

tliere. a liispatcli frcnn armv 

Iiead-quarters at Simla was 

.-•immunicatefl to (leneral 

llurrows fr„m Kajulaliar. 

authorisiiiK him to attack 

Ayul) if he cor.siilercd him- 
self stnaiR enon^h tit heat 

Iiim, and infiirmin,. him that 

it was reKarded <.f the Rreat- 

est jvilitical imix>rtance tiiat 

the fiircc from Herat siionlil 

'« dispersed and prevented 

froui raoviui; in the directi.ai 

"i (Ihaziii. Spies hrousht in 

nnvs that Ayuh had reached 

f'.inshk, and was distrihutinj; 

lus force along the right hank 

"' the llehnund hetween 

th;it place and Ilyderahad. 

I'ji'alry patr.jls failed to /in.l 

the enemy until the ^ist 

"■lien ti detachment was etl- 

onaitered in the v-illage of 

SaiiKhur, on the northern roail, 

■I'l'nt niiilway between the 

llflniund and Khushk-i-Xak- 

'"■■1 Next day that yillage 

iKis found more strongly 

''ceii|iietl, and on the 2jrd 

' rrojnnaissimce in force 

«">■ uixin a Iwdy of Avub's 

""^enien in the plain be- 

'"»■ the Oarmao hills, about 

""; way between Sangbur and Maiwan.l. 

i...se movement?, should have in.licated 
; . "'|S uitention o. turning Durrows's posi- 
^^ ■ '> raovmg along the northern road t.> 
■ ..." ..„ and thence pressing through the 
: ■'•■ .Ud 1 ass. mterposing hetween the nrit- 
>' ...'1 Kandahar. Why in view of this 
""I ...e precautions enjoined on him to 



Mo. 



nnder .\yub from slipping by him tow.ar.ls 
<.haz,,i through .Maiwan<l, Ceneral Harrows 
shonl.1 Inue remained so long at Khushk-i- 
■Vikhn.l. 13 not under.st.»Hi. He learnt ,m 
the aftcrm.on of the 2hth that 2 oou o£ 




LIEUTENANT MACLA.NF. BRma.NG UP THE GUNS AT 

MAIWAND. JULY 17,1, ISSO 

From a picture by Stanley L. Wood 



.So 



Ayuh's cavalry and a large b..,|y of his 
Tdiazis were in possession of (larnuo and 
Maiwan.l. ami were to be promptly followed 
hy Ayuh himself with the main b,idy of 
his army, his reported intention beini- to 
push on through the Maiwan.l Pass and 
reach the I'rgandah valley in rear of the 
Bntish brigade. Later in the y C.donel 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



St. I..l.n. the I-litk-al nll.ccr, icl-.rtcl to 
Cc.cial IU,tr...vs the tatdlwcnce winch ha.l 
rcaehci Urn that the whole ..f Ayul. s army 
was at AmAhM. l.ut cte.le,ice was not Riven 
to this im|»irtant information. 



The Advance 

The l.riKa.le now 2.(.oo stronR. struck 
cam,, on the motninR .,f the 27th. The 
march to Maiwand was twelve miles lonR^ 
an,\ an earlier start than 0.30 A.M. wonl. 
have heen jn.lic.ons. The soW.ers marche.l 
well hut halts from time to time were 
necess • to all..w the baRRaRe to come up 
the hostue state of the country (liJ not aanut 
„f anvthiuR heiuR kft l.eh.n.l. and the 
column was encumhered by a Rrcat quanti > 
of stores and baRRaRC. At Kare^all, elR.t 
miles from Khushk-i-Nakhu.l and four miles 
south-west of Maiwand. infor.-atv.n was 
brouRht in that the whole of ^ ''- :""■>; 
was close, bv on the left front of ; ■ l.nRade 
and marchiuR towards Maiwand. I.ittle hee-. 
was taken of this report, but later a cavalr 
recmnaissance fomnl larRe bodies of horse- 
men moving in the direction mdicat«b 
and i-.-liniuR away towards Oarmub as the 
briRade advanced. 

>: thick haze made it imrossible to discern 
what lorce. if any. was beiuR covered by the 
hostile cavalry. About 10 .x.M. the adsance- 
Ruard occupie,! the viUaRe of Mahmudabad 
?hree miles south-west ..f Maiwand. \\est 
of Mahmmlabad and close to the vlUaRe, 
„.,s 1 broad and deep ravii runnmR nortti 
and s<.utli. Bey.md this ravine was a wide 
expanse of level and partly cultivated p am, 
across which, almost entirely coneealcl by 
the haze. Avubs army was marchmR east- 
wards f.wards Maiwand viUage. which e-..vers 
the western entrance t.. the pass of the 
same name. If te.eral Burrows s eyes coukl 
have penetrated that haze. probabK he 
wouH have taken up a defensive position, 
for which Mah.nudabad presenterl sinuc ad- 
vantaRcs. Bui he remained l.rm m the 
convicti.m that the enemy's Runs were not 
vet UP notwithstandiuR the rei»irts ot 
J*-!- "I ■ ^ . „ I. .a: — ,^1 th: 

spies t" the contrary 



Lieutenant Maclaine, ..f the Horse Artilh r 
a Rallant vounR officer, pri^eipitated evenl- 
With the two Rmis he commandBl he cros>. 
,be ravine and car.ie into acti.m aRamst 
l,„dv ..f AfRhan cavalry which had ).■.-■ 
come into view. BriRadier Nuttall. c .. 
maiidiuR the cavalry and Horse .Srtill.a , 
f liliuR t.. re-call Maclaine, sent for^vard n 
support of him the four remaminR gmis M 
the batterv. Tl,.*. appr..ache,l to watlua 
^,o var.ls of tlH vo advanccl pe^res. an. 
Maclaine was d,recte,l to fall back u,-:-, 
the batterv pendlUR the arrival oi t ;■ 
hnsatle. which General Burrows was nyv, 
sc-ndiiiR f..rwar,l. U crosse-d the rau.u 
near Mahmudabad, ad^a.K-ed over he plai, 
ab,n,t a mile in a north-westerly dirc<:ti"n 
and then formed up. When the eriRa.j.- 
ment teame serious ab,.ut.no,.n. the for,,,..- 
tion was a- follows: The 1.6th was on .:k 
riRht. its riRht Hank tlir..wi. back t., cK.k 
an attempt made t.. turn it by a tush -I 
tihazis spriuRiuR out of the ravine m i... 
British front ; on the left of the both w>e 
four cr.mpanies of Jacob's Kitle-s I.,, th 
Native Infantry) and a company of bap,.. >- 
the centre was ..ecupied by the Horse Ar.- 
Icrv and smooth-bore Runs, of which l..tt.T 
however, two had been moved t.. the 111;., 
flank; on the left of the Runs were ila 
1st Crcnadiers s..mewhat drawn back. ..n<. 
<m the extreme left two companies .1 
jac.b's Rilles, formed almost at a iv^i.t- 
auRle left-back. 



he believed that a 



A Faulty Position 

The cavalrv was enRage<l in half-he.irtti. 
-fforts t<. prevent the Afghans fr..m taK..,i 
the British infantry in reverse. Hie l-.>i- 
tion ol the British briRade was ra,h...lb 
fault^ Both Hanks were un5upp<.rte '. '■. 
face ■ ..f an enemy of Rreatly su,i.r., t 
stienRth; from the first every nlle «a> 
in the fiRhtiuB line, and the ..ulv r.-.r . 
available was the two cavalry reKlnu■.u^ 
The basRage had followed the l.ri.aj, 
across the ra™e. and was halted al««t 
a tho. sand yards in rear of the nU.> 
iiiadeq .ely guarded by detachments 



favourable opiK.itunity presented itseh f..r "^J^ '^ , ^„ 1 . ,,^5 ,„a.;e 1" 

taking the initiative, and he .k-termmed to ^-.^haU an h^^ ^ .^.^,P ^^^,,,-,, ,te. 
attack with all practicable speed. ^J>^^ 



.-icciion I 



SFCO.NU AFGHAN WAR-1880 



l.,.ttcry after l,;„,,rv „.s l,r„„Kl„ i,„„ 

';*■" I'V tlK- AfKluns, „„,il ,„,f ,„ „, 

' vr „,„,„ „„. ,i,, .,, ,„ ^„„^ ^^,_^ ^. ^^^ 

I tln^ art,lK.,y uw the Chazis fr,.m tla- 
""lie m fr.Mit clKirKcI f,,r- 
» ml to within v«) vimls c,i 
!ln- (il)th. hut tlu- rill,, lire ,,) 

III- Ilritish ri'Ki.ueiit ,|r,,vt 
tli'ni hi.ck with hi-;.vy 
-l.UKhtiT, ami tiR.y rii„ik.,| as 
1 ir as the ravine wlienee Ihev 
:n.imtairie.l a .iesaltnrv lire 
■'"■ >•">■■■■>■ s artilUrx lire was 
■11.11 sustaiiie.1 ami elleeti\e 
tiie hifantry f,„i,„l s,,,,,^. j.^,,. 
tirti.m fr.im it i„ lyi,,^ ,],,„.„ 
'"It tlie artillery and eavalry 
fnnaineil e.V|„si-,l and MUlereil 
-iierelj-. All artillere duel 
lias earrie.l ,m for tw.. Ii,„irs 

T',"' '" "'^' 'li-^iiKMiltaKe 
"' ""■' "HKacle. which had !mt 
'- wns in action aKaiust ;,i 
mil ser\-ed Afghan pieces, Tlie 
i-fiistrate infantry liad est- iiie 
inous punishment, l.nt i,y 
- 1' M. the cavalrv had lost 
'I per cent, , uien in 

t !!■ Iront hne anu 140 horsi-s ; 
"IL- -Wuhan cayalry had tiiriiecl 
l".thof the British flank.s, ami 
"li- hriKadc was all hut snr- 
■"■""'"l. whilst a separate at- 
Jick was U-iiiR maile on the 
'"WiKe. Heat and want of 
i'MtiTweretellinsiieayilvii,,on 
'111- Slpahis, who were demoral- 

'.*! In- the Afghan artillerv 

Iirtv 

■* little later the sinootli- 
i-"i; Kims were withdrawn, 
■i;""iS expended their aniinu- 
''I'li'ii. This was the si(;nal f,,r 
■' "'"-'"' n'lvance of the Afghan.., Their 
,iins were ,,ushe,l forw.ml : ,!,ei, cavalrv 
Hi.^'med round the British left: in the 
'sia rear ivere masses of mounted and is- 
"liited IrrcKulars, who seized the villaecs 
;:' '■;>■ Hritish line of rrfieaf. Swanns ol 
■ta'.is showed themsc-Ivcs threateni„s the 
i"''ri- and left; those in front of the 6Mh 
3 ' 



Mndci 



>ur.. still held i„ eh(,.k l,y the stead,- vollev, 
•■I tll.it re«.nient. At .si„ht of the fanatic 
..u.ls.a„dc-owc,ll,y,heheayyar,illcrv,lr.. 
.imthelossnthciroihccrsthetwoconipanie. 
"1 J.1C0I, s Killes on the left Hank sndde.ilv hll 




MAIWAND: THK CALlANt m,,, . 

TO CUT ITS WAY OUT 



into confusion, and hroke into the rniks 01 
tile C.renadicrs. That rcninieut had hehaved 
n-ell, l.ut now it cauxht the infc-ction of 
ilcinorahsation ; the whole left collapsed 
and the Sipahis, in utter panic, surnmndcl 
hy ami interniinKled with t:,. (Jhazis. rolled 
ill a Kreat wave u,«,„ the riKlit. The artil- 
ler>-men and sappers made a „allaiit stand 




i1^^. 



Scctjoti I 



SECOND AFGHA.N WAR- 



ll«litmi; the C.lMzis han.l t.. l.an.l v.iti, luml 
i-l'ikis aii.l raninKTs. tvliili- tliv «,„„ |„u,„| 
c.n,„t..r i„t„ ,l,e .„hu„ci„« AfKllan ,„usm-. 
Captani ,sla,l,- rcluctai.tlv li„,l,i.rv.l up ,i.,l 
rrtin.l „„t „( actio,, ; Lieutenant Maclai,,.. 
niuaini.l i„ acti.m until tl,i- C.lia^i^ «cri- at 
<hv nn,/,.k.s „f lus tu„ „,n,s. wi.iel, f,|l in,,, 
tl.e- ini-m,- s l.an.ls. Tl,i ,„rrc„t „f ,„i„„|,.,| 
.■-.l...lns an,l ,-,l,a,is l,r„kv i„ u|„„ thf M,tl, 
,-"< K„, ,1 lVrk-l,irO Ktxinicnt. an,l „v.r^ 
" u-lnioi ,l,at Kallant a,„l ,i.v,„.,l r.,.i,n,,„ 
llii.. slauKl,tcT„i ll.i- Sipaln. «,,, a|,|,alli„n 



1880 



M>, 



nuntofcavain «l,id, „as,.,lli„l,a„,l th.u 
■ir-v ,.n. Tl,>. fu,,itiv. f„rc,., f„n,un« „,t|, 

'|.»a„l, „,s,x,„iK, ,,„„,, „,„.,.,, „,^.„,,^ 
Ivs,, . c*rt six,,,n „,iU, „i,,, „, „^_„,^. 
Ma.la , vvluci, was r.a.l,.-,! al,.,ut ,ni,]ni«l„ 
^"..1 «!,„.. water „a-f„un,l. Fr„n, A.n Khan 
«hca. oul„vati„u UK.m. t, K.,k„ra„ nc.r 
Kan,lahar,hc.,.,u.atwashar. ..lh,an,„,l 
>ill.Wrs. a,„l tl,. tr„,.|,s ha,l l„ „.,ht ...xa- 
■■..-.lly all ,h. way. < nW. an,l n,™ „,,. 
k,nc-,l. l.iiutcuar.t Madainc- was taken pr,. 




i-rs rotireil in 
disorder. The 
iulaiitry, as- 
>'iU'(i l,y 
^•Tiles ,,f n„cc a„,l triun.phant fanatics 
-l..«Kcre.l away t., the riRht. the- l,(,tl, aK.ue 
'"""tammg £„r,„ati„„ until fi,e raeiue. 
".'^ crossed, when the l,r„ken remnants 
■ ' the- ,s,p„hi re-Rinicnts t„„k to flight t„- 
«..r,Is the east, an,l the (fcncrals efforts 
■" Mlly them were unavailinn. The (,(,th 
»" ■ s,>mc „f the s;,ppers and (Jreua.liers 
■-le a gallant rally rouncl its clours in an 
''"■losnre near the village of Khig. There 
■■ .nel .albraitl, an,l seycral of his omcers 
>^ re killed, and the I.ttle body of brave 
:"", '«"n,mg uutflanke^l, continued its re- 
"■^.. raaknig stand after stand until .nost 
;>^re slam. The Afghans pursued for about 
'■"r miles, but were checked by a detach- 



PLAN OF THK ACT.Or. AT MA, WAND, JUL 



o'.er a.,,1 live ,.f tlK. s,„„„th-l,„re guns had 
to be abandone,! because- „f ,],e exl,,,nstion 
ol t],e teams. About mi<l,lav of the 'fitli 
the shattered remains of the briga.le reae-he,l 
Kau.lahar, Out of a total of 2,471, engaged 
I't were killed; the wounded numbered 

,"n ', ''■" '""""■"» a'Kl -'"■ horses were 
killed, and siAen followers and (,.S l,„rses 
were wounded. Since Chihanwala the 
Untlsl, arms in Asia ha.l not suffere,] loss 

S<) Si'ViTC, 

The s,,irit of the Kamlaliar force suliere,l 
materially from the Maiwand dis,is,e, -m,! 
It was held that there was no alternative but 
t-. accept a siege within the fortitle.1 citv 
The cantonments were abamloned. The 












ii^v^i 



*<**:., 



^_ \ 









THE LAST STAMD OF THE 66rH I2ND ROYAL BERBBJ 
I'rom . plctutt by F.ank Fellti »>■ P"'" 



^m^Un J^:W: 






;<?5^^f 



.^■^jm. ■■« 



..^-v-" /Xte. 



.^,**w3laU. 



>n.. »>■ P" "^'U'.. H..,i,). Gr.ve, .„d Co., Lid. 




■■•-^<^-;*y»; 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



eflective garriscm on the nifiht of th iSth 
™cSan<fnnsfnrtu„e. 'fhe Afghans o„ 
the 2c,th plun.k.re.1 the cantonments m 
vhole .W>an ,HM'"'^.tio„. -nounn^g to 
ibout iz.ooo perains. was compelkd to 
£« the city, aid then the work of l^aang 
it in a state of defence was energet.calh 
"'trC^tSthAyub Khan opened te on 



the citadel from Piquet hill, an eleva ,on 
„rth-westwardsof the city, and a few da s 
later he l.ronght guns mto act.on f r n the 
siUages of 'Xh Khoja and Deh Khati ,m 
the east and south. A sorUe agawst the 
vill.ge lleh Kh<.ia on the mornmg of tlK 
if resulted in utter failure. In the course 
i the retirement (k-neral Iir..oke and 
Captah> Cruiekshank and .co others were 
killed, and ii/ wounded. 



I1.-THE GREAT MARCH 



, ,■ , "Mirch" at 4; the troops were generally 

The tidings of the Maiwand d.s.iste JU'c -. ^_^j ^,^^ ^^^^^^^ ,,^s 

Je"ehed Kabul on July 27th by telegram '" ^^.''^^ ^ed all up by 5- The rear- 

1 Simla. The intention of the .notary o ri.nari ^1_^^_ ^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^„, ,„„,„„„. 

authorities had already been ."'>" '^ ^^ , ^ ;„„, „.,, there any indicat on of oppo- 

the Kabul force should evacuate AfRhanlst.in . 



,,v two routes. Sir Donald Stewart was to 
march one bv tlie Khyber route ; the other, 
unde Sir Frederick Roberts, was to refre 
r," the Kuram valley. The Marwand news 
interfered with those arrange-nenls 

Maior-C.eneral Sir V. Roberts \.l-.. 
leJ a dirision to the southward. Ihe 
narehing-out strength of the co umn was 
,0 000 men, of whom 2,8.1.5 were Europeans. 
N°; wheeled artiUery or trans,«rt accom- 
ouned it: the guns were carried on mu es, 
S;: baggage was cut dow., the su„^ 
,vere reduced to a minnnum, and the tr. ns 
™rt animals, numbering 8.590, ^'^'f' "^ 
mdes ponies, and donkeys. It was known 
r't the country could supply flour, sheep, 
and forage. , 

On August 8th the brigades m.n el out a 
short distance into c„n,p, aud on the fol- 
lowing mor,ung the march -p'"- " , 
distance from Kabul '", ^"'"':'"" ;£". 
miles-. I--rom Kabul to C.hazn.. 08 n"'^^; 
m Gha.ni to Khelat-i-CihiUm. .J4 mJ« ■ 
"n.l fro." Khelat-i-<-.hikai to Kandahar. 88 
X (Jha/.ui was reached on the seventh 
da the dailv average being fourteen mdes 
i' ;,od work for troops in a te^pera ure 
„ftom84"to<,a»iutheshade. \\henl. 
rible the force moved on a !™»'^ '■•■*■= 
brigades and rcEiments leadmg m r< t. t.on 
„"d halts were made at spenhed mter a s^ 
The •■ Rouse" sounde<l at 2.45 A.M.. and the 



5;:,=::;;: there any indication of o^- 

sition; not a single load of baggage was 
Wt bdmul. comparatively few men fell out 

'" Khelat i-Ghil/.ai was reached on the eighth 
day from Ghazni. showing a daily average 
of nearlv scvcnti«i miles. 

The 24th was a halt-day at Khelat-l- 
GhUzai. The column oa the 2,th resumed 
its march on Kandahar, taking on the 

'^'T"K."long force<i march from K»'«l "'='>„'''^ 
regarded as having ended at Robat. The 
distance between these two extrenuties 103 
miles, had been covered in twenty dajs 
nelnding one rest-day, the average daj> 
march w' s a fraction over fifteen mi es. A 
I fcat of marching by a regular force of 
,0 000 men encumbered with baggage, trans- 
,K,rt and followers, this achievement l^ 
,„i,,;,e, and was only m-l--- I">-f ' ^^ 
thorough organisation an.l cnergx . Sn 
1 e rkl Roberts enanintered no op,«s.- 
i t ft might delay or hinder Ins pro- 
" I,s For this immunity he was mdebt d 
n.ainlv to the stern less,.ns given to tho 
.bcsmen by Sir nonald Stewart a -W^ 

Kehl and Vrz...., while that resolute «>ld 
was marching from Kandahar to Kabuh a 

in a measure also to the g<K,d oflices of th. 
"^O,:^h:mo..>ingo, August „st the M™ 
reached Kandahar. Sir Frederick Roberts, 



S14 




From a picture by Holland TrltiBhim 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



„„K days, was abk- t.. kav. b>s '"""l^ J ' 

m.«...t bis bnrs.- m time to ra^-ft (.c.."a 

Curosca,Kn,,s,,,V,c.rst,,thc.c.astwarcl.. 

vhKboja. Tb. troops halU,l amlbrcak- 

i,,t.„outsi,letb.Slukar,,urGatewb.yK 

(k.n«..l ent««l the aty u.ul paid a v.s>t to 

K \VaU, SlKTc Al. Khan. On h,s armal 

c took command of the ttool.^b,So„tborn 



t„ its selected campinR-Br.nmd near ih. 
.lostroyed eantonmcnts to the north-west > . 

''""''^w'shots were fired, bnt the Rr,,„n. 
wJs taken n,. with.mt ..l.ix.sit.on. liak.v- 
l.riBade was on the right, to he rear ■ ,. 
I'hiuet Kill; in the centre was Mac,.h.rs. , 
„r.U,cov.reHltoitsfrontbyKarez 
„„, „„ the left, among orchards and e.Kl- 




......... ...... ™.t..«..- "- --"=• «■■ ™ -'-"-" 



^:;.^^J^:^^^^^ ^^^-^'^^ 



brigade, in r.;^ 



„._THK BATTLE OF KANDAHAR 



I 

Xvrn Kn.\N had with.lrawn fron, Kand.jhar 
,n.ashortd,stanee,a„dthe„osmonwh 
,e had taken np was one of consrderab le 
,„ ,,th The \rg,u..lal. valley is separated 
::;rt.r«;:»t^romtheKanda..r^a.n 

In- ., long precipitons spur trcndnig sontn 
v.st from the mountainous n.asstormmg the 
:. tern l»m„dary of the valley farther north^ 

UM, rr the SP-.I 'I'd*' «•>-■ """' """ ' 
::r,':h?c>ty:theMurcharassa«ords 



cnnnunricaticm between Kandahar an, 
\rgandab N-alley. 'l-he spur, .ts snmnnl 
rated l.v alternate heights and depres- 
is again crossed lower down by an eas; 

kn,.wn as the Baba Wali Kotal, I .- 
,i„ned beyond this saddle for abou.a 

still maintaining .ts s,mth-westeri> . 
„over losing its precipitous eharacte 
steeply scarped on its eastern face , . 
finally ends in the plain after a steep cK 

Si6 



lail, 



SECOND AFGHAN WAR-1880 



Section I 



of se\-eral hundred feet. The section of it 
from the Baba WaU Kotal to its anitli- 
wcstem termination is known as the I'ir 
I'aimal hill. Ayub Khan had made liis 
camji near the vUlage of Mazra behind 
Itiu curtain formc<l by the spur just 
described, and alxjut a mile hiRher u|) 
ill the valley than the ]x>int at which 
tlie sjiur is crosksed by the road over 
the Baba Wali Kotai. Sir Frederick 
Roberts resolved to turn the Afghan 
position. A reconnaissjince was made 
on the afternoon of the jist by (k-ncral 
(«>ugh, accompanied by O.lonel Chap- 
man. Tliey penetrated to within a 
short distance of the village of I'ir 
I'aimal. where it was ascertauied that 
the enemy were strongly entrenched 
and where several guns were un- 
masked. Tlie (',e,,.f.il having matured 
his disjiositions, explained them per- 
sonally to his commanding officers in 
the early morning of September ist. 
The Baba Wali Kotal was to be shelled 
and threatened by demonstrations Ixitli 
of cavalry and of infantry, while the 
1st and 2nd Brigades, with the jrd 
in reser\c. were to turn the extremity 
<'f the Pir Paimal hill, force the enemy's 
right in the inter^•al between that hill 
Md the Kharoti eminence opposite, 
take in reverse the Baba Wali Kotal. 
"nd by pressing on up the Argandab 
alley, carry Ax-uh's principal camp at 
Mazra. The Bi.mbay cavalrv- brigade 
nis to watch the roads over the Murcha 
and Baba WaU Kotals. supported bv 
infantry and artillery belonguig to 
General Primrose's command, part of 
wlnoji was also detailed for the pro- 
tection of the city, and to hold the 
sround from which the Kabul briga.ks 
niie to advance. Ccneral Gougli %vas 
to t.ike the cavalr>- of the Kabul 
C'luimi across the Argandab. so as to 
t'acli by a wide circuit the anticipated 
"■"'■■'(the Afghan retreat 



Modern 

on that elevation. It had been eariv ap- 
parent that .Ayub's army was scvminglv 
nieilitatjig an offensive operation, and had 
moved out so far into the plain as to occupv 




PLAN OP THE MARCH FROM KABUL TO KANDAHAR 
AUGUST. ISM 



line 

■\' A.M. on September ist the forty- 
I^unders on the right of Piquet hill began 
a n^on)us cannonade of the Baba Wali 
Kotal which was replied to bv the three 
Md-cuns wUch the enemy had in batters- 



8l7 



tho villages of Mulla Sahibdad op|»site the 
British right and of Cundigan on the left 
fnnit of the British left. Both Ullages were 
right in the fair-way of Roberts's intended 
line of advance ; they, the adjacent enclos- 
ures, and the interval between the vil!a"e5 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



be done %vas t.. f..rce the enemy b;ak from 
those advanctil K.Mtlouv. '" 
opened a heavv shell-hie on the Sih,l,,l.„l 
Xe un,ler cover oi which M^q*"-" 
Tlv^mccl his hri«:ule a..inst ,t. the .nd 
r.,orkl»s and o.nd ll«h ande.s "> 1",; ";' 
U„e Sn.u.ltan.ouslv Maker nlo^e■.l ont to 
the assault oi Cnndi^an, ckannK the sardcn. 
o,d oKl.anls l..t«een him an.l that MllaBc 
llC;;..M"Uch as he advanced wth the 

first hri^ade 



Capture of Sahibdad 

The shell-l.re eom,,elle.l the Afshan occu- 
pants oi Sahibdad to he close^ and .t was not 
until they were near the vrllaRe that Mae- 
ohersons two leadu* reRm.ents cue. un- 
ered nmch oi,,..s,ti.,n. It was came, at 
the l,avouct-,.ou,t after a very stnblm 
resistance; the place »as swarnmr« wrth 
Gliazis who threw their lives away tecklessK . 
and continued to hre on the Hrrtrsh soldiers 
from houses and cellars after the streets had 
heen cleared. The .,2nd lost several men, 
hut the Afghans were sc-vercly ,.unish^l , 
it was reported that .oo were killed m tin 
villase alone. While a detachment remained 
to cteir out the villaBc, the briga.ie under 
a heavv lire fp.m the slopes and crest of the 
Pir Paimal lull, moved on m the dire-ct on 
,,( that hills south-western extrennty. the 
proKress of the tr..olis impeded by ..bstacte 
In the shape of dry water-cuts, orchards^ 
and walled enclosures, every yard of vhieh 
was occnpie.1 by enemies and had to De 
made s"od by steady liBhtmg. 

While Macpherson was advaucmg .m 
Sahibdad. Bakers briRade had been pnsh- 
h'^,n through lanes and walled enclosures 
towar,ls the vdlage of Cundigan. TlicoplK,si- 
;;, here was also resolute. T'ieAfgha,« 
hehl their ground behind l,.,.pl»led walls 
which had to he carried by as.sault, and the; 
,,id not hesitate to take the offcn^ve In 

nraking vigorous counter-rushes. Bake s 

two lea.ling regiments were the J.nd and the 

2nd Sikhs. The left wing of the former^ 

upportedbythe,thC..».rkhas,theoldand 

trW comrades oi the 72n.l (Seaforth High- 
landers! assaUffl and took the village. Its 
right wing fought its way through the 



orchards between it and Sah.bdad, m 
course ..i which work it came under a ,e, 
euhladiag lire from a loopholed wall wl. 
the Sikhs on the right were attempt.nu : 
turn. Captu.a I-'rome and several me., . 
heen struck .lown, an,l the hot hre 
cliecke.1 the Illghlaralers, whe.l their c, 
Colonel Br..wnl.,w, came up on lo"t l. 
„.,ve the wor,l for a rush, but muued,,,' 
fell iu..rtallv w.,unde.l. After much ■ .r 
lighting Baker's briga.ie g..t t..rv ar.l , ■ 
more ,.!»-•" onnt.y. but was then exv" 
to the lire ..f an Afghan battery near ;; 
estremitv ..i the Wr I'aimal spur, a.,.1 • 
the attacks of great b. ..lies ..fi.lia^s",,,, 
were stoutly withst.»..l by the Sikh. . 
.Iriven .>tt bv the Highlau.lers bay..uet> 

The two lea.ling brigades lia.l ;.c. ■ 
plislie.1 the first '...rti.m .it their ard,,- 
livs w..rk ^ .vere now m align,,!, 

with each other ; au.l the task bef.ire th, 
wis t.> accomplish tlie turnuig „i..v..„ 
roun.l the steep extremity ..j the I'lr 1',,..: 
ridge Macpher'.m's brigade, huggmg 
fice of the steei> elevati.m, brought up 
left sh..ul<ler, and having elTerfe.1 the tr, 
ing movemuit, swept up the valley an.l . 
Tieni the village of I'lr I'ahnal by ., ser,. 
rushes. 



TakiiiK of Pir Paimal 

Here, l,..wever, Maj.,r Wliite (afterw ,r^;- 
.lefcmler .,f I.a.lysmith). cmmau.lmK il>. 
■idvance of the Oonhms, louu.l l„i"^-' 
c.mfr.mte.l by great n,assc-s .,f tlie e„.n.. 
who ma,le a res, Hite stan.l about ,a. 
guns in iHisiti.ra s.iuth-west of the i" ■ 
Wall K.ital, Keinf.ircements were ..b~.ru., 
hiirrving up fr.un Ayub's staii.ling -"-Ij 
at Mazra, an.l the Afghan g,ms on the k..t l 
ha.1 been reversed s., that their hre ~l.'..,l - 
enfilade the British a.lvance, I liseernme II, .> 
in such circumstances prompt ^rt'"" " 
imperative, Macphers.,n .letermined t.. -t., ■ 
the ,»siti.,n witlDUt waiting f.>r rei„l. k 
ments. The .iJn.l ((;..r.l.m Highla"'!^-^ 
under Maj.ir White le.1 the way, c..v«o. 
by the fire .,f a fiel.l-battery an.l supi-.rt 
bv the ith Coorkhas and the ijrd 1 i-i... 
Springing from out a watercljrse ,. - 
challenge of their leader, the Higl • 
rushed across the <.r..n fr.nit. The Al.,1,.,"- 




THE BATTLE OF KANDAHAR. SEPTEMBER 1st. 181 
From a picture by Chrittophtr Clark. R.I, 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



■■ffr-ij 



sheUerM by high banks. flmlH>y»d, 
well ; their riflemen from the 1 .r I a ma 
S„,.,«ureaina*ar,,cro.*e^th^^ 

Mazta. 



Money's Forced Inaction 

hollow, where their commander halted them 

clnel Money with a half-battahon away to 
the left to take possession of *' Kharoti 
hiU where he found and captnred three Ai- 

!™et:M,rser;ntu^iewofAy..Vs 

up Money was not strong enough to attack 
Xrfe-handed. and he therefore sent to 
S^ne'al Baker for reinforcements whch 
however, could not be spared him, and 
Money had perforce to remain lookmg on 
while the advance of Macpherson and Baker 
J^Ll the evacuation of A™b s camp and 
thH ght of his cavalry and infantry to- 
" he Argandab. But the capture of 
Ave more Afghan cannon near Baba %Vah 
village afforded him consolation for the 

"SSder^blr'nnmbers of Ayub's tr«,ps 
Had earlier pushed through the Baba Wall. 



Ha™s assured himself that Burrows w,-^ 
SHo hold his own. Sir Fr.^enck Rol^n. 
„rdere,l Macgregor « move thejrd Br«a 
forwards towards Pir I'aimal ""^g'^. "J"" 
he himseU rode. On his arrival there In 
'ounTthat the ist and and Brigades ..a. 
already quite a mile m advance. The ba 

by itorm. had halted the brigades to r.- 

'^■^-.rrr-enSre^StioH 

r-IiXn-r-^hwhenreac... 
*thout'any further opposition and ente ■ 
-t , PM. was found to be deserted 1 .. 
?enL had l«en left standmg. "AUthen.;. 
eoCage had been hurriedly abandoncl-- 
'rmeat in the cooking-pots, the br....l 
ta^-Sieaded in the earthen ve^ls the 
blrwith its ghee pots, dried frim. 

-•;-°::t:iyi^dS;=S 

-ttSc^onhT^ij^f^r 
^^rbXr^of's-^ns^:: 

S—tVclle. Whose bo<,ywa^ifou,,,, 
with the throat cut. near Ayub s tent. To 
tt s Woody deed A>-ub does not seem . 
have been privy. The Sipahis who w« 
Xner^ with Madaine testified that Ayub 
^Tabout eleven o'clock, leaving the ,m- 

ofers in charge of the guard wit^';",;, 
structions beyond a verbal order that 
were not to be kiUed, It "a' more tta 
an hour later when the guard killed 
unfortunate j-oung officer. 



A Complete Victory 

The victory was complete. Ayub's am- 
was in full rout. Unfortunately, no ca* 
was at hand for a pursmt from the M,. 
Tamp The scheme for interceptms * 
uSrive Afghans by --^^ ^^^^t 
brigade on a wide movement acrns tl 
Argandab to strike the line of their pn. » 
fet'reat towards the Kakrez valley UM» 
tice did not have the desired effect. .\ ^ 
Khan lost the whole <,f his artilkr> ■-■ » 
Spring 3. pieces, and about r.ooo «■■ 



Section I 



klll«l; |„s army was dk,K;scl a„,l |,„ 
was a fus,tne with a mere l.andfd al„„. 
»lth nm „f ,„e array „f „.o«, n,e„ which 
he had cmmanded in the mominK 

The strength of the Hritisl, force, not i„- 
clusrve of the detail of Bombay troops gar- 
nsonu,g Xandahar, was over „,„oo' But 
tins army, i,;.,„o strong, consisted entirely 
"f d.sc.phn„l soWiers. of whom oyer one-fifth 
were Ivuropeans. Tlie acceptcl analysis of 
Aynhs army shows it to haye consisted of 
4,oao Kegular mfaatry, 800 Regular cayalry 

an mdefimte pro,K,rtion were no douM 
Obazis, and J.ooo Irregular horsemen. I„ 



SECOND AFGHAN WAR 1880 



Modern 

artillery strength the two forces were nearly 

,Jl!l ?"■'"'' '^■•■™"l''« "f the ,Iay were 

30 kded. ,ncl„dh,g three officers, an,I „« 

wounde,!, among whom were nine officers. 

The battle of September tst, r88o, haying 

^rought to a close the war. .Sir Frederick 
Koberts quittwl Kandahar on the ,,tl,, and 
marcM to Quetta with part of his diyision. 
On October ,5th. at Sibi, |,e resigne.1 his 
command, and. taking sick leaye to Knglan.l 
=aded from Bombay on the .,oth. His year 
of hard and successful serrice in Afghan- 
istan greatly enhance,! his reputation as a 
I'torapt. skilful, and entenmsing soldier. 




PLAN OF THE BATTLE OF KANDAHAR 



811 



ccrT,r,M II.^EARLY 



PLASSEY 



4 1 I VARI'I KHAN-, «h.. f"r many 
X vcars had governed the proMnce o 
iV lk„s.il as the MnRul's Viceroy. die,l 
in 1751.. and «-.i5 suececded by his grand- 
",n. a dis.s..h,te. desenerate youth, named 
Suraj-ud-Daula. 

.Ui Var.H Khan had, on the "h"!.-. l>«n 
friendlv t.. the liri.ish se'ttlers on the Hn^U 
Surai-ud-l>aula hated them n.tenscU , and 
o^e of his iirst acts, after coming .nto po-t- 
,vas to pick a quarrel «,th the Ea t Ind ■ 
C.nnl.anv-an easy matter-and then to 
nlarch «ith an enormous army agamst 

''"i^'Sidras the servants of tlw Cnnpany 
had learoed, frcmi constant stnfe u.th the 
French, to become soldiers. I'^B-S;'*? 
were still merely traders ; and at the ap- 
nroich of the Xawab's army the niaj..nty 
L from the town in shameless pamc, a^d 
t,«,k refuge aboard ships m the river. The 
Oovemor and the Military Commandarjt, 
one regrets to record, escaped among the 
first of the fugitives. 

The few brave men who reroamed behind, 
having elected a Mr. H.dwell as their Com- 
mands, garrisoned the ill-eqnipped fonre^s^ 
aiid defended it as well as they could . but 
the struggle from the outset was a hope^less 
™e, and on June .oth, I75b, after only a 
few days' siege. Calcutta surren -'ed. 

The Black Hole ol Calcutta 

Then was committed a crime which can 
never be forgotten. . 

Lespite the Xawab's solemn promise that 
the lives of the garrison should be spare<l. the 
British captives were secure<l for the night 
i„ the guard-room of the fortress _ a smaU 
dungeon weil-dcseiving its name-the Black 
Hole of Calcutta. . 

The room was l8 feet long and 14 feet wide, 
and was ventilated only by two whoUy m- 



adequate gratings '" '"e ':l.mate of Ben 
such a chamlKrwcndd have U-en a ctm^ pn- .. 
house for even a single Euro,«an. \e •■'. • 
i, on this night in Jmie. at the h t,.- 
season in the year, the Nawab s otl..,T- 
crowded no fewer than I4.i pns..ner^ . 
whom several were women. 

The agonies thev su«ere<l that night .^ 
bevond description. Racke,l by thirst, g-! - 
i„g for air, the panic of despair and ma.h-- 
sc-Ld them. Then, .0 the delight of t«. 
jailers, who heard the struggles, the wrete.Ku 
captives fought among themselves for pl.co 
„!,, he windows; and added still. ur.. 
,0 their sufferings by makmg futile eftort < 
break down the doors, until, as the long, M 
night w,.re sl,.wly on, they simk by do2en> to 
the tl.«r. incapable of further action, 

.^ few calmer and more collected than .Ik 
rest, tried, but in vain, to bnte '-e gu.aj.. 
Dthers sent piteous supphcati to i .. 

Kawab. , . ,,, ^ 

Reply came back that he w. - -sleep , tu-t 
nothing could be done till he awoke ,a.a 
".h n dav broke and Snraj-ud-l.aula or.Uro. 
the captives to be brought before him, ^.ab 
25 emerged from the prison-house. 
' The remainder were dead. 



An Expedition of Vengeance 

The ne ,s of this atrocious crime, and "f tfc 
fall of Calcutta, reached Madras in Av>'.;i>'. 
and the Council immediately res.>lved t,> *|i, 
an cMwlition to Bengal to take vens.J.» 
on the Nawab. , 

The naval armament was entrusteil . t^ 
command of .\dmiral Watson ; the Ian. I « « 
—qoo English infantry and 1.500 Sip. in- 
to Robert Clive. who had recently revarn. 
to India bearing from the Kmg the oc 
mission of a Ueutenant-Colonel. 

The expedition set sail in October, but W 
ships, delayed by contrary winds, d"' 
ill 



Section II 



rrad. tiu. cast of BcnRal until i\k ™d „f ,1,^. 
yi'ar. TlKM, l„.w«cT. L-livc- at nn« lK.-Kan 
acttic o|Krati,ms. a„,l. puslnn^ f„,„„| 
r«t.,a,l ,„ an i„cr„liUy sl„„t tin.c- tlij 
Hntish iKiiver on the Uufili. 

To Si,raj-u,l-I)aula this su.l.lcn .l™i,.nstra- 
tion of forc^. cami- as a most nnvn-loonie snr- 
pnst. He- 1,1-Kan to tri'at for ,«,«• • .,„,! 
Uivx-, ai,,,alicnsivc of an attack l,v the 
French, „,th whom, as he ha,l lieard.ljrvat 
Bntan, was then at war in Europe, agreed 
to open ne^'otiations. 

The Nawab'A Duplicity 

Hut the Nawab, witll tv])ical Oriental 
cunnrnR, inten.leil his overtures t.) sen-c 
merely as the means of giving him time to 
corresiBnd with the French auth.,rilies at 
Lhandemagore and eiihst their help. 

This duplicity was soon made known t,. 
ehve. He decide-d, therefore, to strike a 
decisive l,low, and to fall upon Chander- 
nagore before the French troops stationed 
there could be reinforceil. 

The- attack proved entirelv successful 
The fort, the garrison, the artillerv. and 
rad,tar>- stores, all fell into the hands of 
Ulve: and Suraj-ud-Daula. although his 
hatred had m no way diminished, now put 
fonvard his peace proposals with more serious 
intent. 

Clive. haring vanquished the French was 
m no hurry to come to terms, and conceiveil 
the bold Idea of overthrowing the Xawab 
He was encouraged in this purpose by the 
fact that he had learned of a formidable 
confederacy then being formed agahist the 
.\awab among the latter 's own officers. 

Foremost among the c<mspirat.)rs were 
■Mir Jafar. the principal leader in the armv 
■md a wealthy banker. With these two men 
Uive enteretl into an intricate intrigue- 
and while writing to the Xawab in terms of 
Inendship. sexrretly agreed to d,. everything 
"ithin his power to assist Mir Jafar to 
isurp the Throne in return tor e.vtensive 
i'rmleges and concessions. 

But at the critical raimient. ju.st as the 
■■■nspiracy was rip.. Babu Omichund. a 
••■cngal merchant wiio !iad been instrumental 
n the management of the negotiations 
■nddenly raised his terms, ami. turning on his 



PLASSEI'-JUNE 23rd, J757 



Karly 

colleagues. deman,led /j,«,.ooo sterling as the 
price of silence. He threateni-d unless this 
sum were guarantee,! to betrav the plot t» 
the .\awab. 

The price was e.M.ibitant. and the other 
conspirators were aghast at the danger which 
now threatened them -all except Clive «h.. 
dishonourably res.)lve,l to defe.it llie craftv 
Oriental with his own .vea]Kins 

Omichund had stipulated that a clause- in 
his fa,-our should be inserted in the treatv 
between Mir Jafar .-n.l the British (;overn.,r 
To tins Chve readily agreed ; but he had tw-o 
treaties drawn up— one tictitious. the other 
real. 

The former only eont.dned r. reference to 
Omichund. Admiral U-.,tson declined to be 
a partner in this deceit. Clive ther forged 
the Admiral's signature. 

He then wr.,te to the .V,,wab demanding 
mimedlate redress for all the wn.ngs which 
the Bntish hail suffered, and conclu.led by 
stat-.ng that, since the raim se-as.m was at 
hand, he deemed it necessarv to move forward 
with Ins troops, and in iK-rs<m to wait uiwn 
His Highness for an answer. 



K21 



Clive's Force 

On ri-ceiiing this communicaticm Surai- 
ud-llaula mustered his forces, and set out 
to meet the Knglishman. Clive, however 
reiving on the secret treatv with Mir Jafar' 
continued his advance, and on June 17th 
17.17. took |>ossession of the town of Kutwah! 
The tnx)|)s under his command numbered 
.?.'»o. Of these 2.000 were Natives and 
1,000 Europeans, the latter being comixised 
for the most part of men fnmi the joth (ist 
Dorsi-tshire) Regiment, which bears on its 
colours the name Plassev, and the proud 
motto. Primus in Indis. 

On the other side of the River Hugh, in 
a strongly entrenched camp near Plassev 
Suraj-ud-Daula had assembled an army 
consisting of some jh.ooo infantry- and 
1.1.000 cavalry, with .50 large pieces of 
ordnance, and several smaller guns, the 
latter being under the direction of a few 
French auxiliaries 

That Clive. with a mere handful of men, 
should have been able to inflict defeat on 
tins vast host may. at first sight, well seem 




BATTLE OF PLASSEY. JUNE 2tr.-!, 

From .1 P" 



^ [^^SSn^. 






■^:y'W^ 



■"■"TILLERY ON ,TS MOVABLE PLATFORM 

' "'tji.dville, R.I. 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



ili- 



incrediMe. But it must l)e bomc in mind 
that the X:nvab's army was sutthinit witli 
trcachtTv and (Uscimtt-nt : and tliat in l><>int 
„f ciiuiimii-nt. disciplini-, and training it was 
imnuasiiraWv infwii.r tii till' British forci;. 

The Indian jmnees nf the iStli century had 
i.nly a crude, imperfect knowledse (if tile art 
iif war as understocid in Uumpe. Aeciml- 
iuK to the historian Orme, tlieir infantry 
was so inefficient as to be almost useless. 




ROBERT (LATER LORD) CLIVE 
From a por(rall by GamiborOuBh 



him ; he wayered. refused to commit him- 
self, and to the British Commander's re- 
m(mstrances sent only.eyasiye answers. 

Cliye was now in a critical situation. 
\Vith(mt Mir Jafar's help the enterprise 
was hazardous ; and he hesitated to cross 
the riyer and so brine (m a battle, when 
defeat could but prove fatal to the British 
influence in Bengal. 

He resolyed. for the first and (mly time 
in his career, to call a council of war. 
Twenty officers attended the meetini!. 
and thirteen of them pronounced aRaiust 
fiShtiug. CHve himself casting his vote 
with the majority. The remaining 
seven, however, strongly urged immedi- 
ate action. Their spokesman was M.ijor 
Eyre Coote. and so convincingly did he 
plead their case that, after the meeting 
had broken up. Clive. much impressed 
by his .colleagues words, retired to the 
shade of some trees, and there sat for 
a long ^vhile wrapped in thought. As 
a result of this solitary deliberation he 
resolved to overrule the opinion of tlie 
omncil. and gave orders that all should 
be in readiness for the passage of tlK 
river on the morrow. 

At sunrise, (m June 22nd. the forc( 
began to cross the river. By 4 P-M 
it was formed (m the farther side 
Thence, after an arduous march ol 
15 miles, it reached Plassey, weary and 
exhausted, one Iraur after midnight. 
The Uttle force bivouacked in a mnugo 
grove-surrounded by a bank of earth whicli 
formed an excellent breastwork— (me mili' 
distant from the Xawahs camp. 

Soon after daybreak 3uraj-ud-Daula pr.t 
his armv in motiim. the troops mo%-ing for- 
ward in dix-isi(ms of 4.000 to .5.000 men wuli 
detachments of arrillery between each. Willi 
the intention of surrounding the Brlti-li 
force. , 

The huge masses of men. as they streamr^ 



It was. he declared, no more than " a multi- 
tude of people assembled together, some 
with swords and targets, some with match- 
l,.cks of most un<xrtain tire, some with lances 
too long or too weak to be of any service. 

■ As each man provides his own horse, 
it is the interest of the rider to fight as 
little as i«issible. for if his horse is killed 
the owner is ruined." As for the artillery, 

it was considered something of an achieve- "■V'.r;^m7™vered the entire plan, 

ment for a gun to be fired once in half an (,nt ■^^'^;^^^: ,,„. .„',.„„,e 

""Chve advanced counting on theco-opera- (ixen. and .-" <-- .;:;«'^^;S::S 

826 



Section II 



entrenchments the armv halted. A «ninll 
party of Frenchmen, however, c.nti.mexl to 
aJv-ance with a few guns, and hax-ing got 
w.th,n easy range of the British ,K,siti,,„ 
opened fire. 

St. Frais, the f-reneh otlieer in eonnnan.l. 
called on some ..f the 
N'awah's troops to f„ll„„. 
I'Ut this they declined to 
'1". for. writes Scrafton 
■ such was their mistrust of 
each other, that no com- 
mander dared to venture 
"■■ singly, for fear some 
"tlier e-ommander. suspc-eteil 
of attaehement to us. should 
fall on him." 

'" the meanwhile tlie 
cannonade from the artiller, 
Lecanie general, hut when it 
liad continued for half an 
'""■r Uive. who in that lime 
liad lost 10 Europeans and 20 
f-ipahis killed and wounded 
"ithdrew his men into the 
sr,)ve from which tliey had 
.idvanced earUer in the 
morning. 

Kncouraged by this retro- 
Krade movement, the enemy 
moved their gmis nearer, the 
hre becoming more rigorous 
Old sustained, but the British 
now concealed under the bank 
Hiriovmding the grove, suf- 
fired hardly at all, 

" '•■'.' succeed in an attempt 
"11 their cannon," wrote aive. 
was next to impossible as 
Ihey were planted in a man- 
""■ """d "s. and at con- 
Mderable distances from each 

"<l.er. We therefore remained quiet i„ our 

"I"'" tncir camp at night." 
,""' ".' "'^nrain began to fall hearily. and 



PLASSEY-JUNE 23rd. 1757 



Early 



(itnorals, .lirectcd his c.nalry 
Ilritisli jjosition. 

The advancing h,.rse.men were re-eeived 
w. 1 a steady hre which emptieil manv 

iTst to l.,ll. riien, as IS olten the ivav with 




SURAJ.UDDAULA AT PLASSEV 
ni a Diclure by R. Cnton WooJville. Tt.J. 



Natue triHips. his followers, ileprivd of their 
leader, turned and made their wav back to 
the camp The whole of the artillerv, save 
for the few guns in St. Fraiss command 



cmtinuing to fall for „vl^ V "™"'-V. and. lor the few guns in St. F 

"-nv's gu, s ,„ a H„lt" ""''""'■ ""' ""^ '""""-' ""' "»ve„ e.^ampk. 

■''..c.ion,'ZVunike, rBnt" hT""'"^"''' f '"r';"-'"»™ l^'Pt "-. I««t for »,me 

"' 'le no endeavour o pro," t'h .;,«"","' T r","" "'""'* S'"'"'"-^' '»" ■—">■. 

"•hen the rain ceai^rM^V ., 17 m '' T l^- '' P''"' "' ""'i^'' '«'!« ™de 

"- t faithful and aWe of the V '"' MprMck. and finding then,«.lve8 

awe ot the .\awab s unsupported, thev too retired 

8j, 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 



Greatly distrossiHl l)y these unexpected 
„,isf..rtm.es, Suraj-ud-Daula sent for M.r 
Iifar ami. casting Lis turban at Ins feet, 
implored the General to be faithful, saying; 
•' Jifir that turban thou must defend. 

Tlie General promised ; then, in accordance 




— ^^:^sZ;-uo:«;;L.s'ir^™o^or^''^ 



with his l»Ucv of keepinK in with iKith sides, 
Kave treacherous a.hiee, the hour was t,« 
late he said, for the battle to he renewed that 
dav and the trcrnps toe. much exhausted , 
would it not be better to withdraw the army 
int.> camp and to suspend hostilities untd the 

morrow ? , , ^ , 

Suiaj-ud-Haula knew not what to say. 
Then came another traitor to him. urRinR 
him to escape while he had the opp..rtumty 



Ever^•where, he sai.l. the soldiers were faUiuR 

back before the British advance and could 

not be ralUed. ,, „ ,. 

The Xawab wavered no longer. He gaM. 

orders for the army to retire into the camp ; 

while he himself, mounting a swift dromedary 

rode away to Moorshedabad, 

his capital. 

Clive had intended to delay 
his attack on the position till 
midnight, but in consequence 
of tlie enemy's retreat anil 
Major Kilpatrieks successful 
movement, he decideil to 
press forward at once, an<l 
by 5 P.M. his men had carried 
the cami>. 

Only the small French con- 
tingent offered any serious 
resistance. The main body 
of the enemy's army was in 
confusion, and. being further 
demoralised by the flight of 
the Xawab. was easily rimted. 
Tor six hours a British 
force in the command of 
Major Coote continued the 
pursuit ; .500 of the enemy 
were slain, their camp, bai;- 
gage, guns, and cattle all (ill 
into the hands of the con- 
querors. 

The British losses were m- 
signiiicant. 7 Europeans anJ 
lb Sipahis behig killed, and 
I i Eurojieans anil .i6 Sipahis 
wounded. Ko officer «.'S 
killed, and only two w.n' 
wounded. 

It was an easy hut magm'i- 
ceiit \-ictory, by which Clive .d 
one stroke subdued a pipulrus 
province larger than Ci'it 



anil wealthy 
Britain. 
Mir Jafar 



on the nioniiuR following H.e 
battle, presented l.im«lf at the Br.nsli 
camp witli grave misgiv.ng. He was n- ' 
httle apprehensive as to the reception hk.l> 
to be accorded him. Clive, however. -■>« 
set his mind at rest ; in fact, welcomed ,..™ 
ellusively. and ^alutcd hin, as Nawa 
Bengal. He s.iw that Mir Jafar w.ul>l 



Section 11 



be a convenient puppet through who-., the 
Bnt,sh could administer the province and 
as soon as possihle, had him enthroned with 
all pomp and ceremony at Moorshedabad 

The ceremony over. Clive turned to Mr 
Scrafton. one of the servants of the Company' 
and said in English : 

" It is now time to undeci'lve Omiclitin<l " 
•Speaking in Hindust. \ Mr. Scrafton 



PLASSEY-JUNE 23rd, 1757 



Earljr 

them was a great mistake. British suprem- 
acy .n India, as Clive himself suhsi-quentlv 
came to see. cannot be based on bad faith 
It IS not only ba.sixl on force of arras but 
mainly on the fact that a British officer 
can be depended on to keep his word 
and that, as an administrator, he is above 
corruption. 
Omichund was not the only victim of the 



':^^^m^^^:i^b^i^,z;r:p^„ 




PLAN Of THE BATTLE OF PLASSEY. JUNE Urd. „S, 



tieii ex-plaineil how Omichund had been 
;l"Ped : whereupon the luckles.s Bengali fi.ll 
".■.ensiblc into the arms of his attendants 
Liter he recovered consciousnes.s. but he 
""er regained his reason, and died a few 
nmnths later an idiot. 

Nothing can justify dive's <lealings with 
"mielmnd. 

I'lie whole of the iMlicy wliich directe,! 



re\-olution whicli gave to us Bengal. As 
Mir Jafar drew near to Moorshedaba<l 
.Suraj-ud-Daula escaped from his palace 
"1 a boat, accomjianied bv his favourite 
wife. 

He was followed, brought back to the 
capital, and thrown into prison. I.ate that 
mi;lit-but without Uives knowledge the 
rrince was stabbed to death in his cell 



821) 



•^rrrinN l.-MODEM 



BATTLES OF THE FIRST BOER WAR, 1880 81 



THE B..«s ,>f the Transvaal ate .le- 
L.ded from the settlers brouRht to 
S Ca,,e by the Dutch East Ind, 
^^-^cS.r«:::trurpar 

^:;:-=d:r'rSerr^ 

S - /- f^^'trst'^rrXu.ed'an 
their ideas regarding their rlgiu 

'^"vp'to lS,2 the British Government 

t red hito between the British Govern- 

vaol »'"!"■■ ji,(. country north 

renounced all rignts me .. 

- . -r^ir^uS^"-*^ 

designation down to 1900. 



;„ 1867 of diamonds and ol gold br.mght into 
the^untrv a rush of strangers, whose energv 

,„d obstinate isolation of the Boer ,.ol>ut. 

"'Buri-ers t'.e last President before the an- 
.JaS was a man of vigour and talent^ 
hut thestohd and ignorant Bo- l-hned 

hem o shoot him rather than disgra.. 
; The Boers however, shrugged then 

^uld" and mo'e than two-thirds of tlien. 

' "relied home." leaving him K.werless. 



The South African Republic 

the South African Republic M not 
prosper From the Urst it was imr«'^"'"»; 
rd';.hin a decade fer its establ— 
it was practically msolveut. The discovery^ 



The Troubles of the Boers 

The Republic was encircled by- native 
euli^es, all waiting for the impend.;. ;; 

s^:ra^s."nrth^^v.^.; 

"he frmti" -dy to strike, and testranu. 

-'rt^hT^"^--'-- 

""^^Slv the Republic was hop*.^ 

-;^;^::rrptr^m... 



Section I 



tam rcni„ii5tranco on romcrastrance nMnsxu 
1>>- British ollicials to the Transvaal authori- 
ses. At length I.onl Carnarvon 's forhear- 
■■nee was exhausted. Shepstone was sent 
•■■r o I,ni;lan,I, an,l reeeived a commission 

houH the enierKeucy reuiler such a course 
necessary, to annex the Transvaal to Her 
Majesty s rlonunions. Shepstone. escorte,! 
I'.e -:,5 nmunted |K>liceni»n and a few otli- 
eials, reached Pretoria in Kehruarv i.S- 
It was an open se-cret that he was J,n- 
i'uvvered to annex the country if \k deemed 
■t advisahle, but he expressed his reachness 
1.' refrani from that step if certain reforms 
were carried out 

Annexation of the Transvaal 

The Uocrs would ha,c no reforms, ami 
"" April ,,nh, i,S77, Shepsfme issucl a 
prnclamation formally annexins the Tran.s- 
v.al to C.K-.a liritaiu. ,.•„, ^,„,^, ^.^^^ ^^^^ 
"oers remained sullenly ,,uivt .\ few of 
theni rendered Roo.! and loyal service with 
Nr I,vely„ \Vo„,| ,,„j„j, „,^. 2„|„ ^^,,^ ,^,^, 
1 le mam l,o,ly stood aloof, although ursod 
ty assist the liritish tr„o,,s at the hou.se: of 
1 retorious l>y that officer. Sir Owen I.anyou 
Miece«le.d Shepstone as Ad,ni„istrat..r of "the 
lr,ms;-aal, and from the first was uiii.iDuIar 
w.th the Boers At the close of the Zulu War 
Mr|.ar,iet\Vol.,e.ley, whoheldthe,«,si,ion 
"' lllSll Commissioner for South-Kastern 
"nca, went up into the Transvaal with a 
-."siderahle strength .,f Kegularaml Irre^>ular 
''*■ """"K Ids stay no actual ..uthreak 

■ eeurrcd. hut there were .miinous demonstra- 

* "■''"-"'' "'""I'l prohahly have cnne to a 

■■■"I l'"t for the pre»e.nce of the troops. 

'"■ lioer discimteut was enhanced hy the 
T'-'live intimatiim from ilic Cohmial Secre- 
'"> that ■■ under no circum.stances whatexer 

■' ""^ Transvaal in<le|K-n<lence lie re- 

-" 're.l to the Boers. " and hy Sir Garnet s ixiet- 
<'■'' I'Ut equally resolute utterance, that " so 
""- -IS the sun shone anil the \-aal river 
"«ed to the sea the Transvaal wonl.l re- 
'""" British territory." He hnally left the 

■ ""vaal in March. i88o. and the tr<»,,,, i„ 
'■ «""'•"•>■ were grrdually reduce,! until 



FIRST BOER WAR-1880-1881 



-Modern 

troops of mounted infantry, and four guns 
< l.str,l,uted in detachments in s,niie half- 
■lo/en garrisons scattercl over the country. 

Tlironghont the lan.l there was a de-ceptive 
peace which lulled l.anyon into a sense of 
Hecunty. The lioers were playing the wait- 
"■K same. Mr, Chidstoiie bc-came Premier 
ni .March, .8,So. Taking it for granted that 
he would act on the lines of his .speeches when 
"■ I >P1 sition, the Boer lea.lers called .>n him 
to rescin.l the annexation. The answer ol 
the (.overnment came in the curt telegram 

1 uder no circumstances can the (lueens 
;Uith..rity in the Transvaal he relin,|uTslied ■ 
iliere was consternation among the Uocrs 
tlie British inhahitants. trusting implicitly 
m an assurance so spe-cilic. rejoiced greatly 
and bought laml without hesitation. In the 
matter .,f taxation some of the Boers had 
always presents a passive resistance against 
the British rule. In m„. however many 
paid, and the -Vdministrator reportei' to the 
Se-cretarv of the Cohmies that the increasing 
payment was an i„,licati,m of contentment 
Messrs Kriiger and Joubert told Sir Kvelyn 
Mood, 1,1 i(i«i, that it was the perusal of 
this imblishe.1 report in the r.w, s which 
hnally decided the Boers to rebel I an- 
yon's officials considered that tliev might 
now cru.sh any such resistance by active 
measures. 



j .^^ n-- ■•U....J itiiucco uniu 

831 



Proclamation of the Republic 

A Boer nanieil Beznidenhuit was lev ied on 
and m default of payment a seizure of his 
wag.m and team of ,« o.xe,i was made 
Bezuidenhuit and his friends forcibly re 
covered it. ami an attempt to arrest him 
was thwartcl by a gathering of Iloers 
■Vt a ina.ss meeting on llecember i jtii 
l«S.., It was decided that the .South -Urican 
Kepubhc should he restored : it was resoly„l 
to light for independence, and a triumvirate 
consisting of Kruger, Joubert, an.l I'retorius' 
was ap|»,inte>l to administer the llovern- 
nient. On the ibtli the Repnhlic was pro- 
clauueil at Heidelberg, which bi-came the 
head-quarters of the new Covernment. A 
large body of Boers took iMsse'ssion of that 
place, another went to Potchefstr.iom. and .-, 
tliud ■■ commamlo " was detailed to anothei 



BRIT.SH B«TLES ON LAND AND SEA 



I. .VON was ,>oweriess ^ ,^f^'J^ 
ev-ts. ,«.-n.li.« t>;= -;;f t^Zi which 
This iU-fated body walcsund^ ^^^^_^^^ 

the rooted behe tha the ^_^ ^ _j 

serious nuschier It «' ^^sfflammously re- 
that the men who had pu ^^^^^ 

eeUed «'- ,>?* ntu'e "o a"iil a body of 
natives would v^"™" ^ ,on„ before 

the end of this war tn n,oderation 

„, the Boers. ""' '<^!^^^'^,"„ ,, acknowtelged 
.„d humamty, h f -m^ .".^^^ confliet with 
r'1S'':!ai-''heir unerring n.ar.s„ran- 

shi,, was the chief surpn^^ ^^ ^^^ 

There were no scout= ""'*'" ,^^ ^ 

eolumn. but a few mounted « 

short distance m front o tn ^ 
«- playing a ^^f^^:;;"' ; „^?precautio„s, 
mother darhng. ^^ '"V^ ; J? f ate it would 
whatever might h«eXrise About noon 
"■" have been takenby u^^^^^^^ ^^^^,. 
December 20th, the '«« B,onkhorst 

'frT::;;ounrt':::::^aV the track 

rt,Sed<oran— -.-^ 
wooded, ^th high ^assspmg a _^^ were 
either side. ^'htary 1 ^_^^ .._^^ 

neglected, and the tram of wag ^^^ ^_^ 

""=" •;'XfLg«' S:ide;ble delay had 
intermmable lengtn. v. , „( ^.^tra 

-""''^7';l:rp^^^ran.l officers' 
wagons. If *he su^P ,.^^1^ {„« 

mess property had been ' " Colonel 

with one companj- at L>ie"™ f ' p„,„ria 



, Ar„\ vards Colonel Anstruthet 
^ ''=",\"f :lp d back, andordere.1 the 
mmediateh S'^"!"' , j, others t.. 

r^Tnir dvan;::iwithaflago. 
S::^-d^m.^yC*ne,A^™^- 

to whom he handed a ette^ ___, 

English^ Its tenns were at ou^^^q.^^^^ 

peremptorj. "» ^..,. „( war or not. 
^'"""tlTwTca^tatw any movement 
eonsequenia\ we can ^,, 

"' """r« vou are t. not being at wa- 
stop where you are. ^^ ^.^^_ 

with the Uueen n- w «^*;^^^^ .„,^,^„,,. 

land, but are onl> '«='"" "f;,!, to take 

-- "'""'rrref^rinom-" that any 

L;r:nrofrpsf->rt'"'''^' 

, t,,. ,1, as a declaration of war. 
'" Tl« me^ngc^ was to take back an answer. 

The tnef;"'^ ^^ g^,^ nunutes. 

wh.ch had to le feuen ^^^^j^. _^ 

rr ■ i am o'ere!^ to go to Pretoria; 

- T 'drciia^rr;^^ 
s:^-'"-"^ftfr^rir 

Zvs of the column and "Pened^" ^^ *- 

'rh,:.ir fire was deadly e\ei\ 
;:,"|that:Uhe troops wasdivergentann, 

250, there had been kK ,_.,„. 

S^^E^ts^a^t^rL:;: 

^::sie^-^^i}t=:r:s 
-»«aJiiir7-<----- 

^''^rt-thS:/^xri::: 
""^'"^ ;'ri:ub::t c:s^f.o™"i »- 

commander. )oui)tri. e ,, , «- 

u 1, i,.,.ifls with Colonel Anstrumei 
shook hands wm _^_^^^^^^ „„ 

pressing regret that he snoum 
LundJd. A hospital camp l^'J'' 
close by. and leave was given for the r. 



Section 1 



visions anil h,„„i,.,i , .'"'' "-'KK-tiii: pu^ 
l>ri-n„s„„„,|„"^,™"';;""-'""""un,k,l 

r™""' '"-rry.il. tiling cikr: 

raissi.mcT for s„„fl, i.-. "'' '""'"' 

Tilings of the outbreak in the Tr 
raal reached CoUev ■„ ,. . "^" 

'»■ I>ecember loth u„f„ '""""'^'""8 
"' the Col„„ia/ote ta ,"!': '" "T"*"" 
'■"""8 da,, Rei' re i,^:,'"", ™ "'J- '»'■ 

the weffa'^J-lf '■: .P"-'"- Co„si„eri„„ 
"ness ol the forces at CoUey's ini- 



FIRST BOER WAR-l880-188i 



•Mn.lcrn 



-"e ■■ITonio.o'.o „':r™'"-"'l"e 
'!eW. who, unik-r „ , i,', , '" , ''' '" "'e 

"raK«,„s .,,,,1 \f , ' ' "illailr.)n of 

'■« intention to en er ,, " rr' ""I"'"'"' 
January 20th iRs, o '^'^"^"•'"l at«mt 

=^«-«"'^it":;aro?i^;'!r;T 

Apart from ITetoria , f ? ' , " """=■ 
the Transyal the "^"' "''''"' "' 



™""™'"™^r;'i.™r""-- 



an u,i ,„ to the Boers, ordering 
r„,h ,;, " '"^"'Sents. to .lisperse. Thev 

ri.<f , ■^^ '"'K '" the annexat Dn and the 
:> ™^. he South African ChH 

"■■ .... e aL t'"'"' entrenched i,s..,f 

"l"...t tweitl ?""'™ "' «"""t Prospect 

twenty nules nortli of XewcastI, i„ 

, <"«) to the nght of the road from 



andahalfmi,es,ar,,L„-o;.''h.:rii'th: 

the o de ,r'.',"" ""■■ ■'""'™^" ^'"e of 
,, ,, "°"'" O" tlie morning „f the 2X11, 

raandcd ?iv Colonel l),.„,„ r """"-e""!- 

-the.rdB.t:;-!„';::^r.:^;--r 



■if; 1' 



BRITISH BATTLES ON LAND AND SEA 

" . .m.,. i,;il-tr«) was lieu 



a rough swiiK-ivLi^. ^ ^^ 

i, the M.i">..' ^"^ri^'^rU crest 

Scver.1 hm.,lml yards """",■ J ^„„|,„, 



1 The hill-tnp was held )>y a H">' 
'"I'T '.f ot lera.Ie strength. BrcwnU™ 
rVth C leader with his revolver, l.u 
* , „ns shot under hin,; Lieutenant 

Ins horse »as s"oi ui 

.' Xeh retar,k-.l the nun's proure:.- 
T 1,1 kket from the lull. havruK re- 
^iLd m<^:i^.W^ squadron. n,ov«i down 




— "-r="""^"^'" 



"" , m o sho fornted into ,»«it.on m, a 
"■I'^eu™-, with the mounted squadron 

"*;","".;,,„ the riRht.the guns m the 
:::^,^^^d'r":.ha„dXava,Bri«a^;." 

ti- -™ys i-"t;,;"; th urti:: Nav,d 

^tt=:XSeir::S.ets, which hr^l with 
Mnv,.iu«-. TL-SLTves m rear ot tiie 

with fine dash up the isolated Uiu, an 



to Rct to close quarters. Col mel 1 - 

:;i^order to charge. The^.^- ■;, 

and the men struKRwl •« hrou^ 

-'V.. odone, |--■^,rTw .,„„;;. 

'"V-"', ,' an Ueotenant. Inm..uan 

^?;r^^:::ria-i.. sup,«rti,«cov.» 

mounted olhcers '^J «''^J^ ^^ „, that RalU 
,„ dismounted. The s,,U^ were, most 
;^;^'^a.r;heir ".round uuflinchmglv 



Section I 



^mv time, notwitl,sta,„li„„ tl.L- l,..t tire 
l.i«.t™a„t Baillic., <,Mtryi„„ tl,. rcui„u„,:,l 
o.l..ur was mortally »,„„„k..l, and wh™ liis 
o.n.ra,k- Hill „c„t t„ Uis ass„ta„c.. tla- 
l.raVL- yomiK mliccr s.,i,l „ith his last l,r.-,tl, 
>cvcT ,i,ii„l mu; siuv tlR- c..l..ur : ■■ Hill' 
«li„ had !«,„ camins: the (JiKcns „,l„ur,' 
t-.k tiK other al*,; „ln,, |„. „,,,t ,,,„,„ 



FIRST BOER WAR-1880-1881 



Model 



i'. ././r..,„.,. ^/ ,-„,.. '" ■ Ii,;„..,v,.' : a*"^*'''4"i" 

1'. ''''■.•;,.,/,,„,.l,/;,,^^,,. 



action, „n,l worthily earned the \- c 
lr.«,,H-r llo„„e„ s.,ve,l the life of Major 

Martni reraamed with Major Hi„„,,„„„ 
""1 Ca,,t.„,, LoveKrove, when those- olhl-r" 
-> »,mnde,l. under heavy lire. The 
1'n.nt of the losses ,.1I o„ ,he ,«„, Tl 
casualties altoKether amounted to ,„•< of 




P' AN Oh THF 



■t HON Ol- I ANC 



ant Budstock t.xik hoth o.jouis ,„d 
"1 then, until the senend .etirement 
N was soon made -The s-Stli." wrote 
-> havmg fallen hack leisurelv witho«i 
or conlusioM, re-foinMl at the f...t of 
l"Pe. and marel.ed hack into ,«*ition 
^"o<l order, au.luith as e^vt and s,.) 
a U-anus, as wlivi, it niarche-.! ,h,i 
combat o.[ I.ans;s SA was a wxere 
-■ Hut m.iiiv iioMe deeils «etv ,)er- 
:'• I-ieutenaut Hill (aire,.:, nam.-t, 
"l «ounili\l man after m.ui out ..f 



>-.l I'elo 



■ '" llial regiment, wliieh 

h,..l to l.ure 7, otliei-rs ami men out of a 

t..tal strength of 4„4, I.a„g's y,.,, ^,.,„^,^, ,|_^, 

H.v.^ .».„,e loss. Their f.tal casualties from 

NxmnuiK to end of the war were hut loi 

•I which I.anRs .Vek accounted for 41- ,4 

kdl,-d and 27 wounded. The Boers hehai-ed 

Willi humanit>. The moment that the 

, ":;■■'* '";':■ " *'"'"''•'' 'I'^V save iKimission 

to the EuBhsIi sur,ije,>ns to atten.I tlie wounded 

lymi; m front of ll,e Boer |>,.sition, fetched 

water, and helped hind up their wounds 




LANG'S NEK. JANUARY 28th. 1881 

From a picture t-y S Tsffrt 



<^ 



Section I 



'j;i'v in.lnrtnnate results m ,i„. f 
l..nK.r ij ret HI "'''■'"'''"'"''''"'''' "■' 



J-IRST B(JER WAR-18«„.,8s, 



Modern 

F-— -;-i^ ;? 



™T:r::"™»'— ™"~..,., 



l...lo,ul AshLurnham. two fid.l- and 
^A, a„,l a ™,an,k.,acl™c.„,'of „„„„;;,■ 

» s^::^;j^'%f""™'-- Ahomfi^e 

Th/o , 7' ''.•^- '■"^'='- "'1--ion.. 

" "" ci. z?:;-",:;',;:!-"^™— n- 

with ti ■ " '"' '>i tilt rn-fr. cross.-^l it 

""'t;r':;;;;'r''^''''^'"-^™''" 

,,^^^ " an tl,e„mo„.,litfonvard.,, 

; ""^ """PS nctL- .is«ii,liiis 



I'lon, 



'111' nst- to tl„. .•",■ i'" """I" "■<■"■■ ■iscfuiliii 

'•■ki -ivZ" ,,''"'""" ""